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Chippeways, begged Hennepin to go back with him. He did so, and they remained until autumn, bartering for furs, then returned to Michilimackinac, whence Hennepin went on to Quebec, and thence home to France.

All this time the Spaniards had settleLa Hontan, in 1688, was the next ex- ments upon our Gulf coast, and were pushplorer, and a dozen years later came Le ing fearless expeditions into the Southwest. Sueur, who gave the name St. Croix to Why, with their energy and abundant apthat river, after he had drowned one of pliances, they should not have followed his men in its waters, and who ascended northward the mighty current that ever the Minnesota. Between him and the rolled past them into the South is one of next man is an interval of sixty-six years. I the mysteries of the history of exploration. To the French, however, traversing labori- | Mdote Mini Sotah, whence, by small corously rough lakes, tortuous rivers, weary ruption, Mendota. This post, which about portages, and savage forests, belongs the the year 1800 became the head-quarters of credit of all first knowledge of the North- the American Fur Company in that region, west; and it is yet within the memory of traded with the Sioux, who then and preliving men when the half-breed voyageurs viously occupied all this region about the formed almost the sole inhabitants and sources of the Mississippi, and westward means of communication throughout that along the lower Missouri and Platte rivers. wide and barbarous region. It was not They were divided into several sections, until 1766, indeed, that an Englishman and their traditionary enemies were the was ever seen there; and he was Captain Chippeways, who finally, about 1830,

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Jonathan Carver, whom you can not reconquered them and slowly drove them main long in St. Paul or Minneapolis back from Mille Lac and the upper river without hearing of. Like all the rest of toward the open plains that stretch from them he wrote a book, and thus, a century the Missouri to the Big Horn Mountains. or so after Hennepin had named them, the Gradually, however, white men came Falls of St. Anthony of Padua began to be into the region. St. Peter's found itself a known abroad, and the beautiful country village instead of a single stockade. The that surrounded them to be frequently government woke up and sent a detachvisited, and even occupied by frontiers- ment of the army to establish a cantonmen.

ment on the plateau near by. This proThe very first civilized settlement, prob- tected the traders and kept the peace beably, was at or near Mendota, a village tween those good haters,” the Sioux and opposite St. Paul, now relinquished to the Chippeways, both of whom came to the lodges of the Chippeway Indians, who fort to trade. make a living by peddling baskets, mocca- On the northern bank of the Minnesota, sins, red stone pipes, etc., about the streets between it and the main river, which bends of Minnesota towns. On the low ground here in a noble sweep, stands a pointed there, bordering the Minnesota River, bluff with an almost vertical face more and a little way from its entrance into the than one hundred feet high. On the Mississippi, stood the French trading post crown and utmost edge of this bluff the of St. Pierre, or St. Peter's. The French military commander built a round stone called the lesser river the St. Peter's too, fort with a high stone wall pierced for but the Sioux's name for it was Mini Sotah, cannon, extending right and left from it meaning “turbid water,” while to St. along the brink of the precipice. Behind, Peter's as a station they gave the name properly fortified, were the store-houses and quarters. This splendidly located | St. Paul is already far beyond the wildest post was named Fort Snelling, and exists hopes its early rival ever conceived. little changed to this day, the most pictur- Half a dozen miles north, on the other esque object, in my mind, on the whole side of Fort Snelling, was an admirable river. What scenes it has witnessed of town site by the Falls of St. Anthony, and savage warfare and of rude gayety! What the United States began the future settlestories can be told by its old habitués, and ment, and suggested its character as a have been told to me, as they shook their manufacturing town by erecting two sawgray locks with laughter over some com- mills there in 1825. Now millions of dolical incident of those wild days, or dwelt lars would not buy the privilege of the with scowling brows upon the terrible water-power which those two little mills pictures of Indian ferocity memory re- had all to themselves. called!

Such is a sketch of the early history of Half a dozen miles lower down the river the Upper Mississippi, and the origin of stood another bluff of the soft white rock the twin cities that emulate each other in

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characteristic of all this region, which Car- metropolitan airs. No portion of our dover is said to have pointed out as a good main has a more entertaining past. It is site for a town; and after Fort Snelling full of tradition and mystery and heroic and its soldiers had insured protection it tale. Every geographical point has its was not long before a settlement sprang up Indian name-a definition in itself--and there. Of course it became a rival of the about each peculiar or prominent object old Indian post, and what more natural lingers some legend of war or romance. than that it should take the name of that The Indian words scattered so plentifully other great apostle, St. Paul ? Thus it over the maps of Dakota and Minnesota began-a youngster when its rival was are chiefly from the Sious language, and half a century old; but in another half- their noticeable sameness is due to the century St. Peter's is utterly forgotten, and barrenness of that tongue, which contains

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a far more meagre vocabulary than did the aqueous region I have described, the those of either of their neighbors, the town above was also well called MinneapChippeways and the Sacs and Foxes. olis-a city of waters. It stands upon the The word mini, which forms the intro- high ground which rises into a ridge where ductory syllables to so many geographical St. Anthony's cataract breaks into dissolvnames, means “ water.” Sometimes it ap- ing foam, and then sweeps down in a deep pears as misi, or mizi. No wonder this and eddying current between lofty banks word occurs so frequently. The map of to its further course below. Opposite are this region is as speckled with lakes and the straggling village and factories of the marshes and streams as any map could be town of St. Anthony, whose great expecand call itself dry land. It is true that tations are, I fear, quenched by its more Itaska Lake is the actual source of the Fa- successful vis-à-vis, and the suburbs and ther of Waters, to which it can be directly farms extend far up and down on either traced; but a thousand yes, ten thousand side. A little beyond it sparkles one of

- ponds, swamps, and springs feed its slen- the most exquisite of Minnesota's waterder stream long before it comes down to falls-Silver Cascade. where it is of any use. This accounts for Spanning the river at the city stands a the strength and constancy of the Missis- magnificent suspension - bridge of iron, sippi. It drains an immense area of small whose graceful length adds greatly to the water - courses, singly insignificant, but picturesque effect, and contributes to the unitedly furnishing an immense volume. commercial convenience in a way hard to This makes the Father of Waters the son appreciate until you have passed a winter of innumerable forgotten parents, and he there, and have seen the ice break up in is bred no baby rivulet, but a young Her- the spring. Ferriage was a very uncercules—a strong stream holding his own tain, not to say perilous, expedient, which from the moment he sets forth.

the high bridge has done away with. The St. Paul was not a bad name for the bridge stands just about opposite the censettlement down the river, but in view of tre of the city, and continues out into the


air one of her principal business streets. making in his new “A” mill, which is said Underneath it are the railway tracks that to be the largest in the world, except one run to the northward, and also serve the at Buda-Pesth. extensive lumber yards above, while below The wheat to feed this mill, as well as is the great railway freight yard, and the all its neighbors, comes chiefly from the mills that form the city's source of wealth. Red River region, where are those town

Minneapolis is now a town of some ship-wide farms that have been so often 50,000 people; she is growing rapidly, and, described of late. The receipts at MinneI think, in a healthy way. Her natural apolis from June, 1879, to June, 1880, were advantages of location are very great, both 8,103,710 bushels. As only 80,000 bushels for business purposes and as a place of re- were shipped away during that time, it sidence, and she has a rich farming region appears that over 8,000,000 bushels were developing with surprising strides to give turned into flour here. a market to her wares in exchange for its When the wheat comes in it is unloadcrops and animal products.

ed from the cars, by the aid of steam-shovMinneapolis is known not only in the els, into a hopper bin, whence it is eleUnited States, but widely out of it, for / vated to the fifth floor and fed into a



its grist-milling industries, which it owes to the magnificent waterpower afforded by the falls. It seems incredible that away off in this far Northwest, where even yet the native Indian comes strolling about the street in half-savage toggery, and the echo of the pioneer's axe is receiving bin, the bottom of which exscarcely lost, structures so towering should tends down to the fourth floor. Out of be devoted to manufacture, and so much this it empties itself into conveyers, conelaborate machinery be at work day and sisting of small buckets travelling upon an night. There are twenty-one mills, near- endless belt, and is taken to storage bins ly all enormous stone buildings, closely on the first and second floors. Here it crowded together, forming a locality which rests until wanted for milling. When recalls the denser portions of Fall River this time comes the wheat travels by conor Lawrence, with their huge cotton facto- veyers to the top (eighth) floor, whence it ries. The heaviest owners are Mr. G. A. is fed down into the grain separators in Pillsbury, with four mills, and Governor the story beneath, which sift out the chaff, C. C. Washburn, the owner of three. To straw, and other foreign matter. This the kindness of the latter gentleman I done, it descends another story upon patowe the opportunity to see the working ented grading screens, which sort out the of the improved processes of modern flour- larger-sized grains from the smaller, the

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