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A most noted practitioner among the Socratic catamites ? 10
art? Let straight deride the bandy-legged—the white the Æthi
opian. Who could have borne the Gracchi complaining about sedition ?
24 Who would not mix heaven with earth, and the sea with heaven, If a thief should displease Verres, or an homicide Milo? If Clodius should accuse adulterers, Catiline Cethegus ?
at least comparatively with those who This sentiment is pursued and exemaffect to condemn such characters as plified in the instances following. Peribonius, and yet do the same that he 24. The Gracchi.] Caius and Tiberius, does.
tribunes, who raised great disturbances, 20. Of Hercules.] This alludes to the on their introducing the Agrarian law, story of Hercules, who, when he was a to divide the common fields equally youth, uncertain in which way he should among the people. At length they were go, whether in the paths of virtue, or in both slain : Tiberius, as he was making those of pleasure, was supposed to see an a speech to the people, by Publius apparition of two womer, the one Virtue, Nasica; and Caius, by the command of the other Pleasure, each of which used the consul Opimius. many arguments to gain him ; but he 25. Mix heaven with earth.] i. e. Ex. made choice of Virtue, and repulsed the claim in the loudest and strongest terms, other with the severest reproaches. See like him in Terence, Xen. Memor. and Cic. de Offic. lib. i. O coelum! O terra! O maria Ne.
21. Sextus.] Some infamous character ptuni! of the kind above mentioned.
26. Verres.] Prætor in Sicily, who 22. Varillus.] Another of the same was condemned and banished for plunstamp. The poet here supposes one of dering that province. these wretches as gravely and severely - Milo.] He killed P. Clodius, and reproaching the other.
was unsuccessfully defended by. Tully. Varillus in answer, need I fear any thing 27. Clodius.] A'great enemy to Cicero, you can say ? in what can you make me and the chief promoter of his banishout to be worse than yourself?
ment. This Clodius was a most de23. Let the straight, &c.] These prover- bauched and profligate person. He debial expressions mean to expose the folly bauched Pompeia the wife of Cæsar, and impudence of such who censure and likewise his own sister. Soon after others for vices which they themselves Cicero's return, Clodius was slain by practise. See Matt. vii. 3-5. Hor. Milo, and his body burnt in the Curia sat. vii. lib. ii. 1. 40-2.
In tabulam Syllæ si dicant discipuli tres ?
- Catiline Cethegus.] i. e. If Catiline 31. Mars and Venus.] They were were to accuse Cethegus. These were caught together by Vulcan, the fabled two famous conspirators against the state. husband of Venus, by means of a net See Sallust, bell. Catilin,
with which he inclosed them. Juvenal 28. The table of Sylla.] Sylla was a means, by this, to satirize the zeal of noble Roman of the family of the Scipios. Domitian against adultery in others, He was very cruel, and first set up tables (while he indulged not only this, but of proscription, or outlawry, by which incest also in his own practice,) by many thousand Romans were put to saying, that it was so great, that he death in cold blood.
would not only punish men, but gods -Three disciples.] There were two tri. also, if it came in his way so to do. umvirates, the one consisting of Cæsar, 32. Abortives.] Embryos, of which Pompey, and Crassus, the other of Au- Julia was made to miscarry. gustus, Antony, and Lepidus, who fol 33. Lumps.] Offas, lumps of flesh, lowed Sylla's example, and therefore are crude births, deformed, and so resem. called disciples, i.e. in cruelty, blood- bling her uncle Domitian, the incestuous shed, and murder.
father of them. 29. The adulterer.] Domitian. He 34. Justly and deservedly.) With the took away Domitia Longina from her highest reason and justice. husband Ælius Lamia,
-The most vicious.] Ultima vitia, i. P. 29, 30. A tragical intrigue.] He de- ultimi vitiosi, the most abandoned, who bauched Julia, the daughter of his bro are to the utmost degree vicious, so that ther Titus, though married to Sabinus. they may be termed themselves, vices. After the death of Titus, and of Sabinus, The abstract is here put for the concrete. whom Domitian caused to be assassi- MET. nated, he openly avowed his passion for 35. Despise.] Hold them in the most Julia, but was the death of her, by giving sovereign contempt, for their impudence her medicines to make her miscarry. in daring to reprove others for being See below, 1. 32, 3.
vicious, 30. Recalling laws.] At the very time -The feigned Scauri.] Æmilius Scauwhen Domitian had this tragical intrigue rus, as described by Sallust, bell. Juwith his niece Julia, he was reviving the gurth. was a nobleman, bold, factious, severe laws of Julius Cæsar against greedy of power, honour, and riches, adultery, which were afterwards made but very artful in disguising his vices. more severe by Augustus.
Juvenal therefore may be supposed to 30, 1. Bitter to all.] Severe and rigid call these hypocrites ficios, as feigning to the last degree. Many persons, of to be what they were not; Scaurus, as both sexes, Domitian put to death for being like Æ. Scaurus, appearing outadultery. See Univ. Hist. vol. xv. p. wardly grave and severe, but artfully, 52.
like him, concealing their vices.
If three disciples should speak against the table of Sylla ?
them Crying out so often, “ Where is now the Julian law ? dost
“ thou sleep?" And thus smiling: “ Happy times! which thee
Oppose to manners: now Rome may take shame: “ A third Cato is fallen from heaven :--but yet whence 40
However, I question whether the cha- these dissemblers; one out of this hypoTacter of Scaurus be not rather to be critical herd. gathered from his being found among so 37. Crying out so often.] Repeating many truly great and worthy men, Sat. aloud his seeming indignation against xi. 1. 90, 1. Pliny also represents him vice, and calling down the vengeance of as a man summæ integritatis, of the high- the law against lewdness and effemiest integrity. This idea seems to suit nacy. best with fictos Scauros, as it leads us to Where is the Julian law?] Against consider these hypocrites as feigning adultery and lewdness ; (see l. 30. note ;) themselves men of integrity and good- why is it not executed ? As it then stood, ness, and as seeming to resemble the it punished adultery and sodomy with probity and severity of manners for death. which Scaurus was eminent, the better - Dost thou sleep?] Art thou as reto conceal their vices, and to deceive gardless of these enormities, as a person other people.
fast asleep is of what passes about him? - Ānd being reproved, bite again.] Such 38. And thus smiling:] Laronia could hypocrites are not only despised by the not refrain herself at hearing this, and, most openly vicious for their insincerity, with a smile of the utmost contempt, but whenever they have the impudence ready almost at the same time to laugh to reprove vice, even in the most aban. in his face, thus jeers him. doned, these will turn again and re —Happy times ! &c.] That have raised taliate: which is well expressed by the up such a reformer as thou art, to opword remordent.
pose the evil manners of the age! 36. Laronia.] Martial, cotemporary
39. Now Rome may take shame.] Now, with Juvenal, describes a woman of this to be sure, Rome will blush, and take name as a rich widow.
shame to herself, for what is practised Abnegat et retinet nostrum Laroniu ser within her walls, since such a reprover vum,
appears. Irony. Respondens, orba est, dives, anus, vidua. 40. A third Cato.) Cato Censorius, as By what Juvenal represents her to have he was called, from his great gravity and said, in the following lines, she seems to strictness in his censorship; and Cato have had no small share of wit.
Uticensis, so called from his killing him-Did not endure.] She could not self at Utica, a city of Africa, were men bear him ; she was out of all patience. highly esteemed as eminent moralists; to
- Sour.] Crabbed, stern in his ap- these, says Laronia, (continuing her pearance. Or torvum may be here put ironical banter,) heaven has added a for the adverb torve-torve clamantem. third Cato, by sending us so severe and Grecisın. See above, 1. 3. and note. respectable a moralist as thou art.
From among them.] i, e. One of
Hæc emis, hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo
41. Perfumes.] Opobalsama - OTOS Hor. lib. i. epist. xvi. 1. 41. mentions Budoapovei. e. Succus balsami. This these three particulars: was some kind of perfumery, which the
Vir bmus est quis? effeminate among the Romans made use Qui consulta patrum, qui leges, juraque of, and of which, it seems, this same servat. rough-looking reprover smelt very See an account of the Roman laws at strongly.
large, in Kennett's Roman Antiq. part 41, 2. Your rough neck.] Hairy, and ii. book iii. chap. xxi. et seq. bearing the appearance of a most philo 43. The Scantinian.] So called from sophic neglect of your person.
Scantinius Aricinus, by whom it was 42. Don't be ashamed, &c.] Don't blush first introduced to punish sodomy. Others to tell us where the perfumer lives, of think that this law was so called from C. whom you bought these fine sweet-smell- Scantinius, who attempted this crime, ing ointments.
on the son of Marcellus, and was puHere her raillery is very keen, and nished accordingly. tends to shew what this pretended re 45. Examine the men.] Search diliformer really was, notwithstanding his gently: scrutinize into their abominaappearance of sanctity. She may be tions. said to have smelt him out.
—These do more things.] They far outdo 43. Statutes and laws are disturbed.] the other sex; they do more things From that state of sleep in which you worthy of severe reprehension. seem to represent them, and from which 46. Number defends.] This tends to you wish to awaken them. The Roman shew how common that detestable vice jurisprudence seems to have been found
was. (Comp. Rom. i. 27.) Such numed on a threefold basis, on which the bers were guilty of it, that it was looked general law, by which the government upon rather as fashionable than crimiwas carried on, was established ; that is nal; they seemed to set the law at de. to say, Consulta patrum, or decrees of fiance, as not daring to attack so large a the senate-Leges, which seem to an- body. swer to our stalute-laws and jura, those -Battalions joined, &c.] A metaphor rules of common justice, which were de- taken from the Roman manner of enrived from the two former, but particu- gaging. A phalanx properly signified a larly from the latter of the two, or, per- disposition for an attack on the enemy haps, from immemorial usage and cus- by the foot, with every man's shield or tom, like the common law of England. buckler so close to another's, as to join
“Do you buy these perfumes which breathe from your rough “ Neck ? don't be ashamed to declare the master of the shop: “ But if the statutes and laws are disturbed, the Scantinian
Ought before all to be stirred up. Consider first, “ And examine the men: these do more things—but them 45 “ Number defends, and battalions joined with a buckler. “ There is great concord among the effeminate: there will not be
any “Example so detestable in our sex : “ Trædia caresses not Cluvia, nor Flora Catulla : “Hippo assails youths, and in his turn is assailed.
50 “Do we plead causes ? the civil laws “Do we know ? or with any noise do we make a stir in your
66 courts ? “ A few wrestle, a few eat wrestlers' diet : “ You card wool, and carry back in full baskets your finished “Fleeces; you the spindle, big with slender thread, 55 “ Better than Penelope do twist, and finer than Arachne, " As does a dirty harlot sitting on a log.
them together and make a sort of im- osier or wicker baskets, in which the penetrable wall or rampart. This is said women put their work when they had to have been first invented by the Mace- finished it, in order to carry it back to donians; phalanx is therefore to be con their employers. sidered as a Macedonian word.
56. Penelope.] Wife of Ulysses, who 47. There is great concord, &c.] They during her husband's absence was imare very fond of each other, and strongly portuned by many noble suitors, whose connected and united, so that attacking addresses she refused with inviolable one would be like attacking all. constancy: but, fearing they might take
49. Tædia—Floru, &c.] Famous Ro- her by force, she amused them, by deman courtezans in Juvenal's timebad siring them to wait till she had finished as they were, the men were worse. a web, which she was then about; and to 51. Do we plead, &c.] Do we women
make the time as long as possible, she usurp the province of the men ? do we undid druing the night what she had take upon us those functions which be done in the day. long to them?
Arachne.] A Lydian damsel, very 53. A few wrestle.] A few women there skilful in spinning and weaving. She is
are of such a masculine turn of fabled to have contended with Minerva, mind, as to wrestle in public. See Sat.i. and, being outdone, she hanged herself, 22, 3. and notes; and Sat. vi. 245–57. and was by that goddess changed into a and notes.
spider. Ov. Met. lib. vi. fab. . Wrestlers' diet.] Prepare themselves By mentioning these instances, Larofor wrestling as the wrestlers do bynia ironically commends the great profeeding on the coliphium--a uwce spia, ficiency of the men in carding and spinmembra robusta ; a kind of dry diet ning : both these operations seem to be which wrestlers used, to make them strong distinctly marked by the poet. and firm-fleshed. See Ainsw.
57. Å dirty harlot.] Pellex properly 54. You curd wool.] You, effeminate
denotes the mistress of a married man. wretches, forsake manly exercises, and
This, and the Greek vandaris, seem addict yourselves to employments which derived from Heb. wase pilgesh, which are peculiar to women.
we render, concubine. - In baskets.] The calathi were little Codex, from caudex, literally signifies