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Notum est cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister
you as wish
a stump or stock of a tree of a large freedman, whom he afterwards made his piece of which a log was cut out, and beir, to lie in the bed with him and his made an instrument of punishment for wife, and gave his wife large presents of female slaves, who were chained to it money, jewels, &c. not to betray his on any misbehaviour towards their mis- abominable practices. tresses, but especially where there was 61. Do thou marry.] This apostrophe jealousy in the case; and there they may be supposed to be addressed to the were to sit and work at spinning, or the unmarried woman, who might be standlike.
ing by, and listening to Laronia's severe 58. Hister.] Some infamous character, reproof of the husbands of that day, and here introduced by Laronia in order to contains a sarcasm of the most bitter illustrate her argument.
kind. - Filled his will.] Tabula signifies any As if she had said, “ You hear what plate or thin material on which they
you are to expect; such of wrote; hence deeds, wills, and other “ to be rich, I advise to marry, and keep written instruments, were called tabulæ. “ their husbands' secrets." So public edicts. See before, 1. 28.
Secrets bestows gems.] Cylindros 58, 9. With only his freedman.] Left these were precious stones, of an oblong him his sole heir.
and round form, which the women used 59. Why alive, &c.]. Why in his life to hang in their ears. Here they seem time he was so very generous, and made to signify all manner of gems. such numbers of presents to his wife, 62. After all this.] After all I have here called puellæ, as being a very young been saying of the men, I can't help obgirl when he married her: but I should serving how hardly we women are used. rather think, that the arch Laronia has - A heavy sentence, frc.] Where we a more severe meaning in her use of the are concerned no mercy is to be shewn term puellæ, by which she would inti. to us; the heaviest sentence of the laws mate, that his young wife, having been is called down upon us, and its utmost totally neglected by him, remained still, vengeance is prescribed against us. puella, a maiden; Hister having no 63. Censure excuses ravens, &c.] Larodesire towards any thing, but what was nia ends her speech with a proverbial unnatural with his favourite freedman. saying, which is much to her purpose.
It is evident that the poet uses puella Censura here means punishment. The in this sense, sat, ix. 1. 74. See note on men, who, like ravens and other birds of sat. ix. 1. 70.
prey, are so mischievous, are yet ex60. She will be i ich, fc.] By receiving cused; but, alas! when we poor women, (as Hister's wife did) large sums for who are, comparatively, harmless as hush-money:
doves, when we, through simplicity and - Who sleeps thod, &c.] By this she weakness, go astray, we hear of nothing would insinuate, that Hister caused bis but punishment.
“ It is known why Hister filled his will with only “ His freedman; why alive he gave much to a wench: “ She will be rich, who sleeps third in a large bed. 60 “ Do thou marry, and hush-secrets bestow gems. “ After all this, a heavy sentence is passed against us: 66 Censure excuses ravens,
and vexes doves.” Her, proclaiming things true and manifest, trembling fled The Stoicides-For what falsehood had Laronia [uttered] ? But what
65 Will not others do, when thou assumest transparent garments, O Creticus, and (the people wond’ring at this apparel) thou
declaimest Against the Proculæ and Pollineæ? Fabulla is an adulteress: Let Carfinia too be condemned if you please : such A gown, condemned, she'll not put on. “But July burns- 70
64. Her, proclaiming, &c.] We have public eye, in open court. here the effect of Laronia's speech upon 66. Transparent garments.] Multicia, her guilty hearers; their consciences quasi multilicia, of many threads. These were alarmed, and away they flew, they were so finely and curiously wrought, could not stand any longer : they knew that the body might be seen through what she said to be true, and not a tit. them. tle of it could be denied : so the faster 67. O Creticus.] This magistrate was they could make their escape, the better: descended from the family of that Metellike those severe hypocrites we read of, lus, who was called Creticus, from his John viii. 7-9. Cano signifies, as used conquest of Crete. Juvenal, most prohere, to report, to proclaim aloud. bably, addresses Metellus by this sur
65. The Stoicides.] Stoicidæ. This name of his great ancestor, the more to word seems to have been framed on the expose and shame him, for acting so unoccasion with a feminine ending, the worthy his descent from so brave and better to suit their characters, and to in- noble a person. timate the monstrous effeminacy of these - Thou declaimest.] Passest sentence pretended Stoics. The Stoics were call- in the most aggravated terms-perores. ed Stoici, from otou, a porch in Athens, The end of a speech, in which the orator where they used to meet and dispute. collected all his force and eloquence, was They highly commended apathy, or free- called the peroration : but the verb is dom from all passions.
used in a larger sense, and signifies to Juvenal, having severely lashed the declaim and make an harangue against Stoicides, or pretended Stoics, now pro- any person or thing. ceeds to attack, in the person of Metel 68. Proculæ and Pollineæ.] Names of Jus Creticus, the effeminacy of certain particular women, who were condemned, magistrates, who appeared, even in the on the Julian law, for incontinence, but seat of justice, attired in a most unbe so famous in their way, as to stand here coming and indecent manner, and such for lewd women in general, as bespake them in the high road to the He could condemn such in the severmost horrid impurities.
est manner, when before him in judg66. Will not others do, gc.] 9. d. It is ment, while be, by his immodest dress, no marvel that we find vice triumphant shewed himself to be worse than they over people that move in a less conspi- were. cuous sphere of life, when plain and ap 68, 69. Fabulla-Carfinia.] Notorious parent symptoms of it are seen in those adulteresses. who fill the seats of justice, and are 69, 70. Such a gown, fc.] Bad as such actually exhibited by them, before the women may be, and even convicted of
Æstuo: nudus agas; minus est insania turpis. .
incontinence, yet they would not appear How would you exclaim! What would in such a dress, as is worn by you who you not utter, that could express your condemn them.
indignation and abhorrence (O ancient Or perhaps this alludes to the custom and venerable people) of such a silken of obliging women convicted of adultery judge! to pull off the stola, or woman's garment, 76. I ask, would, &c.] q. d. It would and put on the toga, or man's garment, be indecent for a private person, who which stigmatized them as infamous; only attends as a witness, to appear in but even this was not so infamous as the such a dress; how much more for a transparent dress of the judge. Horace judge, who sits in an eminent station, in calls a common prostitute, togata. Sat. a public character, and who is to conii. lib. i. 1. 63.
demn vice of all kinds. - But July burns, &c.] He endeavours 77. Sour and unsubdued.] O Creticus, at an excuse, from the heat of the wea- who pretendest to stoicism, and appearing ther, for being thus clad.
morose, severe, and not overcome by 71. Do your business, c.] As a judge. your passions. Agere legem sometimes signifies to ex - Master of liberty.] By this, and the ecute the sentence of the law against preceding part of this line, it should apmalefactors. See Ainsw. Ago. pear, that this effeminate judge was one
Madness is less shameful.] Were you who pretended to stoicism, which taught to sit on the bench naked, you might be a great severity of manners, and an apathought mad, but this would not be so thy both of body and mind; likewise shameful; madness might be some ex such a liberty of living as they pleased,
as to be exempt from the frailties and 72. Lo the habit, &c.] This, and the passions of other men. They taught three following lines, suppose some of ori povos ó copos caeubegos—that “only a the old hardy and brave Romans, just wise man was free.” Hence Cic. Quid come from a victory, and covered with est libertas ? potestas vivendi ut velis. fresh wounds (crudis vulneribus)--rough 78. You are transparent.] Your body mountaineers, who had left their ploughs, is seen through your fine garments: so like Cincinnatus, to fight against the that with all your stoicism, your appearenemies of their country, and on their ance is that of a shameless and most uparrival at Rome, with the ensigns of natural libertine: a slave to the vilest glorious conquest, finding such an effe- passions, though pretending to be a minate character upon the bench, bear master of your liberty of action. ing the charge of the laws, and bringing - Contagion gave this stain.] You them forth in judgment; which may be owe all this to the
you the sense of ferentem in this place. have kept; by this you have been in
75. What would you not proclaim, fc.] fected.
" I'm very hot”- do your business naked : madness is less
shameful. Lo the habit ! in which, thee promulgating statutes and laws, The people (with crude wounds just now victorious, And that mountain-vulgar with ploughs laid by) might hear. What would you not proclaim, if, on the body of a judge, those things
75 You should see ? I ask, would transparent garments become
a witness ? Sour and unsubdued, and master of liberty, O Creticus, you are transparent ! contagion gave this stain, And will give it to more: as, in the fields, a whole herd, Fall by the scab and measles of one swine:
80 And a grape derives a blueness from a grape beholden. Some time you'll venture something worse than this dress : Nobody was on a sudden most base. They will receive thee By little and little, who at home bind long fillets on 84
79. And will give it to more.] You will O Leoline, be obstinately just; corrupt others by your example, as you Indulge no passion, and betray no trust; were corrupted by the example of those Never let man be bold enough to suy, whom you have followed.
Thus, and no farther, let my passion stray; The language here is metaphorical, The first crime past compels us on to more, taken from distempered cattle, which And guilt proves fate, which was but communicate infection by herding to
choice before. gether.
--They will receive, &c.] By degrees 80. Falls by the scab, &c.] Our Eng- you will go on - from one step to another lish proverb says,
“ One scabby sheep till you are received into the lewd and " mars the whole flock.”
horrid society after mentioned. The poet 81. A grape, &c.] This is also a pro- is now going to expose a set of unnatuverbial saying, from the ripening of the ral wretches, who, in imitation of woblack grape, (as we call it) which has a men, celebrated the rites of the Bona blue or livid hue : these do not turn to that Dea. colour all at once and together, but grape 84. Who at home, &c.] Domi, that is, after grape, which, the vulgar supposed, secretly, privately, in some house, hired was owing to one grape's looking upon or procured for the purpose of celeanother, being very near in contact, and brating their horrid rites, in imitation of su contracting the same colour. They the women, who yearly observed the
Uva uvam videndo varia rites of the Bona Dea, and celebrated fit,
them in the house of the high priest, 83. Nobody was or a sudden, &c.] None Plur. in vita Ciceronis et Cæsaris. ever arrived at the highest pitch of If we say, redimicula domi, literally, wickedness at first setting out: the fillets of the house, we may understand workings of evil are gradual, and almost it to mean those fillets which, in imitaimperceptible at first; but as the insi- tion of the women, they wore around nuations of vice deceive the conscience, their heads on these occasions, and they first blind and then harden it, un which, at other times, were hung up til the greatest crimes are committed about the house, as part of the sacred without remorse.
furniture. I do not recollect where I met with Here is the first instance, in which the underwritten lines; but as they their ornaments and habits were like contain excellent advice, they may not those of the women, be unuseful in this place :
had a prov
Frontibus, et toto posuere monilia collo,
85. And have placed ornaments, &c.] ped, and no men were to be admitted. Monilia, necklaces, consisting of so many
Sacra bonæ maribus non adeunda Deæ. rows as to cover the whole neck; these
Tib. i. 6, 22. were also female ornaments. This is So that the proceeding of these men was the second instance. Monile, in its an utter perversion of the female rites; largest sense, implies an ornament for as different from the original and real any part of the body. Ainsw. But as institution, as the left hand is from the the neck is here mentioned, necklaces right, and as contrary. are most probably meant; these were 89. Go ye profane.] Profanæ-meanmade of pearls, precious stones, gold, ing the women ; as if they banished &c.
them by solemn proclamation. Juvenal 86. The good goddess.] The Bona Dea, here humourously parodies that passage worshipped by the women, was a Ro- in Virgil, relative to the Sybil, Æn. vi. man lady, the wife of one Faunus ; she 258, 9. was famous for chastity, and, after her Procul, prociil, este profani, death, consecrated. Sacrifices were per Conclamat vates, totoque absistite luco! formed to her only by night, and se 90. With no horn here, &c.] It was cretly; they sacrificed to her a sow usual, at the sacrifices of the Bona Dea, pig. No men were admitted.
for some of the women to make a lamentIn imitation of this, these wretches, able noise (well expressed here by the spoken of by our poet, that they might word gemit) with a horn. The male resemble women as much as possible, worshippers had no women among them instituted rites and sacrifices of the same for this purpose. Nullo tibicina cornu, kind, and performed them in the same for nulla tibicina cornu. Hypallage. secret and clandestine manner.
91. Such orgies.] Orgia--so called ato -The belly, &c.] The sumen, of dugs ans Ogyns, from the furious behaviour of and udder of a young sow, was esteemed the priests of Bacchus, and others by a great dainty, aod seems here meant whom they were celebrated : but the by abdomine. Pliny says (xi. 84. edit. part of the orgies here alluded to was Hard.) antiqui sumen vocabant abdo- that wherein all manner of lewdness,
Here it stands for the whole ani. even of the most unnatural kind, was mal (as in sat. xii. 73.) by synec.
committed by private torch-light-Tæda 87. A large goblet.] Out of which they secreta. Coluerunt-they practised, cepoured their libations.
lebrated, solemnized. -By a perverted custom.] More sini. 92. The Baptæ.] Priests of Cotytto at stro-by a perverted, aukward custom, Athens, called Baptæ, because, after the tliey exclude all women from their mys- horrid impurities which they had been teries, as men were excluded from those guilty of, in honour of their goddess, of the women ; by the latter of which they thought themselves entirely purialone the Bona Dea was to be worship- fied by dipping themselves in water.