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Plena ipso: et post hunc magni delator amici,
Lawyer Matho.] He had been an sa, an eminent informer; but so much advocate, but had amassed a large for more eminent was M. Regulus, above tune by turning informer. The emperor mentioned, in this way, that he was Domitian gave so much encouragement dreaded even by Massa, lest he should to such people, that many made their inform against him. fortunes by secret informations; inso 36. Carus sooths.] This was another of much that nobody was safe, nuwever in the same infamous profession, who bribed nocent; even one informer was afraid Regulus, to avoid some secret accusa. of another. See below, l. 35, 6, and tion.
-Thymele.] The wife of Latinus the 33. Full of himself.] Now grown famous mimic; she was sent privately bulky and fat. By this expression, the by her husband and prostituted to Repoet may hint at the self-importance of gulus, in order to avoid some information this upstart fellow.
which Latinus dreaded, and trembled - The secret accuser of a great friend.] under the apprehension of. This was probably Marcus Regulus, 37. Can remove you.] i. e. Set you (mentioned by Pliny in his Epistles,) a aside, supplant you in the good graces of most infamous informer, who occasioned, testators. by his secret informations, the deaths of -Who earn last wills, &c.] Who many of the nobility in the time of Do- procure wills to be made in their favour. mitian.
The poet here satirizes the lewd and inSome think that the great friend here decent practices of certain rich old womentioned was some great man, an in men al Rome, who kept men for their timate of Domitian's ; for this emperor criminal pleasures, and then, at their spared not even his greatest and most in- death, left them their heirs, in preference timate friends, on receiving secret inform to all others. ations against them.
39. The best way, &c.] By this the But, by the poet's manner of expres- poet means to expose and condemn these sion, it should rather seem,
monstrous indecencies. son meant was some great man, who had Into heaven.] i.e. Into the highest been a friend to Regulus, and whom Re state of affluence. gulus had basely betrayed.
40. Proculeius-Gillo.] Two noted 34. From the devoured nobility.) i. e.
paramours of these old ladies. Destroyed through secret accusations, A small pittance-a lurge share. ) or pillaged by informers for hush-mo- Unciola, literally signifies a little ounce, nev.
one part in twelve. Deunx, a pound 35. Whom Massa fears.] Babius Mas- lacking an ounce, eleven ounces, eleven
that the per
Full of himself: and after him the secret accuser of a great
friend, And who is soon about to seize from the devoured nobility What remains: whom Massa fears: whom with a gift 35 Carus sooths, and Thymele sent privately from trembling
Latinus. When they can remove you, who earn last wills By night, and whom the lust of some rich old woman (The best way of the highest success now-a-days) lift up into
heaven. Proculeius has a small pittance, Gillo has a large share: 40 Every one takes his portion, as heir, according to the favour
he procures: Well let him receive the reward of his blood, and become as Pale, as one who hath pressed with his naked heels a snake, Or as a rhetorician, who is about to declaim at the altar of Lyons.
44 What shall I say?-_With how great anger my dry liver burns, When here a spoiler of his pupil exposed to hire presses on
the people With flocks of attendants ? and here condemned by a frivolous Judgment, (for what is infamy when money is safe ?)
parts of any other thing divided into within the breast. twelve.
Our poet here means to express the 42. Of his blood.] i. e. Of the ruin of workings of anger and resentment within his health and constitution, by these him, at seeing so many examples of vice abominable practices.
and folly around him, and particularly 43. Pressed a snake.] By treading on in those instances which he is now going it. See Virg. Æn. ii. 1. 379, 80. to mention.
44. The altar of Lyons.] The emperor 46. A spoiler of his pupil, &c.] The tuCaligula instituted, at this place, games, telage of young men, who had lost their wherein orators and rhetoricians were to parents, was committed to guardians, contend for a prize. Those, whose per- who were to take care of their estates formances were not approved, were to and education. Here one is represented wipe them out with a spunge, or to lick as spoliator--a spoiler-i. e. a plunthem out with their tongue: or else to derer or pillager of his ward as to his be punished with ferules, or thrown into affairs, and then making money of his the sea.
person, by hiring him out for the vilest 45. What shall I say?] Q. D. How purposes, Hence he says, Prostantis shall I find words to express the indig- pupilli. nation which I feel ?
- Presses on the people.] Grown ric! My dry liver burns.] The ancients by the spoils of his ward, he is supposed considered the liver as the seat of the to be carried, in a litter, along the streets, irascible and concupiscible affections. with such a crowd of attendants, as to So Hor. lib. i. od. xiii. 1. 4. says,
incommode other passengers. Difficili bile tumet jecur-o express 47, 8. By a frivolous judgment] Inania his resentment and jealousy, at hearing judicio—because, though inflicted on his mistress commend a rival.
Marius, it was of no service to the inAgain, lib. iv. od. i. 1. 12. Si tor- jured province; for, instead of restoring rere jecur quæris idoneum-by which he to it the treasures of which it had been means, kindling the passion of love plundered, part of these, to a vast
Exul ab octavà Marius bibit, et fruitur. Dîs
amount, were put into the public trea- beasts—hunting-chasing. So inveighsury. As for Marius mself, he lived ing against by satire, driving such vices in as much festivity as if nothing had as he mentions out of their lurking happened, as the next two verses inform places, and hunting them down, as it
were, in order to destroy them. 49. The exile Marius.] Marius Priscus, -But why rather Heracleans ?) Juproconsul of Africa, who, for pillaging venal here anticipates the supposed obthe province of vast sums of money, was jections of some, who might, perhaps, condemned to be banished.
advise him to employ his talents on some - From the eighth hour.] Began his fabulous and more poetical subjects carousals from two o'clock in the after- such as the labours of Hercules, &c. noon, which was reckoned an instance “Why should I prefer these (as if he of dissoluteness and luxury, it being an “ had said) when so many subjects in hour sooner than it was customary to sit “ real life occur, to exercise my pen in down to meals. See note on sat, xi. 1. more useful way?" 204. and on Persius, sat. iii. 1. 4.
53. Or Diomedeans.] i. e. Verses on 49, 50. He enjoys the angry gods.] the exploits of Diomed, a king of Thrace, Though Marius had incurred the anger who fed his horses with man's flesh. of the gods by his crimes, yet, regardless Hercules slew him, and threw him to be of this, he enjoyed himself in a state of devoured by his own horses. the highest jollity and festivity.
-The lowing of the labyrinth.] The Vanquishing province, &c.] Victrix story of the Minotaur, the monster kept was used as forensic term, to denote in the labyrinth of Crete, who was half one who had got the better in a law-suit. a bull, and slain by Theseus. See The province of Africa had sued Marius, Ainsw. Minotaurus. and had carried the cause against him, 54. The sea stricken by a boy.] The but had still reason to deplore her losses: story of Icarus, who, flying too near the for though Marius was sentenced to pay sun, melted the wax by which his wings an immense fine, which came out of what were fastened together, and fell into the he had pillaged, yet this was put into sea; from him called Icarian. See Hor. the public treasury, and no part of it lib. iv. od. ii. 1. 2-4. given to the Africans; and, besides this, The flying artificer.] Dædalus, Marius had reserved sufficient to main- who invented and made wings for himtain himself in a luxurious manner. See self and his son Icarus, with which they above, note on i. 47, 8.
fled from Crete, See Ainsw. Dæda51. Worthy the Venusinian lamp?] i.e. lus. The pen of Horace himself? This 55. The bawd.] The husband, who charming writer was born at Venusium, turns bawd by prostituting his wife for a city of Apulia. When the poets wrote gain, and thus receives the goods of the by night, they made use of a lamp. adulterer as the price of her chastity.
52. Shall I not agitute, &c.] Agitem 56. There no right to the wife.] Do. implies pursuing, as hunters do wild mitian made a law to forbid the use of
The exile Marius drinks from the eighth hour, and enjoys the Angry gods? but thou, vanquishing province, lamentest ! 50 Shall I not believe these things worthy the Venusinian lamp? Shall I not agitate these (subjects ?)--but why rather Hera
cleans, Or Diomedeans, or the lowing of the labyrinth, And the sea stricken by a boy, and the flying artificer? When the bawd can take the goods of the adulterer, (if of taking
55 There is no right to the wife,) taught to look upon the ceiling, Taught also at a cup to snore with a vigilant nose. When he can think it right to hope for the charge of a
cohort, Who hath given his estate to stables, and lacks all 59 The income of his ancestors, while he flies, with swift axle, over
litters (see note, l. 32.) to adulterous drunken husband, represents her as wives, and to deprive them of taking mentioning a like particular: legacies or inheritances by will. This “ My whole night's comfort is the was evaded, by making their husbands “ tunable serenade of that wakeful nightpanders to their lewdness, and so causing “ingale—bis nose." the legacies to be given to them.
58. A cohort.] A company of foot in -Taught to look upon the ceiling.] a regiment, or legion, which consisted of As inobservant of his wife's infamy then ten cohorts. transacting before him--this he was well 59. Hath given his estate to stables.] skilled in. See Hor. lib. od. vi. l. i. e. Has squandered away all his patri25–32.
mony in breeding and keeping horses. 57. At a cup, &c.] Another device was Præsepe sometimes means, a cell, stews, to set a large cup on the table, which or brothel. Perhaps this may be the the husband was to be supposed to have sense here, and the poet may mean, emptied of the liquor which it had con that this spendthrift had lavished his tained, and to be nodding over it, as if fortune on the stews, in lewdness and in a drunken sleep.
debauchery. -To snore with a vigilant nose.] 59, 60. Lacks all the income, &c.] Snoring is an evidence that a man is Has spent the family estate. fast asleep; therefore the husband knew 60. While he flies, &c.] The person well how to exhibit this proof, by snoring here meant is far from certain. Commenaloud, which is a peculiar symptom of a
tators differ much in their conjecture on drunken sleep. The poet uses the epi- the subject. Britannicus gives the matthet vigilanti" here very humourously, to
“ This passage,” says he,“ is denote, that though the man seemed to “ one of those concerning which we are be fast asleep by his snoring, yet his nose “ yet to seek.” seemed to be awake by the noise it made. But whether Cornelius Fuscus be So Plaut. in Milite.
meant, who when a boy was charioteer An dormit Sceledrus intus ? Non naso
to Nero, as Automedon was to Achilles, quidem,
and who, after wasting his substance in Nam eo magno magnum clamat.
riotous living, was made commander of
a regiment; or Tigillinus, an infamous Is Sceledrus asleep within ? Why, truly, not with his nose ; for with whose character is supposed to have an
favourite of Nero's, be here designed, that large instrument he makes noise swered to the description here given is enough.
not certain ; one or other seems to be Our Farquhar, in the description which meant. The poet is mentioning various he makes Mrs. Sullen give of her subjects as highly proper for satire ;
Flaminiam : puer Automedon nam lora tenebat,
Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces
and, among others, some favourite at sinuate one's self into the favour or good court, who, after spending all his pater- graces of another; as when a man is pal estate in riot, extravagance, and de- courting his mistreng. By ipse, according bauchery, was made a commander in to the above interpretation of this pasthe army, and exhibited his chariot, sage, we must understand the emperor driving full speed over the Flaminian Nero. way, which led to the emperor's villa ; 63. Capucious waren tablets.]
These and all this, because, when a boy, he are here called ceras; sometimes they had been Nero's charioteer, or, as the are called ceratæ tabellæ, because they poet humourously calls him, his Auto. were thin pieces of wood, covered over medon, and used to drive out Nero and with wax, on which the ancients wrote his minion Sporus, whom Nero castrated, with the point of a sharp instrument, to make him, as much as he could, called stylus, (see Hor. lib. i. sat. x. l. resemble a woman, and whom he used 72.) it had a blunt end to rub out with. as a mistress, and afterwards took as a They made up pocket-books with these. wife, and appeared publicly in his 64. Cross-way.) Juvenal means, that a chariot with him, openly caressing, and man might please himself by filling a making love, as he passed along. large book with the objects of satire
The poet humourously speaks of Spo- which he meets in passing along the rus in the feminine gender. As the street. Quadrivium properly means a lacerna was principally a man's garment, place where four ways meet, and where by lacernatæ amicæ, the poet may be there are usually most people passingunderstood as if he had called Sporus, a proper stand for observation. Nero's male-mistress, being habited like -On a sixth neck.] i. e. In a litter a man, and caressed as a woman. carried by six slaves, who bare the poles The above appears to me a probable on the shoulder, and leaning against the
nation of this obscure and difficult side of the neck. These were called passage. Holiday gives it a different hexaphori, from Gr. ig, six, and pigw, to turn, as may be seen by his annotation bear or carry. See Sat. vii. 1. 141. n. on this place. I do not presume to be 65. Exposed, &c.] Carried openly to positive, but will say with Britannicus, and fro, here and there, through the
Sed quum in ambiguo sit, de quo public streets, having no shame for what poeta potissimum intelligat, unusquis- he had done to enrich himself. que, sí neutrum horum probabile visum 66. The supine Mecenas.) By this it
fuerit, quod ad loci explanationem appears, that Mæcenas was given to la“ faciat, excogitet."
ziness and effeminacy. See Sat. xii. 1. 39, 61. The Flaminian way.] A road Horace calls him Malthinus, from made by Caius Flaminius, colleague of Mandaxos, which denotes softness and Lepidus, from Rome to Ariminum, effeminacy. See Hor. lib. i. sat. ii. 1. 25. 62. When he boasted himself.] Jactare 67. A signer, &c.
ignifies a se alicui signifies to recommend, to in- sealer or signer of contracts or wills,