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six years before the State was admitted and here one can observe every stage in into the Union, and it is still owned by the process except the quarrying itself. the descendants of the original proprietors. The marble is brought to the mills in massThis discovery was the great sensation of ive cubes, is sawed, turned, chiselled, polthe day. People came hundreds of miles ished, mounted, and emerges as tombto get the crude slabs for fire-place stones stones, capitals, cornices, columns, manteland other domestic uses, and a brisk traffic pieces, and table-tops. Much of this work, in the new commodity soon sprang up. In especially the hand-work, can, of course, 1808 a second quarry was opened, and sub- be studied in every place where people die sequently many others, following in rapid and have monuments set up by the local succession. All but two of these are still stone-cutter over their graves, but the in operation. The channelling process, heavier preliminary labor is best to be now familiar to mining engineers, was seen near the quarries themselves. introduced in 1841; the first derrick for The marble is delivered at the mills in hoisting the blocks in 1848; the first tun- elongated cubes--parallelopipeds, I supnelling in 1859. In 1818 the first attempt pose Euclid would say-from ten to fifteen at sawing marble was made, but it was feet long and three to five feet square, and many years before the experiment proved placed on the frames for sawing. An exsuccessful. For a long time after these pert will then decide as to the manner of works were opened they had little compe- reduction, that is, the thickness and numtition, and the demand for their products ber of the slabs, according to the quality, far exceeded the supply; but the trade the shape and size of the block, or the spewas subsequently injured by the introduc- cial nature of the orders to be filled. In tion of Italian marbles, and the discovery outward appearance a “gang," as a set of of other Vermont quarries, especially those saws is called, resembles the old-fashioned near Rutland.

upright saw-mill, except that the vertical Of this town, Rutland, some patriarch frame contains not one but many saws, who should die now might say that he arranged at different intervals, correspond found it brick or frame and left it marble. ing to the desired thickness of the cuts. The chaste, cold, glossy stone is almost One process, therefore, divides an entire oppressively plenty in this smart and block into slabs. The saw has, it should thriving village, and meets the eye in a be added, no teeth. The cutting is the multitude of forms and uses-buildings, joint effect of the hard edge of the steel pavements, walls, besides interior decora- blade and the wet sand which is fed into tion and finishing. Rutland is in fact the opening, and thus produces an incisive the best advertisement of its own leading friction. The ordinary progress is about industry. To use the language of the two and a half inches an hour, and the exchange, its principal capitalists are al gangs work night and day. The polishready “in marble" before their death, and ing of small pieces is done on a revolving without the aid of the sculptor. Con- iron disk some twelve feet in diameter. cerns like the Vermont Marble Company, The marble is thrown upon this, and Sheldon and Slason, Flint Brothers, Rip- caught by fixed wooden strips like the ley and Sons, Gilson and Woodfin, and radii of a circle, while the motion of the others, with their fifteen or twenty quar- wheel, which is supplied with sand and ries, give an idea of the extent to which water, furnishes the attrition. It takes the marble interest engrosses the capacity two or three hours to polish a surface and the resources of this neighborhood. down one inch. Heavy pieces are smooth

The more important quarries and works ed by hand, with the aid of pumice-stone. are situated north and west of the town Marble is turned into circular shapes in a itself, at Centre Rutland, West Rutland, lathe, exactly like iron, and is bored with Sutherland Falls, and lesser points in the an ordinary dry drill. vicinity. The Vermont Marble Company The West Rutland quarries are not, like is, in fact, domiciled at all three of these those of Dorset, in the side of a great places. It has finishing-works at Centre mountain, but seem to form the bed of a Rutland, quarries at West Rutland, and low hill or ridge rising very little above a both quarries and mills at Sutherland level. The excavations follow, therefore, Falls. At the first-named point no marble nearly vertical lines directly into the earth; is excavated, but there is a splendid water- and the cuts themselves, which are shaped power, which naturally is not neglected, to the seams of the stone, have at the sur



face an eastward inclination of about forty degrees, then of sixty, and again of twenty, until in some places they are almost perpendicular. The cuts are marked off from fifty to seventy feet long, twelve to sixteen feet wide, and about four feet deep, and are afterward subdivided into desired or convenient sizes. Some of this

E work, under ledges and in close quarters, is still necessarily done by hand; but the substitution of machinery for manual labor is nowhere more strikingly illustrated than in a Vermont marble quarry. Three of the machines thus used may be described. For the diamond borer or drill cies of locomotive on a track, along which the power is steam, and the work is done by it moves backward and forward, and two drills terminating in diamond points makes complete cuts by means of systems about one foot apart. By going frequent- of chisels acting on the trip-hammer prinly over the course a close line of holes is ciple. There are two of these, four or formed, not unlike the perforated division five feet apart, and both sides of a block between postage stamps, and as the instru- are therefore cut at once. The horizontal ment works with great rapidity, it makes cut is made by the Ingersoll drill. It is a cut one foot deep and seventy-five feet a small instrument hanging and movable long in one day. It can be adjusted to any on a fixed cylinder, and adjustable there angle near the perpendicular, and is used to an angle either above or below the for upright drilling. Another machine, horizontal. The power is supplied in the the Wardwell, for vertical work, is a spe- form of steam in rubber pipes. Besides

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these three leading varieties there are oth- | As they are driven in, the men listen er machines, differing in slight details, all sharply for the effect, the crack gradually of use for special kinds of work, but diffi- widens, the great mass of stone begins to cult to describe in the language of a lay- heave and swell under the strain, the quick

ear of the experts detects the critical moThe final rupture between a block and ment, and a simultaneous blow on all the its ancient bed is an interesting process. wedges throws the monster loose. Now Let us suppose the two cuts to be made, and then, of course, a failure is made, and one nearly vertical, and the other, or hor- a block splits in two. But the judgment izontal one, at right angles to it, and both of the workmen is singularly correct, and one or two feet deep. A series of wedges the block is generally thrown out in its is then inserted into the openings, and full integrity. a man with a heavy hammer goes along At West Rutland there are half a dozen tapping them lightly one after another. or more quarries belonging to as many different firms; and others are strewn | Swedes—but they are temperate and oralong the hill-sides throughout the region, derly; strikes are rare; and here, as in especially between Rutland and Suther- the other marble districts, the proprietors land Falls, and north as far as Brandon. have shown themselves the friends of One of the finest quarries in respect to their employés by building neat little quality, connected with one of the most cottages, founding libraries and readingextensive mills, is that at Sutherland Falls. rooms, and endowing churches. For the The common laborers are nearly all for- Green Mountain State likes to boast of its eigners - French Canadians, Irish, and men as well as of its mountains.



HEAVEN's golden gates were opened wide one day, | It seemed as if some punishment were sent And through them shot one glittering, dazzling ray Through me some unknown sin to expiate.

From the veiled Glory, through the shining bars, I was so young-ere knowing what sin meant
Whilst the glad armies of the ransomed dead

Could I have earned my fate?
Welcomed a spirit by child-angels led
Beneath the dome of stars.

Vaguely, far off, my memory half recalls

Bright happy days before these days of fear; From griefs untold that boy-soul took its flight. Asleep a glorious murmur sometimes falls Sorrow had dimmed his eyes and quenched their Of cheers and plaudits on my childish ear. light;

Then I remember all this passed away ; Round his pale features floats his golden hair; Mysteriously its brightness ceased to be; Whilst virgin souls with songs of welcome stand A lonely, friendless boy I helpless lay, With martyr palms to fill his childish hand,

And all men hated me. And crown him with that crown the Innocents should wear.

My young life in a living tomb they threw ;

My eyes no more beheld the sun's bright beams; Hark! Hear th' angelic hosts their song begin: But now I see you angels, brothers, who New angel! Heaven is open-enter in.

So often came to watch me in my dreams. Come to thy rest; thine earthly griefs are o'er. Men crushed my life in those hard hands of God orders all who chant in praise of Him,

theirs. Prophets, archangels, seraphim,

But they had wrongs. O Lord, do not condemn! To hail thee as a King and Martyr evermore!

Be not as deaf as they were to my prayers !

I want to pray for them.
When did I reign ? the gentle spirit cries.
I am a captive, not a crowned king.

The angels chanted : Heaven's holiest place
Last night in a sad tower I closed my eyes.

Welcomes thee in. We'll crown thee with a star; When did I reign? O Lord, explain this thing. Blue wings of cherubim thy form shall grace, My father's death still fills my heart with fear.

On which to float afar. A cup of gall to me, his son, was given.

Come with us. Thou shalt comfort babes who I am an orphan. Is my mother here?

weep I always see her in my dreams of heaven. In unwatched cradles in the world below,

Or bear fresh light on wings of glorious sweep The angels answered: God the Wise and Good,

To suns that burn too low. Dear boy, hath called thee from an evil world, The angels paused. The child's eyes filled with A world that tramples on the Blessed Rood,

tears. Where regicides with ruthless hands have hurled On heaven an awful silence seemed to fall. Kings from their thrones,

The Father spake, and echoing through the spheres And from their very graves have tossed their

His voice was heard by all. mouldering bones.

My love, dear king, preserved thee from the fate What! is my long, sad, weary waiting o'er ? Of earth-crowned kings whose griefs thou hast The child exclaimed. Has all been suffered, then ?

not known. Is it quite true that from this dream no more Rejoice, and join the angels' happy hymns.

I shall be rudely waked by cruel men? Thou hast not known the slavery of the great; Ah! in my prison every day I prayed,

Thy brow was never bruised beneath a crown, How long, O God, before some help will come ? Though chains were on thy limbs. Oh, can this be a dream? I feel afraid

What though life's burden crushed thy tender Can I have died, and be at last at home ?


Child of bright hopes, heir of a royal name! You know not half my griefs that long sad while;

Better to be Each day life seemed more terrible to bear; Child of that blessed One who suffered scorn, I wept, but had no mother's pitying smile, Heir of that King who wore a crown of thorn, No dear caress to soften my despair.

Hated and mocked-like thee.

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SOME GLIMPSES OF ARTISTIC LONDON. T is a popular fiction that English prog- there must be taken into account the fact

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cially when compared with forward move- repose which more or less disguises the ments in the United States. This view is rapidity with which some of her changes perhaps even more prevalent in England and improvements march onward. Her than in America. In certain things ap- greatest social, artistic, and material repertaining to the saving of labor, in the forms have been accomplished with the encouragement and adoption of new in- least noise and the smallest amount of ventions for lubricating the wheels of friction. It may take her a long time to trade, in the application of the laws of make up her mind as to the adoption of hygiene to hotel management, and in the some new idea, but when she has decided construction of theatres, the Americans, she is neither slow nor uncertain in her indeed, advance by bounds, while the Eng- action. In this way she possibly makes lish move with tardy step and slow. But fewer experiments than her neighbors,

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