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" About three years after this, Mr. Carey was ordained pastor of the church at Moulton, and joined the Association. His mind from an early period seems to have been impressed with the state of the heathen world. In reference to this object he made bimself acquainted with the geography, population, and religion of the various nations of the earth; and with the labours of Christians, both of early and later ages, in propagating the gospel. He also acquired some considerable knowledge of the learned languages. The subject having occupied so much of his attention, he would often converse upon it with other ministers. At length, after having been seven years engaged in praying for the spread of the gospel, some began to feel with Mr. Carey, that they ought to do something else as well as pray. Two sermons by Mr. Sutcliff and Mr. Fuller, the one on Jealousy for the Lord of Hosts, and the other on The pernicious inAuence of delay, made some impression. These were printed and followed by Mr. Carey's Inquiry into the obligations of Christians to use means for the conversion of the heathen. A very impressive sermon was also preached by Mr. Carey at the Nottingham Association on Zion's enlargement; and a pungent Circular Letter, written on Godly Zeal, by Mr. Ryland. The result was, that on October 2d, the same year, (1792) a Society was formed at Kettering for the propagation of the gospel among the heathen; and John Ryland, Reynold Hogg, William Carey, John Sutcliff, and Andrew Fuller, chosen as a Committee to carry the object into execution.
“ At that time we knew of no one part of the heathen world that was more accessible and eligible than another: all that the Committee seemed to have to do therefore, was to pray for divine direction, and watch for the openings of providence. In about six weeks they were informed that Mr. John Thomas, who had been over to Bengal in the character of a surgeon, and had there learned the language, and begun to preach the gospel to the natives, was then in London, endeavouring to establish a fund for a mission to that country, and that he was desirous of engaging a colleague to return with him to the work. This concurrence of events was considered as providential; and after further inquiries concerning Mr. Thomas, and much conversation with him, it was resolved that he and Mr. Carey should go out as missionaries from this Society.
“ Having but a few months to execute this resolution, applications were made for assistance to ministers and congregations in different parts of the kingdom; who to their honour, and our encouragement, amply supplied our wants. We asked for 5001. and they gave 1,000l. But He who had all hearts in his hand knew our wants better than we knew them ourselves: by the time that the missionaries and their families had embarked it was found that the collections did but little more than cover the expenditures. This was in June 1793.
“ In the autumn of that year the missionaries safely arrived. After encoun. tering many difficulties, they were invited by George Udney, Esq. to take the oversight of two indigo factories in the neighbourhood of Malda. Circumstanced as they were, they readily accepted the invitation, considering it as equally adapted to introduce the gospel, and to furnish immediate support to them and their families. From this time till the autumn of 1799 they were employed in learning the language, in preaching at the factories and in the sur. rounding country, and in translating the New Testament. During these six years covenants were granted them by the Company's Government, and Mr. John Fountain went over and joined them. There were also several hopeful appearances of conversion among the natives; but no one was induced to renounce bis cast, and in the end all which had encouraged them seemed to prove abortive.
“ In 1799 four more missionaries were sent out: namely, Messrs. Ward, Marshman, Grant, and Brunsdon. Not having obtained permission from the Directors at home, they were not allowed on their arrival to join their brethren up the country, but found themselves compelled to stop at Serampore, then a Danish settlement. The Governor treated them with great kindness, and offer. ed them all the protection in his power. On Lord's day, October 27, they had public worship. The same day Mr. Grant was taken ill, and four days after died! Mr. Ward went up the country to consult with Mr. Carey on what was to be done. The result was, as the newly arrived missionaries were not allow.
ed to go up and settle with him in the neighbourhood of Malda, he resolved to come down and settle with them at Serampore. Such was the occasion of the mission being removed to that settlement. It was mere necessity on the part of the missionaries; the hand of God however in reducing them to that necessity has since been apparent. It was from this turn in their affairs that the most important events have arisen, both as to the printing of the scriptures and the success of the mission.
“ The first object of attention was to settle a plan of family-government; one article of which was that no one should engage in any private trade; but that shat. ever was acquired by any member of the family should go into the common stock. “On the observation of this rule,” they say, “ depends the prosperity of the mission; as by this all avaricious exertion is checked, and trade subordinated to a nobler object.” By this great and disinterested resolution of the missiona. ries, they are enabled, after providing a comfortable bome for the bereaved widows and children, and aiding their aged and afflicted relatives in England, to furnish several thousands annually to the mission. Soon after this an estate containing a house and other buildings, with a large garden, was purchased, of which they became the trustees in behalf of the Society in England; and which was afterwards considerably enlarged by two other purchases. The New Testament being translated into Bengalee by Mr. Carey, a press was set up under the superintendance of Mr. Ward for the printing of it. The first sheet was worked off on May 16, 1800. At the same time also, the missionaries were diligent in preaching the word in the town and neighbourhood. A spirit of earnest prayer for a divine blessing was evidently poured out upon them. In August Mi. Fountain died. In October (a year after their arrival) Mr. Ward and Mr Marshman began preaching to the natives in their own language. Mr. Thomas about the same period visited Serampore, and with the other brethren was much in earnest in seeking the salvation of the natives. In December Krishnoo (now a useful minister of the gospel) and Mr. Carey's eldest son Felis were baptized. This was a season of great joy to the missionaries. “The door of faith," said they, “is opened; who shall shut it? The chain of the cast is broken; who shall mend it?"
"From that time to the present the number of christian converts has gra. dually increased They have lost several of their brethren in the mission by death, but have been recruited by others. A considerable number of the na. tives also have become preachers of the word. Instead of one church they are now become seven, and are increased from one station to nine. In November 1808 there had been baptized in all the churches 147. In the three succeeding years have been added 280; so that their nuniber at the close of 1811 amounted to upwards of 400 The number of exclusions does not appear to exceed that from the same number of members in any of our churches. Of those that have died, their latter end has generally borne testimony to the efficacy of faith.
“ In 1803 a plan was laid by the missionaries for the translation of the scriptures into various Eastern languages, which they have ever since been carrying into exccution. The whole Bible is printed in the Bengalee; and the New Testament in Sungskrit, Orissa, Hindee, and Mahratia. Of seven others, namely, the Seik, tlie Tilinga, the Kurnata, the Burman, Magudha, and the Chinese, some are in the press, some translated, and some translating. The population of the countries already in possession of the New Testament, and parts of the old, amounts to more than 50 millions! It might be expected that the competency of the translators would by some persons in India or in England, be called in question; and this it has been suffice it to say in answer, that these suggestions have proceeded neither from learned natives, nor from Europeans who understand the languages into which the translations are made. No deep or lasting in. jury therefore can arise from them. Providence has shielded the reputation of thi Serampore translators by one of them being a professor of three languages in the College of Fort William, and all of them employed by the first Society in the world of E: stern literature, (and whose principal members reside on the spot,) in translating and printing the most learned of the Hindoo pro. ductions.
“In 1806 ground was purchased for building a chapel in one of the most populous but profligate parts of Calcutta. The work was obstructed for a time,
but has since been accomplished, and a strong impression made upon the inhabitants of that great and idolatrous city. By the labours of the missionaries and the native preachers there are accessions almost every month from amongst Hindoos, Musulmans, Portuguese-catholics, Armenians, or Countryborn Europeans.
“At the beginning of 1810 a free-school was instituted at Calcutta by the missionaries in favour of the children of the Portuguese-catholics and other in. digent christians; and which, by the introduction of the plan of teaching suggested by Dr. Bell and improved by Mr. Lancaster, promises to be of great importance in promoting the best interests of the country. The missionaries are now building a place 90 feet by 70, which it is calculated will contain 800 children It is situated near the chapel, and supported by subscription.
"The annual expenditure of this mission at home and abroad, exclusive of the translations, amounts at present to five or six thousand pounds. It has not cost the public however upon an average, during the twenty years of its continu. ance, more than two thousand per annum; and out of this, there are buildings and other accommodations for the mission, to the value of six or eight thou. sand pounds, which remain the property of the Society.
"It is owing, doubtless, to the unexampled contributions of the Serampore missionaries that things have hitherto been thus conducted. This however will not be considered by the friends of the undertaking as rendering their exertions the less necessary, but rather as an incitement to emulation. Not only the translations, but the greater number of missionary stations depend upon the public for support. Eight of these stations, besides that at Serampore and Calcutta, are already established; viz. Dinagepore, Goamalty, Cutwa, Jessore, Rangoon, Orissa, Patna, and Agra. That at Agra was formed the last year, and another would have been attempted, but that the missionaries judged it necessary to regulate their expenditures by their resources. Two others it is expected may be formed in the present year; one at Fava, and another at Ceylon."
“ANDREW FULLER, Secretary.” Kettering, Fuly 27, 1812. State of this Mission by the latest information extracted from a
Brief View of the Baptist Missions and Translations,” &c. " This society," (the one formed at Kettering, Eng: 1792, " for the propagation of the gospel among the heathen,") "is conducted by a Committee, which at first consisted of five persons, but now of thirty four; chiefly ministers who are chosen at the annual meeting of the Society, held alternately at Kettering and Northampton.
" The funds of the Society are divided into two branches; one for the Mis. sion, and the other for the Translations of the Scriptures. Its resources consist of annual subscriptions, Auxiliary Societies,” (of which there are 51)“ donations from Bible and other Associations, congregational collections, and legacies.
“The missionary stations amount to twenty, some of which, as Sirdhana and Amboyna, must be full 4000 miles distant from each other.
"The station at Serampore was established in 1799, about six years after the arrival of Messrs. Thomas and Carey as missionaries in India. Serampore is about fifteen miles north from Calcutta, on the western bank of the river Hoogly. The principle on which they agreed to act was, that no one should engage in any private trade, but that whatever was procured by any member of the family should be appropriated to the benefit of the mission. It is on this principle that Dr. Carey in the College, Dr. Marshman in the school and Mr. Wird in the printing office have each contributed considerably more than 10001. a year to the undertaking. The premises occupied for the mission cost near 4000l. sterling, were purchased at three different times; and are vested in the missionaries as trustees for the Society. They contain dwelling-houses for the missionaries, school-rooms and a spacious ball for public worship; also a printing office in which ten presses are constantly employed; a type foundery, in which are cast types for the greater part of the eastern languages; and a mill for making paper, which is expected to cost 10,000 rupees.” (5,000 dollars nearly) " At this station the translation of the Scriptures has been carried to an extent exceeding all expectation and example. The missionaries, by their own
Society, by the British and Foreign Bible Society, by the liberality of the christian public in Britain and America, and by their own literary labors, have been enabled, in different degrees, to translate the Scriptures into twenty-seven languages, and to print them in nearly the same number, affording a prospect of the most important advantages to the immense population of Asia.
Amongst the Hindoos who have been baptized, many are Brahmans, and others of high cast. Early in the year 1813, several of this description, not many miles from Serampore, obtained the knowledge of the truth, and met for christian worship on the Lord's days, before they had any intercourse with the missionaries, simply by reading the Scriptures. These were soon afterwards baptized, and reported that by the same means as many as a hundred of their neighbours were convinced of the truth of the christian religion, and were kept back from professing it only by the fear of losing cast, and its con sequences. In Calcutta and its vicinity seven native brethren were employed in preaching, &c. Sebukram preaches in twenty different places; Bhagvat, at eleven; Neelo, in about ten private houses; Manika, at six others. These four preach regularly during the week at forty-seven different houses.
" It is a general practice with the missionaries to distribute at their various stations, and in their vicinity, portions of the Scriptures and religious tracts in the vernacular languages. The effect in exciting an interest and inquiry after the knowledge of the
gospel is great; and many particularly of late, are the instances of conversion by means of the Scriptures alone, without the intervention of any missionary. All the churches that have been formed, with the exception of Calcutta, have natives, or brethren born in the country, for their pastors. It is highly gratifying to observe, that all the parts of divine worship and of discipline hove been performed by nutides alone, without the presence or assistance of Europeans. There have been baptized at all the stations considerably more than five hundred persons, un a profession of "repentance towards God, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.” Some of these had been Brahmans of the higher casts.
" In all the native schools there are upwards of one thousand children. Hea. then schoolmasters teach them to read the Scriptures without any hesitation. "May it not be hoped,” says Dr. Carey, “that in time this system of educa. tion will sap the bulwark of heathenism, and introduce a change which will be highly important in its consequences to the people of the east."
“ The number of persons employed by this mission, at the twenty stations, including Europeans and natives, at the close of 18:3, was forty-one; of these, twelve are Europeans, thirty-two natives, or descendants of Europeans raised up in the country. Three others have since sailed from England: some of whom have arrived. The missionaries at Serampore have adopted the plan of sending natives as itinerants, two together, according to the example of the Lord Jesus, to preach to their countrymen.”
“CHINESE.—This language, in the character peculiar thereto, is read not only throughout China, but Cochin China, Tonquin, and Japan. Before the translation into the Chinese is finally printed, it undergoes nine or ten revisions. Preparations are making for printing the Old and New Testament in the Chi. nese with moveable metal types, a great improvement on the old Chinese way of cutting them in wooden blocks. At Serampore they can be printed at one third of the expense it would cost in China.
" In translating, preparing the types, and printing the Chinese Scriptures, sixteen men are employed.
“ It will be difficult to appreciate the advantages of printing the Scriptures in a language spoken by upwards of three hundred millions of people; and in particular at Serampore, a place secure from all interuption from Chinese edicts and mandates, and from whence the Chinese Scriptures can be continually sent to the Birman empire, to Java, Amboyna, Penang, the Isles of the Sea and thence find their way into the very heart of the Chinese empire.
“ The missionaries are now employed in translating the Scriptures into twen. ty-seven languages; and to assist in this noble work, they have persons from all these people, nations, and languages, at Serampore or Calcutta. Having proceeded thus far, and encouraged by their great success, they entertain the animating hope of extending the translation of the Scriptures to all the languages of the East."
The following Tables exhibit at a single view their several Stations and
Missionaries, and also the Translations.
1. Serampore and
Drs. Carey and Marshman, Messrs. Ward, Calcutta, t
Lawson, Eustace Carey, Yates.--Krishna,
Jahans, and Cailhano. 2. Dinagepore and
240 N Sadamahl,t
1804 Mr. Ignatius Fernandez. 3. Cutwat
1807 Mr. William Carey, Kangalee, Muthoora,
Vishnuva, Buluram, and Kanta. Rangoon,
670 S. E, 1807 Mr. A DONIRAM Judson, American. 5. Jessore, 77 E. N. E. 1807 Messrs. William Thomas, Pran-das, Pran
Krishna, Suphul-rema, Punchanun, Ma
nika-sha, and Nurottuma. 6. Goamalty,t
200 N. 1808 Ram Prusad. 7. Digah,
320 N. W. 1809 Messrs. Moore and Rowe, and Brindabund. 8. Balasore,
120 S. W. 1810 Messrs. John Peter and suggunatha. 9. Agra,t
800 N. W. 1811 Messrs. Peacock and McIntosh, 10. Nagpore,t
615 W. 1812 Mr. and Ram-mohun. 11. Columbo,t 1220 S, S. W. 1812 Mr. Chater. 12. Patna,t
320 N. W. 1812 Mr. Thomson. 13. Bombay & Surat, 1010 W. 1812 Mr. Carapeit Aratoon, 14. Chittagong
230 E. 1812 Mr. Du Bruyn. 15. Sirdbana, f 920 N. W. 1813 Mr. Chamberlain, and Purum-anunda. 16. Java,t
2350 S. S. E. 1813 Messrs. Robinson, and Riley. 17. Pandua, t
310 N. E. 1813 Krishnoo. 18. Ava,
500 E. 1813 Mr. Felix Carey. 19. Amboyna,t 3230 S. E. 1814 Mr. Jabez Carey and Mr. Trowt. 20. Allahabad, 1 490 W.N.W.I 1814 Mr. N. Kerr, and Kureem.
Versions of Scripture Translating or Printing at Serampore.
1. Sungskrit. 2. Hindee, 3. Brij Bhasa. 4. Mahratta. 5. Bengalee. 6. Orissa. 7. Telinga. 8. Kurnata. 9. Maldivian. 10. Gujarattee. 11. Baloches.