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The old and tired clients go away from the vestibules,
And lay aside their wishes, altho' the man has had a very

long Expectation of a supper : pot-herbs for the wretches, and fire

is to be bought. Meanwhile their lord will devour the best things of the woods, and of the sea,

135 And he only will lie on the empty beds: For from so many beautiful, and wide, and ancient dishes, They devour patrimonies at one meal. There will now be no parasite: but who will bear that Filthiness of luxury? how great is the gullet, which, for itself, puts

140 Whole boars, an animal born for feasts ? Yet there is a present punishment, when you put off your clothes, Turgid, and carry an indigested peacock to the baths : Hence sudden deaths, and intestate old age.

138. At one meal.] Mensa-lit. table Tuscan, was an high article of luxury —which (by meton.) stands here for at all grand entertainments. The word what is set upon it. Thus they waste natum is here used as the word natis. and devour their estates in this abomi- Hor. lib. i. od. xxvii. l. 1. See also nable and selfish gluttony.

Ovid. Met. lib. xv. l. 117. 139. No parasite.] From Fago, near,

Quid meruistis, oves, placidum pecus, inand oitoy, food.

que tuendos These were a kind of jesters, and flat Natum homines? terers, who were frequently invited to Juvenal speaks as if boars were made the tables of the great; and who, indeed, and produced for no other purpose than had this in view, when they flattered convivial entertainments. and paid their court to them. Terence, 142. A present punishment.] Of such in his Eunuch, has given a most spi- horrid gluttony. rited and masterly specimen of para -Put of your clothes.] Strip yourself sites, in his inimitable character of Gna- for bathing. tho.

143. Turgid.] Turgidus, swoln; puffed But so fallen were the great into the up with a full stomach. meanest avarice, and into the most sor -An indigested peacock.) Which you did luxury, that they could gormandize have devoured, and which is crude and by themselves, without even inviting a indigested within you. parasite to flatter or divert them. But --To the baths.] It was the custom to who, even though a parasite, would en- bathe before meals; the contrary was dure (feret) such a sight?

reckoned unwholesome. See Pers. sat. 140. Filthiness of luxury.] Sordes, iii. 1. 98-105. and Hor. Epist. lib. i. nastiness; a happy word to describe the Ep. vi. l. 61. beastliness of such gluttony with regard 144. Sudden deaths.] Apoplexies and to the patron bimself, and its stinginess the like, which arise from too great reand niggardliness, with respect to others. pletion. Bathing with a full stomach

-How great is the gullet.) The glutton- must be likely to occasion these, by ous appetite of these men.

forcing the blood with too great violence -Puts.] Ponit, sets, places on the ta towards the brain. ble.

-Intestate old age.] i. e. Old gluttons 141. Whole hvars, &c.] A whole boar thus suddenly cut off, without time to at a time, the wild boar, especially the make their wills.

145

150

It nova, nec tristis per cunctas fabula conas:
Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.
Nil erit ulterius, quod nostris moribus addat
Posteritas : eadem cupient, facientque minores.
OMNE IN PRÆCIPITI VITIUM STETIT: utere velis,
Totos pande sinus. Dicas his forsitan, “ unde
“ Ingenium par materiæ ? unde illa priorum
“ Scribendi quodcunque animo flagrante liberet

Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen ?
Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mutius, an non ?
Pone Tigellinum, tædâ lucebis in illa,
“ Quà stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture fument,
“ Et latum mediâ sulcum deducis arena.

155

CUNT.

145. A new story, &c.] A fresh piece opportunity for satire to display all its of news, which nobody is sorry for.

powers. 146. A funeral is carried forth.] The 150, 1. Whence is there genius, &c.] word ducitur is peculiarly used to denote Here he is supposed to be interrupted the carrying forth a corpse to burial, or by some friend, who starts an objection, to the funeral pile. So Virg. Geor. iv. on his invocation to Satire to spread all 256.

its sails, and use all its powers against Exportant tectis, et tristiu funera du the vices of the times.

Where shall we find genius equal to Owing, perhaps, to the procession of the inatter? equal to range so wide a the friends, &c. of the deceased, which field ? equal to the description and due. went before the corpse, and led it to the correction of so much vice? place of burning, or interment.

151. Whence that simplicity, 8c.] That 146. Applauded by angry friends.] simple and undisguised freedom of reWho, disobliged by having nothing left proof, which former writers exercised. them, from the deceased's dying sud- Alluding, perhaps, to Lucilius, Horace, denly, and without a will, express their and other writers of former times. resentment by rejoicing at his death, 153. A burning mind.] Inflamed with instead of lamenting it. See Pers. sat. zeal, and burning with satiric rage vi. 33, 4.

against the vices and abuses of their 148. To our morals.] Our vices and times. debaucheries, owing to the depravity -Of which I dare not, &c.] It is hardly and corruption of our morals.

safe now to name, or mention, the li-Those born after us.] Minores, i. e. berty of the old writers; it is so sunk natu, our descendants ; the opposite of and gone, that the very naming it is majores natu, our ancestors.

dangerous. 149. All vice is at the height.] In præ 154. Mutius.] Titus Mutius Albucipiti stetit, hath stood, hath been for tius, a very great and powerful man. some time at its highest pitch, at its sum He was satirized by Lucilius, and this mit, so that our posterity can carry it most severely by name. See note on no higher. Compare the two preceding Pers. sat. i. I. 115. lines.

Lucilius feared no bad consequences Vice is at stand, and ut the highest of this, in those days of liberty. flow.

DRYDEN. 155. Set down Tigellinus.] i. e. Expose On tip toe. A:Nsw.

him as an object of satire - satirize this 149, 50. Use sails, Spread, &c.] A creature and infamous favourite of metaphor taken from sailors, who, when Nero's, and most terrible will be the they have a fair wind, spread open their consequence. sails as much as they can.

-In thuc torch.) This cruel punishhere insinuates, that there is now a fair ment seems to have been proper to in

The poet

A new story, nor is it a sorrowful one, goes thro' all companies :

145 A funeral, to be applauded by angry friends, is carried forth. There will be nothing farther, which posterity can add To our morals: those born after us will desire and do the

same things ALL VICE IS AT THE HEIGHT.

Use sails, Spread their whole bosoms open. Here, perhaps, you'll say, 66 Whence

150 “ Is there genius equal to the matter ? Whence that simplicity “ Of former(writers), of writing whatever they might like, with “ A burning mind, of which I dare not tell the name. “ What signifies it, whether Mutius might forgive what they

" said, or not? “Set down Tigellinus, and you will shine in that torch, 155 “ In which standing they burn, who with fixed throat smoke;

you

draw out a wide furrow in the midst of sand.

66 And

person

cendiaries, in which light the poet hu- should be expressed by the third mourously supposes the satirizers of the singular. The talk of the sufferers emperor's favourites, and other great making a trench in the sand, by running men, to be looked upon at that time. round the post, to avoid the flames; but

After Nero had burnt Rome, to satis- how can this be, when the person has fy his curiosity with the prospect, he the combustibles fastened round him, contrived to lay the odium on the Chris- and must be in the midst of fire, go tians, and charged them with setting the where he may ? Besides, this idea does city on fire. He caused them to be not agree with fixo gutture, which imwrapped round with garments, which plies being fastened, or fixed, so as not were bedaubed with pitch, and other to be able to stir. combustible matters, and set on fire at Instead of deducet, or deducit, I night, by way of torches to enlighten should think deducis the right reading, the streets; and thus they miserably as others have thought before me. perished. See Kennett, Ant. p. 147. This agrees, in number and person, with 156. Standing.) In an erect posture.

lucebis, 1. 155, and gives us an easy and -With fixed throat.] Fastened by the natural solution of she observation ; viz. neck to a stake.

that, after all the danger incurred by 157. And you draw out a wide furrou, satirizing the emperor's favourites, no &c.] After all the danger which a sa- good was to be expected; they were too tirist runs of his life, for attacking Tigel- bad to be reformed. linus, or any other minion of the em The Greeks had a proverbial saying, peror's, all his labour will be in vain; much like what I contended for here, to there is no hope of doing any good. It express labouring in vain ; viz. Ampeon would be like ploughing in the barren MerguisArenam metiris, you measure sand, which would yield nothing to re- . the sand—i. e. of the sea. ward your pains.

Juvenal expresses the same thought, Commentators have given various ex sat. vii. 48, 9. as I would suppose him to planations of this line, which is very dif- do in this line : ficult, and almost unintelligible where Nos tamen hoc agimus, tenuique in pulthe copies read deducet, as if relating to

vere sulcos the fumant in the preceding line; but · Ducimus, et littus sterili versamus aratro. this cannot well be, that the plural

VOL. I.

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160

“Qui dedit ergo tribus patruis aconita, vehetur
“ Pensilibus plumis, atque illinc despiciet nos ?
“ Cám veniet contra, digito compesce labellum :
“ Accusator erit, qui verbum dixerit, hic est.
“ Securis licet Æneam, Rutilumque ferocem
“ Committas: nulli gravis est percussus Achilles :
“ Aut multum quæsitus Hylas, urnamque secutus.
“ Ense velut stricto quoties Lucilius ardens

Infremuit, rubet auditor, cui frigida mens est
“ Criminibus, tacità sudant præcordia culpa :
“ Inde iræ, et lachrymæ. Tecum prius ergo voluta
“ Hæc animo ante tubas ; galeatum sero duelli
“ Poenitet.” Experiar quid concedatur in illos,

165

170

verca.

158. Wolf's bane.] Aconitum is the - From thence.] From his easy litter. Latin for this poisonous herb; but it is -Look down.] With contempt and used in the plural, as here, to denote disdain. other sorts of poison, or poison in ge 160. When he shall come opposite.) The neral. See Oviv, Met. i. 147.

moment you meet him, carried along in Lurida terribiles miscent ACONITA NO his stately litter, (says Juvenal's sup

posed adviser,) instead of saying any —Three uncles.] Tigellinus is here thing, or taking any notice of him, let meant, who poisoned three uncles that him pass quietly-lay your hand on your he might possess himself of their estates. mouth-hold your tongue-be silent. And, after their death, he forged wills 161. There will be an accuser.] An infor them, by which he became possessed former, who will lay an accusation before of all they had. He likewise impeached the emperor, if you do but so much as several of the nobility, and got their point with your finger, or utter with your estates. See more in Ainsw. under Ti. Jips, “ That's he." Therefore, that neigellinus.

ther of these may happen, lay your -Shall he, therefore, &c.] " And be- finger upon your lips, and make not the

cause there may be danger in writing slightest remark. “ satire, as things now are, is such a -(Of him) who.] Illi or illius is here “ character as this to triumph in his understood before qui, &c. “ wickedness unmolested ? Shall he be 162. Though, secure.]. Though you “ carried about in state, and look down must not meddle with the living, you “ with contempt upon other people, and may securely write what you please “shall I not dare to say a word ?” This about the dead. we may suppose Juven to mean, on - Æneas and the fierce Rutilian.] i. e. hearing what is said about the danger of Æneas, and Turnus, a king of the Ruwriting satire, and on being cautioned tilians, the rival of Æneas, and slain by against it.

him. See Virg. Æn. xii. 919, &c. 159. With pensile feathers.] Pensilis 163. You may match.] Committas is a means, literally, banging in the air. metaphorical expression, taken from It was a piece of luxury to have a mat- matching or pairing gladiators, or others, tress and pillows stuffed with feathers; in single combat. on which the great man reposed himself in his litter. Hence the poet makes use Cum JUVENALE meo cur me committere of the term pensilibus to plumis, as being tentas? in the litter which hung in the air, as it Why do you endeavour to match me was carried along by the bearers. See “ with my friend Juvenal ?" i. e. in a before, l. 32. and note ; and 1. 64, 5. poetical contest with bim. and note.

By committas we are therefore to

Martial says,

66

“ Shall he, therefore, who gave wolf's bane to three uncles,

66 be carried “ With pensile feathers, and from thence look down on us?" “ When he shall come opposite, restrain your lip with your finger

160 “ There will be an accuser (of him) who shall say

the word 66 That's he.” Though, secure, Æneas and the fierce Rutilian “ You may match: smitten Achilles is grievous to none: “ Or Hylas much sought, and having followed his pitcher. “ As with a drawn sword, as often as Lucilius ardent

165 “ Raged—the hearer reddens, who has a mind frigid “ With crimes; the bosom sweats with silent guilt: “ Hence anger and tears. Therefore first revolve, with thyself, “ These things in thy mind, before the trumpets: the helmeted

“ late of a fight “Repents.” I'll try what may be allowed towards those, 170

understand, that one might very safely 167. The bosom.] Præcordia- lit. the write the history of Æneas and Turnus, parts about the heart-supposed to be and match them together in fight, as the seat of moral sensibility. Virgil has done.

-Sweats.] Sweating is the effect of Smitten Achilles.] Killed by Paris hard labour. Sudant is here used metain the temple of Apollo.

phorically, to denote the state of a mind -Is grievờus to none.] Nobody will labouring, and toiling, under the grievous get into danger, or trouble, by writing burden of a guilty conscience. This the history of this event.

image is finely used, Matt. xi. 28. 164. Hylas much sought.] By Hercules 168. Anger und tears.] Anger at the when he had lost him. See Virg. Ecl. satirist-tears of vexation and sorrow at vi. 43, 44.

being exposed. -Followed his pitcher.] With which he 169. Before the trumpets.] A metaphor was sent, by Hercules, to the river taken from the manner of giving the Ascanius to draw some water: where signal for battle, which was done with being seen, and fallen in love with, by the sound of trumpets. three river-nymphs, they pulled him into Think well, says the adviser, before the stream,

you sound the alarm for your attackOn subjects like these, saith the ad- weigh well all hazards before you viser, you may say what you please, and begin. nobody will take offence; but beware of -The helmeted, &c.] When once a attacking the vices of living characters, man has gotten his helmet on, and adhowever infamous or obnoxious.

vances to the combat, it is too late to 165. Ardent.] Inflamed with satiric change his mind. Once engaged in rage against the vices of his day. writing satire, you must go through;

166. Ruged.] Infremuit-roared aloud, there's no retreating. in his writings, which were as terrible to 170. I'll try, &c.] Well, says Juvenal, the vicious, as the roaring of a lion, since the writing satire on the living is which the verb infremo signifies : hence so dangerous, I'll try how far it may be Met. to rage violently, or tumultuously. allowed me to satirize the dead.

-Reddens.] With anger and shame. Hence he writes against no great and

166, 7. Frigid with crimes.] Chilled, powerful person, but under the feigned as it were, with horror of conscience— name of 'some vicious character that their blood ran cold, as we should lived in past time. say.

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