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a fair example of residences of a more mod- ous would still prefer it, with the proper ern style. It is the home of the Major repairs, to those of the newer style. McDowell before mentioned as the late But of all the old dwellings which yet purchaser of Ashland, and within it are survive to typify the ideal of an “old Kensome of the best portraits of Henry Clay, tucky home,” such as may have been that together with one of Young Henry,” of the Shelbys of Uncle Tom's Cabin, over which hangs the sword he carried to the most curious is probably that on the the field of Buena Vista. The Gothic Alexander estate of “Woodburn,” in house, of blue limestone, with rustic gates Woodford County. This great estate is of approach and bridges, might easily pass well known as the home, and one of the for one of our villas up the Hudson. The earliest breeding - places, of some of the ground hereabouts is boldly undulating. very best American running stock. Of It is well scattered with groves of fine late it is becoming equally famous for forest trees, and one of these on the place trotting stock, into which, like others of has a great oak which might rival the the breeding establishments, it inclines to famous redwoods of California. We merge its activity in preference to the first. come to a point where the mansion, on its King Alfonso (sire of Foxhall), Glen knoll, is reflected in a pond. The farther Athol, Pat Molloy, Falsetto, Powhatan slope is spotted with grazing South-downs, (brother of Parole), and Asteroid, and their the hither one with a herd of Alderney progeny, of the one breed, are to be seen cattle, upon whose leader tinkles a bell about the place, with Harold (sire of Maud which might have a place in a collection S.), Miss Russell (her dam), Lord Russell of bric-à-brac, while between them pasture (her brother), Belmont, and Annapolis, the beautiful high-bred colts. The lines and their progeny, of the other. Lexingof life under such circumstances as these ton was very early purchased by the Alexcertainly seem cast in pleasant places. anders for $15,000. The price was deemed The flocks and herds are all of the most exorbitant at the time, till one son of Kencostly and gentle sorts, and might become tucky was sold for $40,000, and $50,000 such a dainty pastoral life as that shown was refused for another, Asteroid. in the canvases of Boucher and Watteau. The house is not now occupied by the

On another part of the estate, a centre family, who have taken the Buford house, for unstudied groupings of the colts, which in the neighborhood, instead.

It was wander thither from the vicinity of the built originally by a younger brother of a stables and track near by, is an old house Scotch baronet, whose wandering fancy

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known as Llangollen. It has gone to de- | led him to settle and marry here in the cay now, and is occupied by a familiar | Western wilderness. He refused to leave figure in local horse circles, the trainer, the spot even when his brother. died and “Old Buck”; but it has been in its time he became a baronet in his turn. He the residence of a family of ministers, the drew the revenues, however, and expendLewises, who brought race-horses hither ed them in improving the large tract he from Virginia, and later it was a board- had purchased till it had become, as it now ing-school. Many amateurs of the curi- | is, quite a princely domain. He contem


plated a new mansion, with the rest, but more than a corresponding time. Of some this was never carried out, and so he con- of the greatest that may be mentioned, for tented himself with additions to the old instance, Dexter did not begin a racing

It is low and rambling, part brick, career till the age of six, Lady Thorne till part wood, which is silvery gray with the eight, Goldsmith Maid till nine; and the weather, and has its chimneys outside, and last mentioned made her great time of a a dilapidated modern veranda in front. mile in 2.14 at the age of seventeen. It is like some quaint foreign grange, and Each blue-grass breeder of prominence makes an excellent subject for the water- has his regularly printed catalogue of color artist.

stock, revised yearly, generally with a A son of the original Alexander, a bro- wood-cut of his best stallion on the cover. ther of the present resident owner, was liv- Some, as General Withers, insert the selling in this house during the war, when ing prices, from which “no deviation" is guerrillas came down upon him twice, advertised. In looking over such a cataand carried off the most valuable of his logue, from $400 up to $2000 are found to animals. On the first of these raids the be demanded for the younger animals, great trotting sire Abdallah, heretofore with proportionately more for older ones spoken of, and Bay Chief were taken. The that could be at once made useful. But superintendent endeavored to throw the when a horse has really entered the ranks robbers off the track by substituting in- of the great "flyers," there is hardly any ferior animals, till brought to a sense of limit to his value. One with a record of the error of his ways with a rope around 2.30 may be estimated in a general way his neck. It is remarkable to say, as show- worth $10,000. From 2.30 down to 2.20, ing the completeness with which the issues $1000 may be added for each successive of the civil war are over, that the only one second. When we come into the teens, of the guerrillas wounded in this foray, and near the head of the record, juggling after having first been condemned to be with gold and diamonds is a coarse occuhanged, then, as a commutation, to impris- pation in comparison. Mr. Bonner is said onment for life, and finally set free alto- to have paid $33,000 for Dexter, and $36,000 gether, was this last year employed as a for Rarus, and Mr. Vanderbilt $20,000 for harvest laborer on the Alexander place. Maud S. But this last was before she had

On the next occasion it was the thor- made her great time; now that she has ough-bred Asteroid that was run off. The made it, you are told confidentially that a artist Troye was engaged in painting his person stands ready to draw his check portrait at the time, and his principal rage willingly for $75,000 whenever he can get was at the interruption of his work. This a horse that will lead her, and give him the portrait, in which the trainer, “Old Ansel,” distinction of having the fastest trotter in and the jockey, “Brown Dick," are intro- the world. But how does it pay? Well, duced, though on a reduced scale, with a it pays first in stock-raising; it pays next quaint idea of not detracting from the im- in the opportunity to take purses and portance of the horse, was completed on stakes afforded by the great system of rathe subsequent recovery of Asteroid, and cing circuits; and no doubt even those genhangs in the dining-room of Mr. L. Brod-tlemen who withdraw from racing, and do head, the general manager of the estate; their driving in private life, find it pay in and Asteroid himself, long past his useful- a pleasure and improved health from this ness, now browses out a comfortable exist- kind of recreation, extravagant as it is, ence on the place, till he be overtaken by which they might not be able to procure the usual lot of men and horses.

so well from the expenditure of equal sums A radical difference is found in the ed in any other direction. ucation of the runner and the trotter, cor- The blue-grass proprietors are, on the responding somewhat to the demands put whole, of a sober-minded, even religious upon them. The rule for the thorough- cast. Whoever has expected to find them bred may be called “a short life and a of the Swashbuckler, rioting sort will be merry one." He is brought on on the much mistaken. There are exceptions, it forcing system, expected to do his best on is true, but as a rule there is little drinking, the turf at two and three years of age, and or even going to races, grace is said before shortly after is good for little or nothing. meat, and the family conveyance is reguThe trotter, on the other hand, is develop- larly got out on Sunday mornings for ed much more slowly, and lasts for far driving to church in the next town.

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THEN France, in 1763, surrendered | Minister who ceded Canada, claimed aft

opened men's eyes to a very astonishing destroy the British nation by creating for fact. They discovered that British Amer- it a rival. This assertion was not made ica had at once become a country so large till ten years later, and may very likely as to make England seem ridiculously have been an after-thought, but it was dessmall. Even the cool-headed Dr. Frank- tined to be confirmed by the facts. lin, writing that same year to Mary Steven- We have now to deal with the outbreak son in London, spoke of England as “that of a contest which was, according to the petty island which, compared to Amer- greatest of the English statesmen of the peica, is but a stepping-stone in a brook, riod, “a most accursed, wicked, barbarous, scarce enough of it above-water to keep cruel, unnatural, unjust, and diabolical one's shoes dry." The far-seeing French war.” No American writer ever employstatesmen of the period looked at the mat- ed to describe it a combination of adjecter in the same way. Choiseul, the Prime tives so vigorous as those here brought to

VOL. LXVII.- No. 401.-46


gloomy, and its commerce dead. The other colonies were still hoping to obtain their rights by policy or by legislation, by refusing to import or to consume, and they watched with constant solicitude for some riotous demonstration in Boston. On the other hand, the popular leaders in that town were taking the greatest pains that there should be no outbreak. There was risk of one whenever soldiers were sent on any expedition into the country. One might have taken place at Marshfield in January, one almost happened at Salem in February, yet still it was postponed. No publicity was given to the patriotic military organizations in Boston; as little as possible was said about the arms and stores that were gathered in the country. Not a life had been lost in any popular excitement since the Boston Massacre in 1770. The responsibility of the first shot, they were determined, must rest upon the royal troops. So far was this carried that it was honestly attributed by the

British soldiers to cowardice alone. gether by the elder Pitt, afterward Lord An officer, quoted by Frothingham, wrote Chatham. The rights for which Ameri- home in November, 1774: “As to what cans fought seemed to them to be the you hear of their taking arms to resist the common rights of Englishmen, and many force of England, it is mere bullying, and Englishmen thought the same. On the will go no further than words; whenever other hand, we are now able to do justice it comes to blows, he that can run the fastto the position of those American loyalists est will think himself best off; believe me, who honestly believed that the attempt any two regiments here ought to be deciat independence was a mad one, and mated if they did not beat in the field the who sacrificed all they had rather than whole force of the Massachusetts provrebel against their King. “The annals ince; for though they are numerous, they of the world," wrote the ablest Tory pam- are but a mere mob, without order or disphleteer in America, Massachusettensis, cipline, and very awkward at handling “have not been deformed with a single their arms." instance of so unnatural, so causeless, so But whatever may have been the hope wanton, so wicked a rebellion.” When of carrying their point without fighting, we compare this string of epithets em- the provincial authorities were steadily ployed upon the one side with those of collecting provisions, arms, and ammuniPitt upon the other, we see that the war at tion. Unhappily these last essentials were the outset was not so much a contest of hard to obtain. On April 19, 1775, comnations as of political principles. Some mittees of safety could only count up of the ablest men in England defended the twelve field-pieces in Massachusetts; and American cause; some of the ablest in the there had been collected in that colony colonies took the loyal side.

21,549 fire-arms, 17,441 pounds of powder, Boston in the winter of 1774–5 was a 22, 191 pounds of ball, 144,699 flints, 10,108 town of some 17,000 inhabitants, garrison- bayonets, 11,979 pouches, 15,000 canteens. ed by some 3000 British troops. It was There were also 17,000 pounds of salt fish, the only place in the Massachusetts colony 35,000 pounds of rice, with large quantiwhere the royal Governor exercised any ties of beef and pork, etc. Viewed as an real authority, and where the laws of Par- evidence of the forethought of the cololiament had any force. The result was nists, these statistics are remarkable; but that its life was paralyzed, its people there was something heroic and indeed almost pathetic in the project of going to by some British officers who happened to war with the British government on the be near Concord, Colonel Smith, the comstrength of twelve field-pieces and seven- mander of the expedition, had already teen thousand pounds of salt fish.


halted, ordered Pitcairn forward, and sent Yet when, on the night of the 18th April, back prudently for re-enforcements. It 1775, Paul Revere rode beneath the bright was a night of terror to all the neighbormoonlight through Lexington to Concord, ing Middlesex towns, for no one knew with Dawes and Prescott for comrades, what excesses the angry British troops he was carrying the signal for the inde- might commit on their return march. pendence of a nation. He had seen across The best picture we have of this alarm is the Charles River the two lights from the in the narrative of a Cambridge woman, church steeple in Boston which were to Mrs. Hannah Winthrop, describing “the

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show that a British force was going out | horrors of that midnight cry," as she calls to seize the patriotic supplies at Concord; it. The women of that town were roused he had warned Hancock and Adams at by the beat of drums and ringing of bells; Rev. Jonas Clark's parsonage in Lex- they hastily gathered their children toington, and had rejected Sergeant Mon- gether and fled to the outlying farmroe's caution against unnecessary noise, houses; seventy or eighty of them were with the rejoinder, “You'll have noise at Fresh Pond, in hearing of the guns at enough here before long-the regulars are Menotomy, now Arlington; the next day coming out.” As he galloped on his way their husbands bade them flee to Andover, the regulars were advancing with steady whither the college property had been step behind him, soon warned of their sent, and thither they went, alternately own danger by alarm-bells and signal- walking and riding, over fields where the guns. By the time Revere was captured | bodies of the slain lay unburied.

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