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S A T I R E S
laments the restraints which the satirists then lay under from a fear of punishment, and professes to treat of the dead, personating, under their names, certain living vicious characters. His great aim, in this, and in all his other satires, is to expose and reprove vice itself, however sanctified by
custom, or dignified by the examples of the great. SHALL I always be only a hearer ?-shall I never repay, Who am teiz'd so often with the Theseis of hoarse Codrus ? Shall one (poet) recite his comedies to me with impunity,
Hoarse Codrus.] A very mean mented with purple, and worn by magipoet ; so poor, that he gave rise to the strates and nobles. Hence the comeproverb,
Codro pauperior." He is dies, which treated of the actions of here supposed to have made himself such, were called prætextatæ. In our hoarse, with frequent and loud reading time we should say, genteel comedy,
Thirdly, The Palliata; from pallium, 3. Comedies.] Togatas-so called from a sort of upper garment worn by the the low and common people, who were Greeks, and in which the actors were hathe subjects of them. These wore gowns, bited, when the manners and actions of by which they were distinguished from the Greeks were represented. This was persons of rank.
also a species of the higher sort of coThere were three different sorts of co- medy. medy, each denominated from the dress It is most probable that Terence's of the persons which they represented. plays, which he took from Menander,
First, The Togata ; which exhibited were reckoned among the palliatæ, and the actions of the lower sort; and was a represented in the pallium, or Grecian species of what we call low comedy. dress: more especially too, as the scene
Secondly, The Prætextata ; so called of every play lies at Athens. from the prætexta, a white robe orna
Hic elegos ? impune diem consumpserit ingens
Nota magis nulli domus est sua, quam mihi lucus
Et nos ergo manum ferulæ subduximus : et nos
4. Elegies.] These were little poems leave a margin, but this was all filled on mournful subjects, and consisted of from top to bottom-it was unusual to bexameter and pentameter verses alter- write on the outside, or back, of the nately. We must despair of knowing parchment; but this author had filled the first elegiac poet, since Horace says, the whole outside, as well as the inside. Ait. Poet. I. 77, 8.
5. Of the whole book.] Or, of the Quis tumen exiguos elegos emiserit auctor, whole of the book. Liber primarily Grammatici certant, et adhuc sub judice signifies the inward bark or rind of a tree; lis est.
hence a book or work written, at first
made of barks of trees, afterwards of paBy whom invented critics yet contend, And of their vain disputing find no end. per and parchment. Summus is derived
from supremus; hence summum-i, the Elegies were at first mournful, yet af- top, the whole, the sum. terwards they were composed on cheer
8. The grove of Mars.] The history of
Romulus and Remus, whom Ilia, otherful subjects. Hor. ib. 1. 75, 76. Versibus impuriter junctis querimonia in a grove sacred to Mars at Alba : hence
wise called Rhea Sylvia, brought forth primum, Post etiam inclusa est voti sententia com
Romulus was called Sylvius; also, the
son of Mars. This, and the other subpos.
jects mentioned, were so dinned perpeUnequal measures first were tun'd to flou, tually into his ears, that the places deSadly eapressive of the lover's woe: scribed were as familiar to him as his But now to gayer subjects form'd they own house.
- The den of Vulcan.] The history In sounds of pleasure, and the joys of of the Cyclops and Vulcan, the scene of love.
FRANCIS. which was laid in Vulcan's den. See -Bulky Telephus.) Some prolix and Virg. Æn. vjii. 1. 416_22. tedious play, written on the subject of 9. The Æolian rocks.] On the north of Telephus, king of Mysia, who was mor- Sicily are seven rocky islands, which tally wounded by the spear of Achilles, were called Æolian, or Vulcanian ; one but afterwards healed by the rust of the of which was called Hiera, or sacred, as same spear. Ovid, Trist. v. 2, 15. dedicated to Vulcan. From the frequent
Waste a day.] In hearing it read breaking forth of fire and sulphur out of over, which took up a whole day. the earth of these islands, particularly in
5. Or Orestes.] Another play on the Hiera, Vulcan was supposed to keep his story of Orestes, the son of Agamemnon shop and forge there. and Clytemnestra. He slew his own Here also Æolus was supposed to mother, and Ægisthus, her adulterer, confine and preside over the winds. who had murdered his father. This too, Hence these islands are called Æolian. by the description of it in this line and See Virg. Æn. i. 1. 55-67. the next, must have been a very long and What the winds can do.] This protedious performance. It was usual to bably alludes to some tedious poetical
Another his elegies ? shall bulky Telephus waste a day With impunity ? or Orestes--the margin of the whole book already full,
5 And written on the back too, nor as yet finished ?
No man's house is better known to him, than to me The grove of Mars, and the den of Vulcan near The Æolian rocks: what the winds can do: what ghosts Æacus may be tormenting: from whence another could convey the gold
10 Of the stolen fleece: how great wild-ash . trees Monychus
could throw : The plane-trees of Fronto, and the convuls'd marbles complain Always, and the columns broken with the continual reader: You may expect the same things from the highest and from
the least poet.
And I therefore have withdrawn my hand from the ferule; and I
treatises, on the nature and operations
-The convuls’d marbles.] This may of the winds. Or, perhaps, to some refer to the marble statues which were play, or poem, on the amours of Boreas in Fronto's hall, and were almost shaken and Orithyia, the daughter of Erectheus, off their pedestals by the din and noise king of Athens.
that were made; or to the marble with 10. Æucus may be tormenting.) Æacus which the walls were built, or inlaid; or was one of the fabled judges of hell, to the marble pavement; all which apwho with his two assessors, Minos and peared as if likely to be shaken out of Rhadamauthus, were supposed to torture their places by ihe incessant noise of the ghosts into a confession of their these bawling reciters of their works. crimes. See VIRG. Æn.vi. l. 566-69. 13. The columns broken.] The marble
-From whence another, &c.] Al pillars too were in the same situation of luding to the story of Jason, who stole danger, from the incessant noise of these the golden fleece from Colchis.
people. 11. Monychus.] This alludes to some The poet means to express the weari. play, or poem, which had been written someness of the continual repetition of on the battle of the Centaurs and Lapi- the same things over and over again, and thæ.
to censure the manner, as well as the The word Monychus is derived matter, of these irksome repetitions ; from the Greek movos, solus, and ovuš, which were attended with such loud and ungula, and is expressive of an horse's vehement vociferation, that even the hoof, which is whole and entire, not cleft trees about Fronto's house, as well as the or divided.
marble within it, had reason to appre. The Centaurs were fabled to be half hend demolition. This hyperbole is men and half horses ; so that by Mony- humourous, and well applied to the subchus we are to understand one of the ject. Centaurs, of such prodigious strength, 14. You may ea pect the same thing, &c.] as to make use of large trees for weapons, i.e. The same subjects, treated by the which he threw, or darted at his enemies. worst poets, as by the best. Here he
12. The plane-trees of Fronto.] Julius satirizes the impudence and presumption Fronto, a noble and learned man, at of these scribblers, who, without genius whose house the poets recited their or abilities, had ventured to write, and works, before they were read, or per- expose their verses to the public ear; formed in public. His house was planted and this, on subjects which had been round with plane-trees, for the sake of treated by men of a superior cast. their shade.
15. Therefore.] i. e. In order to qua
Consilium dedimus Syllæ, privatus ut altum
lify myself as a writer and declaimer. “ how it is that I can think of taking His meaning seems to be, that as all, “ the same ground as that great satirist whether good or bad, wrote poems, why “ Lucilius; and why I should rather should not he, who had had an edu “ choose this
way of writing, when be so cation in learning, write as well as “ excelled in it, as to be before all they.
“ others not only in point of time, but 15. Have withdruwn my hand, &c.] The “ of ability in that kind of writing ?”. ferule was an instrument of punish 21. Hearken to my reason.] Literally, ment, as at this day, with which school- the verb admitto signifies to admit: but masters corrected their scholars, by it is sometimes used with auribus unstriking them with it over the palm of derstood, and then it denotes attending, the hand : the boy watched the stroke, or hearkening, to something: this I supand, if possible, withdrew his hand from pose to be the sense of it in this place, it.
as it follows the si vacat. Juvenal means to say, that he had 22. Mævia.] The name of some wobeen at school, to learn the arts of poe- man, who had the impudence to fight in try and oratory, and had made declama. the Circus with a Tuscan boar. tions, of one of which the subject was, The Tuscan boars were reckoned the “ Whether Sylla should take the dicta- fiercest. “ torship, or live in ease and quiet as a 23. With e naked breast.] In imitation
private man ?” He maintained the lat. of an Amazon. Under the name of ter proposition.
Mævia, the poet probably means to re18. Paper that will perish.] i. e. That prove all the ladies of Rome who exposed will be destroyed by others, who will themselves in the pursuit of masculine write upon it if I do not; therefore there exercises, which were so shamefully conis no reason why I should forbear to trary to all female delicacy. make use of it.
24. The patricians.] The nobles of 19. In the very field.] A metaphor, Rome. They were the descendants of taken from the chariot-races in the Cam- such as were created senators in the time
of Romulus. Of these there were, ori. 20. The great pupil of Aurunca, &c.] ginally, only one hundred-afterwards, Lucilius, the first and most famous Ro more were added to them. man satirist, born at Aurunca, an ancient 25. Who clipping, &c.] The person city of Latium, in Italy.
here meant is supposed to be Licinius, He means, “ Perhaps you will ask, the freedman and barber of Augustus,
Have given counsel to Sylla, that, a private man, soundly
or perhaps Cinnamus. See sat. x. l. neck, was often slipping away, and slid225, 6.
ing downwards from the shoulders. -Sounded.] Alluding to the sound -Tyrian cloaks.] i. e. Dyed with of clipping the beard with scissars. Q. Tyrian purple, which was very expenD. who with his scissars clipped my sive. By this he marks the extravagance beard, when I was a young man, and and luxury of these upstarts. first came under the barber's hands. 28. Ventilate the summer-gold, &c.] The
26. Part of the commonalty of the Nile.] Romans were arrived at such an height One of the lowest of the Egyptians who of luxury, that they had rings for the had come as slaves to Rome.
winter, and others for the summer, which Canopus.] A city of Egypt, ad- they wore according to the season. Vendicted to all manner of effeminacy and tilo signifies, to wave any thing to and debauchery; famous for a temple of Se- fro in the air. rapis, a god of the Egyptians. This city Crispinus is described as wearing a was built by Menelaus, in memory of summer-ring, and cooling it by, perhaps, his pilot, Canopus, who died there, and taking it off, and by waving it to and was afterwards canonized. See sat. xv. fro in the air with his hand-which mo1. 46.
tion might likewise contribute to the 27. Crispinus.] He, from a slave, had slipping back of the cloak. been made master of the horse to Nero. 31. So insensible.] Ferreus literally
-His shoulder recalling.) Revocan- signifies any thing made of iron, and is te—The Romans used to fasten their therefore used here, figuratively, to decloaks round the neck with a loop, but note hardness or insensibility. in hot weather, perhaps, usually went 32. The new litter.] The lectica was a with them loose. As Juvenal is now sort of sedan, with a bed or couch in it, speaking of the summer season, (as ap- wherein the grandees were carried by pears by the next line,) he describes the their servants : probably something like shoulder as recalling, or endeavouring to the palanquins in the East. This was a hoist up and replace the cloak, which, piece of luxury which the rich indulged from not being fastened by a loop to the in.