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Charles the Uncle and Charles the Nephew — Their services to literature and their

distinction as printers — Charles the Uncle born 1767— Indentured as apprentice
at Coventry in 1779 - A master printer in London in 1789 — His early books.
Neglected by publishers — His reprisals and association with Sharpe in the pub-
lication of important books — Tardy recognition of his abilities.

CHAPTER SECOND
Whittingham makes paper-stock at Chiswick in 1809 – Beginning of the Chiswick

Press — Partnership with Arliss which ended 1817 — Early work on woodcuts
designed by Thurston and engraved by Clennell and Thompson — The Shakespeare
of 1813 and the "London Theatre" — Books printed for Samuel Weller Singer.
Thomas Williams, the engraver, and other friends of Whittingham — Chiswick
Press edition of 1822 of the “ British Poets.”

CHAPTER THIRD

Charles Whittingham the Nephew born in 1795 — Indentured to his Uncle 1810.

Freeman in Stationers' Company 1817 — Partner in Chiswick Press 1824— Per-
sonal peculiarities - Sojourn in Paris — His early work, the “ · Whittingham
French Classics” and “Whittingham Pocket Novels” — Business relations with
Cruikshank and Thompson, Tegg and Murray, Ainsworth and other authors.
Separated from his Uncle 1828.

CHAPTER FOURTH

Whittingham the Uncle's increasing skill in printing woodcuts — Northcote's

“Fables” — “Tower Menagerie” and “Zoological Gardens” — The Uncle's rela-
tions with many publishers—“Puckle's Club” — Failure of the Uncle's health
1838, and transfer of control at Chiswick to the Nephew — Death of the Uncle
1840 — His bequests to Stationers' Company and the Printers' Pension Society.

Chiswick abandoned finally in 1852— Return to Took's Court — The Philobiblon

Society and its members – Important books made between 1852 and 1860.
Designs made by Nephew's daughters Charlotte and Elizabeth Eleanor — Mary
Byfield the engraver of the designs — The Queen Elizabeth Prayer Book — The
Holbein “Dance of Death” - Keble's "Christian Year,” the Book of Common
Prayer with the borders of Geoffrey Tory.

Permanent friendship of Pickering and Whittingham — Their frequent conserences.

The Aldine trade mark - Death of Pickering in 1854 — Industry of Nephew.
His thorough knowledge of every part of his business — His preference for good
books - The “ Breviarium Aberdonense" Caxton reproductions — Everywhere
rated as one of the best printers — His death in 1876.

PART II

TECHNICALITIES

Printing in a decaying condition in 1789— Bad workmanship largely due to bad

types — Enumeration and illustration of the various styles — Faults of book-
printing in 1800—Changes of typographic fashion - Whittingham's preferences in
black-letter and in the Book of Common Prayer — Nephew's liking for old types.
Illustrations of Pickering title-pages — Their simplicity.

BORDERS
The borders used for the Book of Common Prayer -- Charlotte Whittingham's

renovations of old, and designs for new, borders — The mechanical construc-
tion of the borders of Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book — The methods of Kerver,
Pigouchet, and other French printers - Other borders provided by Eleanor and
Charlotte Whittingham and engraved by Mary Byfield.

WOODCUTS
Woodcuts of the eighteenth century and their defects — Merit of Whittingham's

work under the unfavorable conditions — Method of printing woodcuts before 1800.
Imperfect construction of the old hand-press — Bad types and rough paper added
to the poor work of faulty presses — Presswork of early French printers — Wood-
cuts avoided by all printers — Attempts to improve wood-engraving in the eighteenth
century — The work of Bewick and others — The Stanhope press— Fourdrinier's
paper-making machine — The Uncle's experience with woodcuts and his methods.
His subsequent preference for copper-plate and the probable reason—Changes
of style in wood-engraving increase the printer's difficulties.

OVERLAYING

Early printers imitated the fashions of the copyists – Difficulties of woodcut printing.

Theory and process of woodcut printing - Overlays — Making ready-Cost of
fine woodcut printing-Silence of the Whittinghams in regard to their methods.
Uncle Charles said to be the first to practise overlaying - Reason for the belief
that overlaying was attempted by Kerver and Pigouchet of Paris — Papillon's advice
and his crude method of cutting and overlaying - Approved by Bewick — Jackson
and Chatto on early overlaying.

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HEADBANDS, TAILPIECES, AND INITIALS
Typographic decoration in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries — Hollow initial

letters — Not in favor at close of the eighteenth century - Appropriate book-deco-
ration demanded — “Flowers” and “Facs” — French ornaments — The Nephew's
ideas as to book-decoration - Continental ideas - Variety and beauty of the
Nephew's book-decorations - Simplicity of his schemes.

PRESSES

Hand-presses in use at Chiswick Press till 1860 — The cylinder press - Its scope

and limitations— Cylindrical printing machines contrasted with the hand-press.
Best work of the hand-press unexcelled by automatic machine.

PRINTING INKS
Moxon's indictment of the “inck-makers” of his time and his directions for ink-

making — Chief fault of eighteenth-century inks - Uncle Whittingham obliged to
make his own ink - Other printers follow him and compel ink-manufacturers to
improve their inks — Bensley's commendation of the service rendered.

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