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Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna, Quirine,
Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo.

Hic altâ Sicyone, ast hic Amydone relicta,
Hic Andro, ille Samo, bic Trallibus, aut Alabandis,
Esquilias, dictumque petunt a vimine collem ;
Viscera magnarum domuum, dominique futuri.

Ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo
Promptus, et Isæo torrentior: ede quid illum
Esse putes ? quemvis hominem secum attulit ad nos :
Grammaticus, Rhetor, Geometres, Pictor, Aliptes,
Augur, Schænobates, Medicus, Magus: omnia novit.

75

66. Strumpet.] Lupa literally signifies a -On his perfumed neck.] Ceromatico she-wolf; but an appellation fitly be- collo. The ceroma (Gr. xngwjece, from stowed on common whores or bawds, xngos, cera) was an oil tempered with whose profession led them to support wax, wherein wrestlers anointed them. themselves by preying at large on all selves. they could get into their clutches. But what proofs of effeminacy, or deHence a brothel was called lupanar. pravation, doth the poet set forth in The Romans called all foreigners barba- these instances ? rians.

Using wrestlers' oil, and wearing on -A painted mitre.] A sort of turban, the neck collars of gold, and other inworn by the Syrian women as a part signia of victory, if to be understood liof their head-dress, ornamented with terally, seems but ill to agree with the painted linen.

poet's design, to charge the Romans with 67. O Quirinus.] 0 Romulus, thou a loss of all former hardiness and mangreat founder of this now degenerate liness: therefore we are to understand city! See note on 1. 60.

this line in an ironical sense, meaning, - That rustic of thine.] In the days of that, instead of wearing collars of gold as Romulus, and under his government, tokens of victory, and rewards of couthe Romans were an hardy race of rage and activity, their niceteria were shepherds and husbandmen. See sat. ii. trinkets and gewgaws, worn merely as 1. 74. and 127. Sat. viii. 1. 274, 5. rough ornaments, suitable to the effeminacy in their dress, and simple in their man. and luxury into which, after the exam

But, alas ! how changed ! ple of the Grecians, Syrians, &c. they -A Grecian dress. ]Trechedipna—from were sunk. By the ceroma he must opexw, to run, and dutyov, a supper. A also be understood to mean, that, instead kind of garment in which they ran to of wrestlers' oil, which was a mere comother people's suppers. Ainsw. It was pound of oil and wax, their ceroma was certainly of Greek extraction, and though some curious perfumed unguent with the form and materials of it are not de- which they anointed their persons, thei scribed, yet we must suppose it of the hair particularly, merely out of luxury. soft, effeminate, or gaudy kind, very See sat. ii. 40–2. Thus Mr. Dryden : unlike the garb and dress of the ancient His once unkem'd und horrid locks berustics of Romulus, and to speak a sad hold change in the manners of the people. Stilling sweet oil, his neck enchain'd with Dryden renders the passage thus :

gold : O Romulus, and father Murs, look down! Aping the foreigners in every dress, Your herdsman primitive, your homely Which, bought at greater cost, becomes clown,

him less. Is turn'd a beau in a loose tawdry gown. 69. High Sicyon.] An island in the

68. Grecian ornaments.) Niceteria- Ægean sea, where the ground was very rewards for victories, as rings, collars of high. The Ægean was a part of the gold, &c. Prizes. From Gr. vxm, vic- Mediterranean sea, near Greece, divid. tory.

ing Europe from Asia. It is now called

ners.

That rustic of thine, O Quirinus, assumes a Grecian dress, And carries Grecian ornaments on his perfumed neck.

One leaving high Sicyon, but another, Amydon, He from Andros, another from Samos, another from Tralles, or Alabanda,

70 Seek the Esquiliæ, and the hill named from an osier; The bowels, and future lords, of great families.

A quick wit, desperate impudence, speech Ready, and more rapid than Isæus. Say-what do you Think him to be? He has brought us with himself what man you please :

75 Grammarian, Rhetorician, Geometrician, Painter, Anointer, Augur, Rope-dancer, Physician, Wizard: see knows all things.

sea.

the Archipelago, and by the Turks, the are often mentioned in Juvenal; such White sea.

people were called captatores. 69. Amydon.] A city of Macedonia. 73. A quick wit.] Ingenium velox. 70. Andros.] An island and town of Ingenium is a word of many meanings ; Phrygia the Lesser, situate in the Ægean perhaps, here, joined with velox, it

might be rendered, a ready invention. -Samos.] Ar island in the Ionian sea, -Desperate impudence.] That nothing west of the bay of Corinth, now under can abash or dismay. the republic of Venice, now Cepha 73, 4. Speech ready.] Having words lonie.

at will. -Tralles.] A city of Lesser Asia be 74. Isæus.] A famous Athenian ora. tween Caria and Lydia.

tor, preceptor of Demosthenes. Tor-Alabanda.] A city of Caria in the rentior, more copious, flowing with more Lesser Asia.

precipitation and fulness, more like a 71. Esquiliæ.] The mons esquilinus, torrent. one of the seven hills in Rome ; so -Say, &c.] Now by the way, my called from esculus, a beech-tree, of friend, tell me what you imagine such a which many grew upon it. See Ainsw. man to be; I mean of what calling or

-The hill named, &c.] The collis vi- profession, or what do you think him minalis, another of the seven hills on qualified for ? which Rome was built ; so called from 75. What mun, &c.] Well, I'll not a wood or grove of osiers which grew puzzle you with guessing, but at once upon it. There was an altar there to inform you, that, in his own single perJupiter, under the title of Jupiter Vimi son, he has brought with him every chanalis.

racter that you can imagine : in short, he These two parts of Rome may stand is a jack of all trades. As the French (by synec.) for Rome itself: or perhaps say, C'est un valet à tout faire. Or, as these were parts of it where these is said of the Jesuits, Jesuitus est omnis foreigners chiefly settled.

homo. 72. The bowels, 8c.] Insinuating them 76. Anointer.] Aliples, (from Gr. selves, by their art and subtlety, into anupw, to anoint,) he that anointed the the intimacy of great and noble families, wrestlers, and took of them. Su as to become their confidents and Ainsw. favourites, their vitals as it were, inso 77. He knows all things.] Not only much that, in time, they govern the what I have mentioned, but so versatile whole: and, in some instances, become is bis genius, that nothing can their heirs, and thus lords over the fa- amiss to him. There is nothing that mily possessions. See sat. ii. 58. notes. he does not pretend to the knowledge The wheedling and flattering of rich people, in order to become their heirs,

care

come

ibit. Ad summum non Maurus erat, nec Sarmata nec, Thrax, Qui sumpsit pennas, mediis sed natus Athenis.

80 Horum ego non fugiam conchylia ? me prior ille Signabit ? fultusque toro meliore recumbet, Advectus Romam, quo pruna et coctona, vento? Usque adeo nihil est, quod nostra infantia coelum Hausit Aventini, baccâ nutrita Sabina ?

85 Quid !-quod adulandi gens prudentissima laudat Sermonem indocti, faciem deformis amici, Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus æquat Herculis, Antæum procul a tellure tenentis Miratur vocem angustam, quâ deterius nec

90 Ille sonat, quo mordetur gallina marito !

78. A hungry Greek.] The diminutive of the guests. The middle couch was Græculus is sarcastical. q. d. Let my esteemed the most honourable place, little Grecian be piuched with hunger, and so in order from thence. Must he would undertake any thing you bade this vagabond Greek take place of me at him, however impossible or improbable; table, says Umbritius, as if he were Jike another Dædalus, he would even at

above me in point of quality and consetempt to fly into the air.

quence? As we should say, Shall he sit 79. In fine, &c.] Ad summum; upon above me at table? Hor. lib. ii. sat. viii. the whole, be it observed, that the l. 20-3. describes an arrangement of Greeks of old were a dexterous people at

the
company

at table. contrivance; for the attempt at flying 83. Brought to Rome.] Advectus; imwas schemed by Dædalus, a native of ported from a foreign country, by the Athens. No man of any other country same wind, and in the same ship, with has the honour of the invention.

prunes, and little figs, from Syria. These 81. The splendid dress.] Conchylia;

were called coctona, or cottana, as supshell-fish ; the liquor thereof made pure posed, from Heb. 7mp little. Mart. ple, or scarlet colour: called also murex. lib. xiii. 28. parva cottana. Conchylium, by meton. signifies the co Syria peculiares habet arbores, in filour itself; also garments dyed there. corum genere. Caricas, et minores ejus with, which were very expensive, and generis, quæ coctana vocant. Plin. lib. worn by the nobility and other great xiii. c. 5. people.

Juvenal means to set forth the low Shall not I fily, fugiam, avoid the veryo origin of these people; that they, at sight of such garments, when worn by first, were brought out of Syria to Rome, such fellows as these, who are only able as dealers in small and contemptible arto wear them by the wealth which they ticles. Or he may mean, that as slaves have gotten by their craft and imposi- they made a part of the cargo, in one of tion?

these little trading vessels. See sat. i. 81, 2. Sign before me.] Set his name 110, 11. before mine, as a witness to any deed, 85. Aventinus, &c.] One of the seven &c. which we may be called upon to hills of Rome : so called from Avens, a sign.

river of the Sabines. AINSW. Umbri. 82. Supported by a better couch, &c.] tius here, with a patriotic indignation at The Romans lay on couches at their the preference given to foreigners, asks, convivial entertainments; these couches What! is there no privilege in having were ornamented more or less, some drawn our first breath in Rome? no prefiner and hands than others, which eminence in being born a citizen of the were occupied according to the quality first city in the world, the conqueror and

A hungry Greek fwill

go into heaven, if you command. In fine-he was not a Moor, nor Sarmatian, nor Thracian, Who assumed wings, but born in the midst of Athens. 80 Shall I not avoid the splendid dress of these? before me shall he Sign ? and supported by a better couch shall he lie at table. Brought to Rome by the same wind as plums and figs? Is it even nothing that our infancy the air Of Aventinus drew, nourished by the Sabine berry ? 85 What !-because a nation, most expert in flattery, praises The speech of an unlearned, the face of a deformed friend, And equals the long neck of the feeble, to the neck of Hercules, holding Antæus far from the earthAdmires a squeaking voice : not worse than which, 90 He utters, who, being husband, the hen is bitten !

mistress of all those countries from held him up in his left hand, between whence these people came ? Shall such earth and heaven, and, with his right fellows as these not only vie with Ro- hand, dashed his brains out. man citizens, but be preferred before 90. Admires a squeaking voice.] A them?

squeaking, hoarse, croaking kind of ut-Sabine berry.) A part of Italy on terance, as if squeezed in its passage by the banks of the Tiber, once belonging the narrowness of the throat'; this he to the Sabines, was famous for olives, applauds with admiration. here called bacca Sabina. But we are -Not worse, &c.] He assimilates the to understand all the nutritive fruits and voice so commended, to the harsh produce of the country in general. Pro screaming sound of cock when he specie genus. Syn. In contradistinction crows; or rather to the noise which he to the pruna et coctona, 1. 83.

makes when he seizes the hen, on ap86. What !! As if he had said, proaching to tread her, when he nips her What! is all the favour and preference comb in his beak, and holds her down which these Greeks meet with, owing to under him. This must be alluded to by their talent for flattery? are they to be the mordetur gallina, &c. esteemed more than the citizens of Claverius, paraph. in Juv. iv. reads the Rome, because they are a nation of base passage, sycophants ?

-quá deterius nec 87. The speech, &c.] Or discourse,

Illa sonat, quum mordetur gallina matalk, conversation, of some ignorant, stu rito. pid, rich patron, whose favour is basely courted by the most barefaced adula

-worse than which neither tion.

Doth that sound, when a hen is bitten by

her husband. -Face of a deformed, &c.] Persuading him that he is handsome, or that his Meaning, that voice which was so exvery deformities are beauties.

tolled with admiration by the flatterer, 88. The long neck, &c.] Compares the was as bad as the screaming which a hen long crane-neck of some puny wretch, to makes when trodden by the cock, who the brawny neck and shoulders (cervi- seizes and bites her comb with his beak, cibus) of Hercules.

which must be very painful, and occa-. 89. Holding, &c.] This relates to the sion the noise which she makes. Howstory of Antæus, a giant of prodigious ever this reading may be rather more strength, who, when knocked down by agreeable to the fact, yet there does not Hercules, recovered himself by lying on seem to be sufficient authority to adopt his mother earth ; Hercules therefore it.

Græculus esurienskn cælum, jusseris, ibit.

Ad summum non Maurus erat, nec Sarmata nec, Thrax, Qui sumpsit pennas, mediis sed natus Athenis.

80 Horum ego non fugiam conchylia ? me prior ille Signabit ? fultusque toro meliore recumbet, Advectus Romam, quo pruna et coctona, vento? Usque adeo nihil est, quod nostra infantia coelum Hausit Aventini, baccâ nutrita Sabina ?

85 Quid !-quod adulandi gens prudentissima laudat Sermonem indocti, faciem deformis amici, Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus æquat Herculis, Antæum procul a tellure tenentisMiratur vocem angustam, quâ deterius nec

90 Ille sonat, quo mordetur gallina marito !

78. A hungry Greek.] The diminutive of the guests. The middle couch was Græculus is sarcastical. q. d. Let my

esteemed the most honourable place, little Grecian be piuched with hunger, and so in order from thence. Must he would undertake any thing you bade this vagabond Greek take place of me at him, however impossible or improbable; table, says Umbritius, as if he were like another Dædalus, he would even at

above me in point of quality and consetempt to fly into the air.

quence? As we should say, Shall he sit 79. In fine, &c.] Ad summum ; upon above me at table? Hor. lib. ii. sat. viii. the whole, be it observed, that the 1, 20–3. describes an arrangement of Greeks of old were a dexterous people at

the company at table. contrivance; for the attempt at flying

83. Brought to Rome.] Advectus; imwas schemed by Dædalus, a native of ported from a foreign country, by the Athens. No man of any other country

same wind, and in the same ship, with has the honour of the invention.

prunes, and little figs, from Syria. These 81. The splendid dress.] Conchylia;

were called coctona, or cottana, as supshell-fish; the liquor thereof made pur- posed, from Heb. 7up little. MART. ple, or scarlet colour: called also murex. lib. xiji. 28. parva cottana. Conchylium, by meton. signifies the co Syria peculiares habet arbores, in filour itself; also garments dyed there corum genere. Caricas, et minores ejus with, which were very expensive, and generis, quæ coctana vocant. Plin. lib. worn by the nobility and other great xiii. c. 5. people.

Juvenal means to set forth the low Shall pot I fly, fugiam, avoid the very origin of these people; that they, at sight of such garments, when worn by first, were brought out of Syria to Rome, such fellows as these, who are only able as dealers in small and contemptible arto wear them by the wealth which they ticles. Or he may mean, that as slaves have gotten by their craft and imposi- they made a part of the cargo, in one of tion?

these little trading vessels. See sat. i. 81, 2. Sign before me.] Set his name 110, 11. before mine, as a witness to any deed, 85. Aventinus, &c.] One of the seven &c. which we may be called upon to hills of Rome : so called from Avens, a sign.

river of the Sabines. AINSW. Umbri82. Supported by a better couch, &c.] tius here, with a patriotic indignation at The Romans lay on couches at their the preference given to foreigners, asks, convivial entertainments; these couches What! is there no privilege in having were ornamented more or less, some drawn our first breath in Rome? no prefiner and handsomer than others, which eminence in being born a citizen of the were occupied according to the quality first city in the world, the conqueror and

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