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Substitit ad veteres arcus, madidamque Capenam:
Hîc, ubi nocturnæ Numa constituebat amicæ,
Nunc sacri fontis nemus, et delubra locantur
Judæis : quorum cophinus, fænumque supellex.
Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est
Arbor, et ejectis mendicat sylva Camænis.
In vallem Ægeriæ descendimus, et speluncas
Dissimiles veris: quanto præstantius esset
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas


theda may here signify.) Umbritius ple consecrated to them and to the godwas moving all his bag and baggage, (as dess Ægeria, whose fountain waters the we say,) and, by its taking up no more grove; for she is fabled to have wept room, it should seem to have been very herself into a fountain, for the death of moderate in quantity:

Numa. This fountain, grove, and tem11. He stood still.] He may be sup- ple, were let out to the Jews, at a yearly posed to have walked on out of the city, rent, for habitation; they having been attended by his friend Juvenal, ex driven out of the city by Domitian, and pecting the vehicle with the goods to compelled to lodge in these places, hereovertake him, when loaded : he now tofore sacred to the Muses.“ Delubra is stood still to wait for its coming up; a general term for places of worship. and in this situation he was, when he See Ainsw. By the phrase nocturnæ began to tell his friend his various rea amicæ constituebat, Juvenal speaks as sons for leaving Rome, which are just so if he were describing an intrigue, where many strokes of the keenest satire upon a man meets his mistress by appointthe vices and follies of its inhabitants. ment at a particular place: from this we

-At the old arches.] The ancient tri can be at no loss to judge of our poet's umphal arches of Romulus, and of the very slight opinion of the reality of the Horatii

, which were in that part. Or transaction. perhaps the old arches of the aqueducts 14. A basket and hay, &c.] These were might here be meant.

all the furniture which these poor crea- Wet Capena.] One of the gates of tures had the sum total of their goods Rome, which led towards Capua : it was and chattels. sometimes called Triumphalis, because This line has been looked upon as those who rode in triumph passed very difficult to expound. Some comthrough it; it was also called Fontina- mentators have left it without any atlis, from the great number of springs tempt to explain it. Others bave rather that were

near it, which occasioned added to, than diminished from, whatbuilding the aqueducts, by which the ever its difficulty may be. They tell water was carried by pipes into the us, that these were the marks not of city: hence Juvenal calls it madidam their poverty, but, by an ancient custom, Capenam. Here is the spot where Numa of their servitude in Egypt, where, in used to meet the goddess Ægeria. baskets, they carried hay, straw, and

12. Numa.] Pompilius, successor to such things, for the making of brick, Romulus.

and in such like labours. See Exod. v. - Nocturnal mistress.] The more strong- 7–18. This comment, with the reasons ly to recommend his laws, and the bet- given to support it, we can only say, is ter to instil into the Romans a reverence very far fetched, and is not warranted for religion, he persuaded them, that, by any account we have of the Jewish every night, he conversed with a god- customs. dess, or nymph, called Ægeria, from Others say, that the hay was to feed whose mouth he received his whole their cattle. But how could these poor form of government, both civil and reli- Jews be able to purchase, or to maingious; that their place of meeting was tain, cattle, who were forced to beg in in a grove without the gate Capena, de- order to maintain themselves ? Others, dicated to the Muses, wherein was a tem that the hay was for their bed on which

He stood still at the old arches, and wet Capena;
Here, where Numa appointed his nocturnal mistress,
Now the grove of the sacred fountain, and the shrines are hired
To the Jews: of whom a basket and hay are the household stuff.
For every tree is commanded to pay a rent to the people: 15
And the wood beys, the muses being ejected.
We descend into the vale of Ægeria, and into caves
Unlike the true: how much better might have been
The deity of the water, if, with a green margin, the grass inclosed

they lay; but neither is this likely; for avarice, created by the public extravathe poet, sat. vi. 541. describes a men gance, which led them to hire out these dicant Jewess as coming into the city, sacred places for what they could get, and leaving her basket and bay behind by letting them to the poor Jews, who her; which implies, that the basket and could only pay for them out of what hay were usually carried about with them they got by begging. when they went a begging elsewhere. 16. The wood begs, &c.] i. e. The Jews, Now it is not to be supposed that they who were now the inhabitants of the should carry about so large a quantity wood, (meton.) were all beggars; noof hay, as served them to lie upon when thing else was to be seen in those once at home in the grove.

sacred abodes of the Muses, who were It is clear that the basket and hay now banished. are mentioned together here, and in the 17. We descend, &c.] Umbritius and other place of sat. vi. from whence I in- Juvenal sauntered on, till they came to fer, that they had little wicker baskets that part of the grove which was called in which they put the money, provi- the vale of Ægeria, so called, probably, sions, or other small alms which they from the fountain, into which she was received of the passers by, and, in order changed, running there. to stow them the better, an to prevent 17, 18. And into caves unlike the true.] their dropping through the interstices These caves, in their primitive state, of the wicker, put wisps of hay, or dried were as nature formed them, but had grass, in the inside of the baskets. been profaned with artificial ornaments, These Jew beggars were as well known which had destroyed their native beauty by baskets with hay in them, as our and simplicity. beggars are by their wallets, or our sol 18. How much better.] How much diers by their knapsacks. Hence the more suitably situated. Jewess, sat. vi. left her basket and hay 19. The deity of the water.] Each founbehind her when she came into the city, tain was supposed to have a nymph, or for fear they should betray her, and sub- naiad, belonging to it, who presided ject her to punishment for infringing the over it as the goddess of the water ; Æemperor's order against the Jews coming geria may be supposed to be here into the city. Her manner of begging meant. too, by a whisper in the ear, seems to -If, with a green margin, &c.] If, inconfirm this supposition. The Latin stead of ornamenting the banks with arcophinus is the same as Gr. xopivos, tificial borders made of marble, they which is used several times in the New had been left in their natural state, simTestament to denote a provision-basket, ple and unadorned by human art, having made use of among the Jews. See Matt. no other margin but the native turf, xiv. 20. Matt. xvi. 9, 10. Mark vi. 43. and the rude stone (tophum) which was Mark viii. 19, 20. Luke ix. 17. Joh. vi. the genuine produce of the soil. These 13.

were once consecrated in honour of the 15. To pay a rent.] The grove being fountain-nymph, but had now been violet out to the Jews, every tree, as it lated and destroyed, in order to make were, might be said to bring in a rent to way for artificial ornaments of marble, the people at Rome. The poet seems which Roman luxury and extravagance to mention this as a proof of the public had put in their place.



Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum ?
Hic tunc Umbritius: quando artibus, inquit, honestis
Nullus in urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum,
Res hodie minor est, here quam fuit, atque eadem cras
Deteret exiguis aliquid ; proponimus illuc
Ire, fatigatas ubi Dædalus exuit alas :
Dum nova canities, dum prima, et recta senectus,
Dum superest Lachesi quod torqueat, et pedibus me
Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacillo,
Cedamus patria: vivant Arturius istic,
Et Catulus: maneant qui nigra in candida vertunt,
Queis facile est ædem conducere, flumina, portus,
Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,


21. Here then Umbritius.] Juvenal cheaper part of the country. and his friend Umbritius being arrived 24. We propose.] i. e. I and my family at this spot, at the profanation of which propose or proponimus for propono. they were both equally scandalized, Synec. Umbritius there began to inveigh against 25, 6. Thither to go.] i. e. To Cumæ, the city of Rome, from which he was where Dædalus alighted after his flight now about to depart, and spake as fol. from Crete. lows.

26. Greyness is new.] While grey, -Honest arts.] Liberal arts and sci- bairs, newly appearing, warn me that ences, such as poetry, and other literary old age is coming upon me. pursuits, which are honourable. Comp. - Fresh and upright.] While old age Sat. vii. 1-6. Honestis artibus, in con in its first stage appears, and I am not tradistinction to the dishonest and yet so far advanced as to be bent shameful methods of employment, which double, but am able to hold myself upreceived countenance and encourage- right. The ancients supposed old age, ment from the great and opulent. Um- first to commence about the 46th year. britius was himself a poet. See this Cic. de Senectute. Philosophers (says sat. I. 321, 2.

Holyday) divide man's life according to 22. Noemoluments of labour.] Nothing its several stages. First, infantia to to be gotten by all the pains of honest three or four years of age. Secondly, industry.

pueritia, thence to ten. From ten to 23. One's substance, fc.] Instead of eighteen, pubertas. Thence to twentyincreasing what I have, I find it daily five, adolescentia. Then juventus, from decrease; as I can get nothing to re- twenty-five to: thirty-five or forty. place what I spend, by all the pains I Thence to fifty, ætas virilis. Then came can take.

senectus prima et recta till sixty-five : -And the same, to-morrow, &c.] This and then ultima et decrepita till death. same poor pittance of mine will to-mor 27. While there remains to, Lacherow be wearing away something from sis, &c.] One of the three destinies: she the little that is left of it to-day: and was supposed to spin the thread of husoʻI must find myself growing poorer from day to day. Deteret is a meta The Parcæ, or poetical fates or destiphorical expression, taken from the nies, were Clotho, Lachesis, and Atroaction of the file, which gradually wears pos. The first held the distaff ; the seaway and diminishes the bodies to cond drew out, and spun the thread; which it is applied. So the necessary which the last cut off when finished. expences of Umbritius and his family - And on my feet, &c.] While I can were wearing away his substance in stand on my own legs, and walk without that expensive place, which he deter. the help of a staff. mines to leave, for a more private and 29. Let us leave, &c.] Let me, and

man life.

The waters, nor had marbles violated the natural stone ? 20
Here then Umbritius :-Since for honest arts, says he,
There is no place in the city, no emoluments of labour,
One's substance is to-day less than it was yesterday, and the

same to-morrow, Will diminish something from the little: we propose thither To go, where Dædalus put off his weary wings,

25 While greyness is new, while old age is fresh and upright, While there remains to Lachesis what she

may spin, and on Myself I carry, no staff sustaining my hand, Let us leave our native soil: let Arturius live there, And Catulus : let those stay who turn black into white. 30 To whom it is easy to hire a building, rivers, ports, A sewer to be dried, a corpse to be carried to the pile,

my feet


all that belongs to me, take an everlast- acquired, and of course from their reing farewell of that detested city, which, sponsibility, could easily procure such though my native place, I am heartily contracts, by which they made an imtired of, as none but knaves are fit to mense and exorbitaut profit. Ædis-is live there.

signifies any kind of edifice. AINSW. 29, 30. Arturius and Catulus.] Two Omne ædificium ædis dicitur. knaves, who, from very low life, liad -Rivers.] Fisheries perhaps, by hiring raised themselves to large and affluent which, they monopolized them, so as to circumstances. Umbritius seems to in- distress others, and enrich themselves; troduce them as examples, prove or the carriage of goods upon the rivers, that such people found more encourage- for which a toll was paid ; or, by flumiment in Rome, than the professors of na, may here be meant, the beds of the the liberal arts could hope for. See be- rivers, hired ont to be cleaned and fore, 1. 21. note 2.

cleared at the public expence. 30. Let those stay, &c.] He means 31. Ports.]' Where goods were those, who by craft and subtlety could ported and imported; these they rented, utterly invert and change the appear- and thus became farmers of the public ances of things, making virtue appear as revenue, to the great grievance of those vice, and vice as virtue ; falsehood as who were to pay the duties, and to the truth, and truth as falsehood. Such great. emolument of themselves, who were Arturius and Catulus.

were sure to make the most of their 31. To hire a building.) The word bargain. ædem, here being joined with other 32. A sewer to be dried.] Eluvies signithings of public concern, such as rivers, fies a sink or common-sewer ; which is ports, &c. seems to imply their hiring usual in great cities, to carry off the some public buildings, of which they water and filth that would otherwise inmade money ; and it should seem, from commode the houses and streets. From these lines, that the several branches eluo, to wash out, wash away. of the public revenue and expenditure These contractors undertook the openwere farmed out to certain contractors, ing and clearing these from the stopwho were answerable to the ædiles, and pages to which they were liable, and by to the other magistrates, for the due which, if not cleansed, the city would execution of their contracts. Juvenal have been in many parts overflowed. here seems to point at the temples, thea- There was nothing so mean and filthy, tres, and other public buildings, which that these two men would not have unwere thus farmed out to these people, dertaken for the sake of gain. Here we who, from the wealth which they had find them scavengers.


Et præbere caput dominà venale sub hastâ.
Quondam hi cornicines, et municipalis arenæ
Perpetui comites, notæque per oppida buccæ,
Munera nunc edunt, et verso pollice vulgi
Quemlibet occidunt populariter : inde reversi
Conducunt foricas : et cur non omnia ? cum sint
Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum
Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari.
Quid Romæ faciam ? mentiri nescio : librum,
Si malus est, nequeo laudare, et poscere : motus
Astrorum ignoro : funus promittere patris


32. A corpse, &c.] Busta were places ther, like our trumpeters to a puppetwhere dead bodies were burned; also show. graves and sepulchres. Ainsw. Bustum - Municipal theatre.] Municipium sigfrom ustum. Sometimes these people pifies a city or town-corporate, which hired or farmed funerals, contracting had the privileges and freedom of Rome, for the expence at such a price. In and at the same time governed by laws this too they found their account. of its own, like our corporations. Mu

33. And to ea pose, &c.] These fellows nicipalis denotes any thing belongiug to sometimes were mangones, sellers of such a town. Most of these had arenæ, slaves, which they purchased, and then or theatres, where strolling companies sold by auction. See Pers. vi. 76, 7. of gladiators, &c. (like our strolling

-The mistress-spear.] Domina hasta. players,) used to exhibit. They were It is difficult to render these two sub- attended by horn-blowers and trumstantives literally into English, unless peters, who sounded during the perwe join them, as we frequently do some formance. of our own; as in master-key, queen-bee, 35. Cheeks known, &c.] Blowers on &c.

the horn, or trumpet, were sometimes We read of the hasta decemviralis called buccinatores, from the great diswhich was fixed before the courts of tension of the cheeks in the action of justice. So of the basta centumviralis, blowing. This, by constant use, left a also fixed there. A spear was also fixed swollen appearance on the cheeks, for in the forum where there was which these fellows were well known in auction, and was a sign of it : all things all the country towns. Perhaps buccæ sold there were placed near it, and were is here put for buccinæ, the horns, trumsaid to be sold, under the spear. Hence pets, and such wind instruments as (by meton.) hasta is used, by Cicero these fellows strolled with about the and others, to signify an auction, or country. See Ainsw. Bucca, No. 3. public sale of goods. The word domi 36. Now set forth public shows.] Munena seems to imply the power of disposal ra, so called because given to the people of the property in persons and things at the expence of him who set them sold there, the possession and dominion forth. These fellows, who had themover which were settled by this mode selves been in the mean condition above of sale, in the several purchasers. So described, now are so magnificent, as to that the spear, or auction, might pro- treat the people with public shows of perly be called domina, as ruling the gladiators at the Roman theatre. disposal of persons and things.

- The people's thumb, &c.] This alludes 34. These, in time past, horn-blowers.] to a barbarous usage at fights of gladiaSuch was formerly the occupation of tors, where, if the people thought he these people : they had travelled about that was overcome behaved like a cowthe country, from town to town, with ard, without courage or art, they made little paltry shows of gladiators, fencers, a sign for the vanquisher to put him to wr stage-players, and the like, death, by clenching the hand, and sounding horns to call the people toge- holding or turning the thumb upward.


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