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Et cui per mediain nolis occurrere noctem,
bitants were blacks, or, as we call them, the great men in Rome. negroes.
59. Ganymede.] The poet alludes to 63. The bony hund of a black Moor, &c.] the beautiful cup-bearer of Jupiter, and A great, hideous, and raw-boned Moor, humourously gives his name to the Geso frightful as to terrify, people who tulian negro foot-boy, mentioned 1. 52, 3. should happen to meet with him in the Respice-look back at the Ganymede night-time, when travelling among those behind you, and call to him, if you want mansions of the dead, which are in the to be helped to some drink. Latin way.
See sat. i. 1. 171. He 61. To mingle, &c.] It was the office might be taken for some hideous spectre of the cup-bearer to pour the wine into that haunts the monuments.
the cup in such proportion, or quantity, 56. A flower of Asia.] The master of as every one chose. This was called the feast has for his cup-bearer an miscere. So Mart. lib. xiii. epigr. Asiatic boy, beautiful, and blooming as 108. a flower, and who had been purchased Misceri debet hoc a Ganymede merum. at an immense price. The poet here 62. Worthy disdain.] q. d. His youth exhibits a striking contrast. Comp. I. and beauty justify his contempt; they 53.
deserve that he should despise such 57. Tullus and Ancus.] The third and guests. fourth of the Roman kings, whose whole 63. When does he attend-] Adest fortune did not amount to what Virro lit. when is he
present ? gave for this Asiatic boy.
- As the minister.] To serve you with, 58. Not to detain you.] i. e. To be to help you to, cold or hot water. Both short, as we say. Comp. sat. ii. l. these the Romans, especially in winter182.
time, had at their feasts, that the guests -Trifles, &c.] The price given for might be served with either, as they this boy was so great, as to make the might choose. wealth of all the ancient Roman kings 64. He scorns, &c.] The smart favourfrivolous and trifling in comparison of ite looks down with too much contempt it.
on such a poor needy spunger, as he The poet means, by this, to set forth esteems an old hanger-on upon his master the degree of luxury and expence of to be, to think of giving him what he
And whom you would be unwilling to meet at midnight, While you are carried thro' the monuments of the hilly Latin way.
55 A flower of Asia is before him, purchased at a greater price, Than was the estate of warlike Tullus, and of Ancus : And, not to detain you, all the trifles of the Roman Kings. Which since it is so, do thou the Getulian Ganymede Look back upon, when you are thirsty : a boy bought for so many
60 Thousands knows not to mingle [wine] for the poor: but his
form, his age, Are worthy disdain. When, does he come to you? When, being called, does he attend [as] the minister of hot
or cold water? For he scorns to obey an old client ; And that you should ask for any thing, or that you
should lie down, himself standing.
65 EVERY VERY GREAT HOUSE IS FULL OF PROUD SERVANTS. Behold, with what grumbling another has reached out bread, Hardly broken, pieces of solid meal already musty, Which will shake a grinder, not admitting a bite. But the tender and white, and made with soft flour, 70 Is kept for the master. Remember to restrain your right hand: Let reverence of the butler be safe.—Yet, suppose yourself
calls for. He is affronted that such a one capable of being bitten, and thus dishould presume to expect his attendance vided, it would loosen a grinder to atupon him, and that he should be stand. tempt it. ing at the table as a servant, while the 70. Soft flour.] The finest flour, out of client is lying down at his ease, as one of which the bran is entirely sifted, so that
no hard substance is left. 66. Every very great house, &c.] And, 71. To restrain, &c.] Don't let the sight therefore, where can you find better of this fine, white, and new bread, tempt treatment, than you do at Virro's, at any you to filch it-mind to keep your hands of the tables of the rich and great ? to yourself. 67. Has reuched out, &c.] When you
72. The butler.] Artopta, Gr. egrohave called for bread, it has indeed been πτης, from αρτος, bread, and oσταω, to brought, but with what an ill-will have bake, signifies one that bakes bread, a you been served; how has the slave baker. Or artopta may be derived from that reached, or held it out for you to agros, bread, and on topas, to see, i. e. take, murmured at what he was doing ! an inspector of bread; a pantler, or
68. Hardly broken.] With the utmost butler; one who has the care and overdifficulty broken into pieces.
sight of it. This I take to be the mean-Of solid meal.] Grown into hard, ing here. q. d. Have all due respect to solid lumps, by being so old and stale, the dispenser of the bread ; don't offend and now grown mouldy.'
him by putting your hand into the 69. Will shake a grinder.] Genuinus, wrong basket, and by taking some of from gena, the cheek; what we call the the fine bread. grinders, are the teeth next the cheeks, --Suppose yourself, &c.] But suppose which grind food. So far from being you are a little too bold, and that you
Improbulum ; superest illic qui ponere cogat.
Aspice, quam longo distendat pectore lancem,
Ipse Venafrano piscem perfundit : at hic, qui
make free with some of the fine bread, spring of the year, is often fraught with there's one remains upon the watch, who storms of hail and rain, with which the will soon make you lay it down again, poor parasite often got wet to the skin, and chide you for your presumption. in his nightly walks to attend on his pa
74. Wilt thou, &c.] The words of the tron. butler on seeing the poor client filch a “A pretty business, truly, to suffer piece of the white bread, and on making “ all this for the sake of being invited to him lay it down again.
“ supper, and then to be so treated !" -The accustomed buskets.] i. e. Those All this Juvenal represents as the in which the coarse bread is usually treatment which Trebius would meet kept; and do not mistake, if you please, with, on being invited to Virro's house to white for brown.
supper; and as the mournful complaints 75. Filled.] Fed, satisfied.
which he would have to make on finding 76. Well, this has been, fc.] The sup- all his attendances and services so reposed words of Trebius, vexed at finding paid ; therefore Trebius was sadly mishimself so ill repaid for all his services taken in placing his happiness in living and attendances upon his patron. q. d. at the tables of the great, and in order
So, this is what I have been toiling to this to take so much pains. Comp. for; for this I have got out of my
1. 2. “warm bed, leaving my wife, at all hours 80. With how long a breast, &c.] Such “ of the night, and in all weathers," &c. a length is his chest, or forepart, as to
77. The adverse mount.] The Esquiline fill the dish, so as to seem to stretch its hill had a very steep ascent, which made size. it troublesome to get up, if one were in -A lobster.] Squilla. It is hardly poshaste. It must be supposed to have sible to say, with precision, what fish is lain in the parasite's way to his patron's here meant. Mr. Bowles translates it, house, and, by its steepness, to have a sturgeon ; and says in his note, “ The been a hindrance to his speed. Hence “ authors, whom I have the opportunity he calls it adversum montem. Adversus “ to consult, are not agreed what fish is signifies opposite-adversum may mean, “ meant: I have translated it a sturgeon, that it was opposite to the parasite's “ I confess at random, but it may serve house.
“ as well." See Trans. of Juv. by Dry77, 8. The cold Esquiliæ.] Its height den, and others. made it very bleak and cold at the top, Ainsworth calls it a lobster without especially in bad weather. See sat. iii. legs. 1. 71.
Hor. lib. ii. sat. viii. 412. seems to 78. The vernal air.] Vernus Jupiter.. use squillas for prawns or shrimps. The Romans called the air Jupiter. See Affertur squillas inter murana natantes Hor. lib. i. od. i. 1. 25. The air, in the In patina porrecta.
A little knavish ; there remains one who can compel you to
lay it down. “ Wilt thou, impudent guest, from the accustomed baskets “ Be filled, and know the colour of your own bread ?”.
75 “Well, this has been that, for which often, my wife being left, " I have run over the adverse mount, and the cold
Esquiliæ, when the vernal air rattled with cruel “ Hail, and my cloak dropped with much rain.”
See, with how long a breast, a lobster, which is brought 80 To the master, distends the dish, and with what asparagus On all sides surrounded ; with what a tail he can look down
on the banquet, When he comes borne aloft by the hands of a tall servant. But to you is set a shrunk crab, with half an egg, A funeral supper in a little platter.
85 He besmears his fish with Venafran (oil)—but this
In a large dish an out-stretch'd lamprey the word, which lit. signifies straitened, lies
Crabs, if kept long out o With shrimps all floating round. water, will waste and shrink up in the
FRANCIS. shell, and when boiled will be half full Perhaps what we call a shrimp, or of water ; so lobsters, as every day's exprawn, may be the pinnothera, or pin- perience evinces. nophylax, of Plin. iii. 42. the squilla Farnaby explains it by semiphlenus, parva. The shrimp is a sort of lobster half-full, or spent, as he calls it, which in miniature; and if we understand the conveys the same idea. word parva to distinguish it from the This sense also contrasts this fish with fish which is simply called squilla, the the plumpness of the foregoing. Comp. latter may probably signify à lobster, 1. 80—3. particularly here, from what is remarked -With half an egg.] To mix with it of the tail," (1. 82.) which is the most de. when you eat it-a poor allowance. licious part of a lobster.
Many construe constrictus in the sense of 81. Asparagus.) Asparagis, plur. may paratus coctus-conditus, and the like ; here denote the young shoots, or buds, q. d. dressed or seasoned with half an egg. of various herbs. See Ainsw. Aspara 85. Funeral supper, &c.] The Romans
used to place, in a small dish on the seWith these it was perhaps usual to pulchres of the dead, to appease their garnish their dishes.
manes, milk, honey, water, wine, flowers, 82. With what a tail, $c.) What a no a very little of each ; which circumble tail he displays, with what contempt stances, of the smallness of the dish and does he seem to look down upon the of the quantity, seem to be the reason rest of the banquet, when lifted on high, of this allusion. by a tall slave, over the heads of the -A little platter.] Patella is itself a guests, in order to be placed on the diminutive of patera ; but the poet, to table.
make the matter the more contemptible; 84. A crab.) Cammarus, a sort of adds exigua. crab-fish, called also Gammarus ; a very This is a contrast to the lancem, 1. 80. vile food, as we may imagine by its which signifies a great broad plate, a being opposed to the delicious squilla, deep dish to serve meat up in. which was set before the master of the 86. He.] Virro, the master of the feast. feast.
-Venafrun oil.] Venafrum was -Shrunk.] I think Holyday's render- city of Camp nia, famous for the best ing of constrictus nearest the sense of oil. Hor. lib. ii. od. vi, 1. 15, 16,
gus, No. 2.
Pallidus offertur misero tibi caulis, olebit
Mullus erit domino, quem misit Corsica, vel quem
Virroni muræna datur, quæ maxima venit
87. Pale cabbage.] Sickly looking, as if own country, their serpents would not it was half withered.
come near them. " What then must 88. Your saucers.] Alveolus signifies you endure, in having this same oil to any wooden vessel made hollow; here it pour on your cabbage, while you have may be understood of wooden trays, or the mortification of seeing your patron saucers, in which the oil was brought, “ soak his fish with the fine and sweet which was to be poured on the cab " oil of Venafrum! I should think this bage.
“ another instance of that sort of treat89. A canoe.] Canna, a small vessel “ment, which should abate your rage made of the cane, or large reed ; which “ of being invited to the table of a great grew to a great size and height, and which was a principal material in build 92. A mullet.] See sat. iv. 15, and note. ing the African canoes.
-The master.] Virro, the master of -Micipse..] It seems to have been a the feast. general name given to all the Numi. -Corsica sent.] Which came from dians, from Micipsa, one of their kings. Corsica, an island in the Mediterranean, These were a barbarous people on the famous perhaps for this sort of fish. shore of Africa, near Algiers, from 93. Taurominitiniun rocks.] On the seawhence came the oil which the Romans coast, near Taurominium, in Sicily. used in their lamps.
-Our sea is exhausted, fc.) Such is --Sharp prow.) Alluding to the shape the luxury and gluttony of the great, of the Africau canoes, which were very that there is now no more fine fish to be sharp.beaked.
caught at home, 90. Bocchar. 7 Or Bocchor, a Mauri 94. While the appetite, &c.] While tanian name, but here, probably, for any gluttony is at such an height, as not to African. This was the name of one of be satisfied without such dainties. their kings, and hence the poet takes 95. The market.] The market-people, occasion io mention it, as if he said, that who deal in fish, and who supply great “ the Numidians and Moors, who tables. “ anointed themselves with this oil, -With assiduous nets, &c.] Are inces“ stunk so excessively, that nobody at santly fishing in the neighbouring seas, “ Rome would go into the same bath upon our own coasts, leaving no part un; “ with one of them; no, though it were searched, that they may supply the king Bocchar himself.”
market. 91. Safe from serpents.] So horrid is 96. A Tyrrhene fish.] The Tyrrhene the smell of these Africans, thai, in their sea was that part of the Mediterranean