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Is hunger so craving, when you might, more honestly, there Both tremble, and gnaw the filth of dogs’-meat ?

11 Fix in the first place, that you, bidden to sit down at table, Receive a solid reward of old services : Food is the fruit of great friendship: this the great man reckons, And tho' rare, yet he reckons it. Therefore if, after two 15 Months, he likes to invite a neglected client, Lest the third pillow should be idle on an empty bed, “Let us be together,” says he.- It is the sum of your

wishes -what more Do you seek ? Trebius has that, for which he ought to break His sleep, and leave loose his shoe-ties; solicitous lest 20 The whole saluting crowd should have finished the circle, The stars dubious, or at that time, in which the Cold wains of slow Bootes turn themselves round.

14. Food is the fruit, &c.] A meal's site with whom Juvenal is supposed to meat (as we say) is all you get by your be conversing. friendly offices, but then they must have -For which he ought, &c.] Such a fabeen very great. Or magnæ amicitiæ vour as this is sufficient to make him may mean, as in sat. iv. l. 74, 5. the think that he ought, in return, to break friendship of a great man, the fruit of his rest, to rise before day, to hurry himwhich is an invitation to supper. self to the great man's levee in such a

- The great man reckons, &c.] Rex inander as to forget to tie his shoes; to lit. a king, is often used to denote any run slip-shod, as it were, for fear he great and high personage. See sat. i. should seem tardy in paying his re136. He sets it down to your account; spects, by not getting there before the however seldom you may be invited, yet circle is completely formed, who meet to he reckons it as a set off against your pay their compliments to the great man. services. Hunc relates to the preced- See sat, iji. 127-30. where we find one ing cibus.

of these early levees, and the hurry 17. Lest the third pillow, 8c.) q. d. which people were in to get to Only invites you to fill up a place at his them. table, which would be otherwise va Ligula means not only a shoe-latchet, cant.

or shoe-tie, but any ligature which is neIn the Roman dining room was a ta cessary to tie any part of the dress; so ble in fashion of an half-moon, against a lace, or point-ligula cruralis, a garthe round part whereof they sat three ter. ArxsW. beds, every one containing three per 22. The stars dubious.] So early, that sons, each of which had a (culcitra) pil. it is uncertain whether the little light low to lean upon : they were said, dis- there is be from the stars, or from the cumbere, to lie at meat upon a bed. first breaking of the morning. " What We say, sit at table, because we use “is the night?"-" Almost at odds with chairs, on which we sit.

“morning, which is which.” Snak. See Virg. Æn.i. l. 712. Toris jussi Macb. act. iii. sc. iv. discumbere pictis.

22, 3. The cold wuins.] Sarraca, plur. 18. “ Let us be together,says he.) Sup- the wain consisting of many stars. Friposed to be the words of some great gida, cold-because of their proximity man, inviting in a familiar way, the to the north pole, which, from thence, is more to enhance the obligation.

called Arcticus polus. See Ainsw. -The sum of your wishes.] The sum 23. Bootes.] A constellation near the total of all your desires what can you Ursa Major,or Great Bear~Gr. Bowtnsthink of farther?

Lat. bubulcus, an herdsıar he that 19. Trebius.] The name of the para- ploughs with oxen, or tends them.



Qualis cæna tamen ? vinum quod succida nolit
Lana pati : de conviva Corybanta videbis.
Jurgia proludunt: sed mox et pocula torques
Saucius, et rubrà deterges vulnera mappå :
Inter vos quoties, libertorumque cohortem
Pugna Saguntinâ fervet commissa lagenâ ?
Ipse capillato diffusum consule potat,
Calcatamque tenet bellis socialibus uvam,
Cardiaco nunquam cyathum missurus amico.
Cras bibet Albanis aliquid de montibus, aut de
Setinis, cujus patriam, titulumque senectus
Delevit multâ veteris fuligine testæ:
Quale coronati Thrasea, Helvidiusque bibebant,
Brutorum et Cassî natalibus. Ipse capaces


Called Bootes, from its attending, and This constellation appearing, always seeming to drive on, the Ursa Major, above the horizon, is said by the poets which is in form of a wain drawn by never to descend into the sea. oxen. Cic. Nat. Deor. lib. ii. 42.

Juvenal means, that Trebius would be Arctophylax, vulgo qui dicitur esse Boötes, forced out of his bed at break of day, Quod quasi temone adjunctum pre se qua- stellis dubiis ; see note on 1. 22. Or, tit Arctum.

perhaps, at that time, when Bootes,

with his wain, would be to light him, Arctophylar, who commonly in Greek i. e. while it was yet night : Is termed Boötes, because he drives before " When Charles's wain is seen to roll him

Slowly about the north pole." * The greater Bear, yoked (as it were) to

DUNSTER. a wain.

24. What sort, &c.] After all the pains Arctophylax, from agxtos, a bear, and which you may have taken to attend Quaeg, a keeper.

this great man's levee, in order to ingra.. We call the Ursa Major, Charles's tiate yourself with him, and after the wain, (see Ainsw. Arctos,) seven stars great honour which you think is done being so disposed, that the first two re you by his invitation to supper, pray present the oxen, the other five repre. how are you treated ? what kind of ensent a wain, or waggon, which they tertainment does he give you? draw. Bootes seems to follow as the -Wine, &c.] Wine that is so poor, driver.

that it is not fit to soak wool, in order 23. Slow Boötes:]

to prepare it for receiving the dye, or Sive est Arctophylax, sive est piger ille good enough to scour the grease out of Buötes.

new-shorn wool. See Ainsw. Succidus. -Nunquid te pigra Boöte 25. A Corybant.] The Corybantes were Plaustra vehunt.

MARTIAL. priests of Cybele, and who danced about The epithet piger, so often applied to in a wild and frantic manner, Bootes, may relate to the slowness of So this wine was so beady, and had. his motion ronnd the north pole, his cir- such an effect on the guests who drank cuit being very small; or in reference it, as to make them frantic, and turn to the slowness with which the neat-herd them, as it were, into priests of Cybele, drives his ox-wain. Virg. Ecl. x. l. 19, whose mad and strange gestures they Tardi venêre bubulci. See Ovid. Met. imitated. lib. i. fab. i. 1. 176, 7.

26. They begin brawls.] Or brawls be- Turn themselves round.] Not that gin. Proludo (from pro and ludo) is to they ever stand still, but they, and there- Aourish, as fencers do, before they before their motion, can only be perceived gin to play in good earnest; to begin, in the night-time.

Brawls, or strifes of

to commence.

Yet, what sort of a supper ? wine which moist wool
Wou'd not endure: from a guest you will see a Corybant. 25
They begin brawls; but presently you throw cups,
Wounded, and wipe wounds with a red napkin.
How often, between you and a troop of freedmen,
Does the battle glow, which is fought with a Saguntine pot ?
He drinks what was racked off when the consul wore long hair,


trodden in the social wars, 31 Never about to send a cup [of it] to a cholicky friend. To-morrow he'll drink something from the Alban mountains, Or from the Setine, whose country, and title, old age Has blotted out, by the thick mouldiness of the old cask. 35 Such Thraseas and Helvidius drank, crowned, On the birth-day of the Bruti and Cassius. Virro himself

possesses the


words, are begun by way of preludes to complaint. Pliny says, lib. xxiii. c. 1. blows.

Cardiacorum morbo unicam spem in 27. With a red napkin.] Stained with vino esse certum est. the blood of the combatants. See HoR.

But so selfish is this great man suplib. i, od. xxvii.

posed to be, that he would not spare so 28. Troop of freedmen.] The liberti much as a single cup of it to save one's were those, who, of slaves, or bondmen, life. were made free : the great people had 33, From the Alban mountains.] The numbers of these about them, and they Alban hills bore a pleasant grape; and were very insolent and quarrelsome on the vines have not yet degenerated, for these occasions,

the vino Albano is still in great esteem. 29. Saguntine pot.] Saguntum was a 34. The Setine.] Setia, the city which city of Špain, famous for its earthen gave name to these hills, lies not far

from Terracina, in Campania. This city was famous for holding out 35. Thick mouldiness.] Multa-lit. against Hannibal; rather than submit, much. See Ainsw. Multus, No. 2. they burnt themselves, their wives, and Casks which are long kept in cellars children. Pugnam committere is a mi- contract a mouldiness, which so overlitary term for engaging in fight. spreads the outside, as to conceal every

30. He.] Ipse--the patron himself. mark and character which may have

-- What was racked.] Diffusum, poured, been impressed on them; as where the racked, or filled out, from the wine-vat wine grew, and the name (titulum) by into the cask.

which it is distinguished. -When the consul, &c.] Capillato con 36. Thraseas Helvidius.] Thraseas was sule-In old time, when the consuls son-in-law to Helvidius. They were wore long hair. Ainsw. See sat. iv. both patriots, and opposers of Nero's 103.

tyranny. Thraseas was bled to death by 31. Social wars.] The civil war, or the the command of Nero-Helvidius was war of the allies, sometimes called the banished. Marsian war, (of which, see Ant. Univ. -Crowned.] The Romans in their Hist. vol. xiii

. p. 34.) which broke out carousals, on festivals-days, wore crowns ninety years before Christ. So that this or garlands of flowers upon their heads, wine must have been very old when this See Hon. lib. ii. od. vii. 1. 7, 8. and satire was written,

23-5. 32. Cholicky.] Cardiaco-(a napdix, 37. Of the Bruti, &c.] In commemocor)-sick at heart-also one that is ration of Junius, and of Decius Brutus : griped, or had a violent pain in the sto- the former of which expelled Tarquin mach. Good old wine is recommended the Proud; the latter delivered his by Celsus as highly useful in such a country from the power of Julius Cæsar,



Heliadum crustas, et inæquales beryllo
Virro tenet phialas : tibi non committitur aurum ;
Vel si quando datur, custos affixus ibidem,
Qui numeret gemmas, unguesque observet acutos :
Da veniam, præclara illic laudatur iaspis ;
Nam Virro (ut multi) gemmas ad pocula transfert
A digitis ; quas in vaginæ fronte solebat
Ponere zeloty po juvenis prælatus Hiarbæ.
Tu Beneventani sutoris nomen habentem
Siccabis calicem nasorum quatuor, ac jam
Quassatum, et rupto poscentem sulphura vitro.

Si stomachus domini fervet vinove cibove,
Frigidior Geticis petitur decocta pruinis.
Non eadem vobis poni modo vina querebar?
Vos aliam potatis aquam. Tibi pocula cursor
Gætulus dabit, aut nigri manus ossea Mauri,


by assassinating him in the senate outward surface, owing to the protubehouse. Cassius was also one of the rances of the pieces of beryl withi which conspirators and assassins of Cæsar. it was inlaid. These men acted from a love of liberty, 39. Gold is not committed.] You are and therefore were remembered, espe- looked upon in too despicable a light, to cially in after times of tyraony and op- be entrusted with any thing made of pression, with the highest honour. The gold. But if this should happen, you best of wine was brought forth on the will be narrowly watched, as if you occasion.

were suspected to be capable of steal-Virro.] The master of the feast, ing it. perhaps a fictitious name.

41. Who may count, &c.] To see that 38. Pieces of the Heliades.] Drinking none are missing. cups made of large pieces of amber. -Sharp nails.] Lest you should make 'The Heliades (from ndios, the sun) were use of them to pick out the precious the daughters of Phæbus and Clymene, stones with which the gold cup may be who, bevailing their Phaëton, were inlaid. turned into poplar-trees: of whose tears 42. A bright jasper, &c.] Præclara, came amber, which distilled continually very' bright or clear, is commended by from their branches. See Ov. Met. lib. all that see it for its transparency and i. fab. ii, and iï.

beauty, as well as for its size ; therefore Inde fluunt lachryma: stillataque sole you must not take it ill that Virro is so rigescunt

watchful over it. De ramis electra novis : quæ lucidus The jasper is a precious stone of a amnis

green colour; when large it was very Excipit ; et nuribus mittit gestanda La- valuable. tinis.

FAB. iii. 43. Virro (as many, &c.] The poet -Holds.] Tenet, holds them in his here censures the vanity and folly of hands when he drinks.

the nobles, who took the gems out of -Cups.] Phiala means a gold cup, or their rings to ornament their drinkingbeaker, to drink out of. Sometimes cups; this, by the ut multi, seems to drinking cups, or vessels, made of glass. have been growing into a fashion. See Ainsw.

44. Such as, in the front, &c.] Al-Beryl.] A sort of precious stone, luding to Virg. Æn. iv. 1. 261, 2. cut into pieces, which were inlaid in - Atque illi stellatus Iaspide fulvå drinking cups, here said to be inæquales, Ensis erat. from the inequality or roughness of the Virro had set in his cups such pre.

Holds capacious pieces of the Heliades, and cups with beryl
Unequal: to you gold is not committed :
Or if at any time it be given, a guard is fixed there, 40
Who may count the

gems, and observe your sharp nails :
Excuse it, for there a bright jasper is commended;
For Virro (as many do) transfers his gems to his cups
From his fingers ; such as, in the front of his scabbard,
The youth preferr’d to jealous Hiarbas used to put. 45
You shall drain a pot with four handles, having
The name of the Beneventane cobler, and now
Shattered, and requiring sulphur for the broken glass.

If the stomach of the master is hot with wine, or meat, Boiled (water] is sought, colder than Getic hoar-frosts.

50 Was I just now complaining that not the same wines were set

You drink other water. To


cups a Getulian Lackey will give, or the bony hand of a black Moor,

you ?

cious stones, as Æneas, whom Dido pre- broken glass for brimstone matches.
ferred as a suitor to Hiarbas, king of Qui pallentia sulfurata fractis
Getulia, had his sword decked with; Permutant vitreis.
among the rest, that sort of jasper,

Mart, lib. i. epigr. 42. which, though not yellow throughout, And lib. x. epigr. 3. was sprinkled with drops of gold, which Quæ sulfurato nolit empta rumento, sparkled like stars, sometimes like the Vatiniorum proseneta fractorum, &c. appearance of the spots in the lapis 49. If the stomach of the master.] i. c. lazuli,

Of the master of the feast, the patron. By the frons vaginæ, we may under- If he finds any unusual heat in his stostand the hilt of the sword, and upper mach from what he eats or drinks. part of the scabbard; for Virgil says Comp. sat. ii. 1. 233, 4. ensis, and Juvenal, vagina.

50. Boiled water, &c.] Decocta. It 47. The Beneventane cobler, &c.] We was an invention of Nero's to have wa. 'read in Plaut. of nasiterna, a vessel ter boiled, and then set in a glass vessel with three handles ; here one is men to cool, in heaps of snow, which the tioned of four handles, nasorum qua- Romans had the art of preserving in catuor. Perhaps it had four ears, or verns and places, like our ice-houses, spouts, which stood out like noses. The in order to cool their liquors in the sumcobler of Beneventum was named Vati. mer-time. pius, and was remarkable for a large -Getic, &c.] The Getes were neighnose, as well as for being a drunkard. bours 10 the Scythians; their country Vilia sutoris calicem monumenta Va. was very cold, and their frosts exceedtini

ingly severe. Accipe, sed nasus longior ille fuit. 52. Other water.] While the master

MART. lib. xiv. epigr. 96. of the house regaled himself with this Hence those glass cups which had four iced water, his meaner guests had only noses, handles, or spouts, which resem common water to drink. bled so many large noses, were called 52, 3. A Getulian lackey.] Not one calices Vatiniani , as also because they of those delicate domestics, described were such as he used to drink out of. 1. 56, but a low servant, a fuot-boy, a

48. Shattered.] So cracked as hardly mere runner of errands. Or who, like to be fit for use.

a running footman, ran before his mas-Sulphur for the broken glass.] It was ter's horses and carriages. Getulia ihę custom at Rome to change away was a country of Africa, where the inha.

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