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til the nation, slowly lifting its head out of its sea of troubles, arose strong and complacent and secure.


This farewell address, dated the day before the disbandment of the army, after speaking of the proclamation of Congress to that end, and its testimony to the merits of the federal armies," says: "It only remains for the commanderin-chief to address himself once more, and that for the last time, to the armies of the United States (however widely dispersed), and to bid them an affectionate and long farewell. But before the commander-inchief takes his final leave of those he holds most dear, he wishes to indulge himself a few moments in calling to mind a slight review of the past. He will then take the liberty of exploring with his military friends their future prospects, of advising the general line of conduct which in his opinion ought to be pursued, and he will conclude the address by expressing the obligations he feels himself under for the spirited and able assistance he has experienced from them in the performance of an arduous office.

which have seldom if ever before taken place on the stage of human action, nor can they probably ever happen again. For who has ever before seen a disciplined army formed at once from such raw materials? Who that was not a witness could imagine that the most violent local prejudices would cease so soon, and that men who came from the different parts of the continent, strongly disposed by the habits of education to despise each other, would instantly become but one patriotic band of brothers? Or who that was not on the spot can trace the steps by which such a wonderful revolution has been effected, and such a glorious period put to all our warlike toils?

"It is universally acknowledged that the enlarged prospects of happiness opened by the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty almost exceed the power of description. And shall not the brave men who have contributed so essentially to these inestimable acquisitions, retiring victorious from the field of war to the field of agriculture, participate in all the blessings which have been obtained? In "A complete attainment (at a period such a republic who will exclude them earlier than could have been expected) of from the rights of citizens and the fruits the object for which we contended against of their labor? In such a country, so hapso formidable a power can not but inspire pily circumstanced, the pursuit of comus with astonishment and gratitude. The merce, the cultivation of the soil, will undisadvantageous circumstances on our fold to industry the certain road to compart under which the war was undertaken petence. To those hardy soldiers who can never be forgotten. The singular in- were actuated by the spirit of adventure, terpositions of Providence in our feeble the fisheries will afford ample and profitcondition were such as could scarcely es- able employment, and the extensive and cape the attention of the most unobserv- fertile fields of the West will yield a most ing; while the unparalleled perseverance happy asylum to those who, fond of doof the armies of the United States through mestic enjoyment, are seeking for personalmost every possible suffering and dis- al independence. Nor is it possible to couragement for the space of eight long conceive that any one of the United States years was little short of a standing miracle. will prefer a national bankruptcy and a "It is not the meaning nor is it within dissolution of the Union to a compliance the compass of this address to detail the with the requisitions of Congress and the hardships peculiarly incident to our serv-payment of its just debts, so that the offiice, or to describe the distresses which in cers and soldiers may expect considerable several instances have resulted from the assistance in recommencing their civil ocextremes of hunger and nakedness, com-cupations from the sums due to them from bined with the rigors of an inclement sea- the public, which must and will most inson, nor is it necessary to dwell on the evitably be paid. dark side of our past affairs. Every American officer and soldier must now console himself for any unpleasant circumstances which may have occurred by a recollection of the uncommon scene in which he has been called to act no inglorious part, and the astonishing events of which he has been a witness-events

"In order to effect this most desirable purpose, and to remove the prejudices which may have taken possession of the mind of any of the good people of the United States, it is earnestly recommended to all the troops that with strong attachment to the Union they should carry with them into civil society the most con

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ciliating disposition, and they should prove themselves not less virtuous and useful citizens than they have been persevering and victorious soldiers. What though there should be some envious individuals who are unwilling to pay the debt the public has contracted, or to yield the tribute due to merit, yet let such unworthy treatment produce no invectives nor any instance of intemperate conduct. Let it be remembered that the unbiassed voice of the free citizens of the United States has promised the just reward and given the merited applause. Let it be known and remembered that the reputation of the federal armies is established

beyond the reach of malevolence, and let a consciousness of their achievements and fame still incite the men which composed them to honorable action under the persuasion that the private virtues of economy, prudence, and industry will not be less amiable in civil life than the more splendid qualities of valor, perseverance, and enterprise were in the field. Every one may rest assured that much, very much, of the future happiness of the officers and men will depend on the wise and manly conduct which shall be adopted by them when they are mingled with the great body of the community. And although the General has so frequently given it as

"And being now to conclude this his last public orders, to take his ultimate leave in a short time of the military character, and to bid a final adieu to the armies he has so long had the honor to command, he can only again offer in their behalf his recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to the God of armies. May ample justice be done them here, and may the choicest of Heaven's favors both here and hereafter attend those who, under the Divine auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others! With these wishes and these benedictions, the Commander

his opinion in the most public and explicit manner that unless the principles of the Federal government were properly supported, and the powers of the Union increased, the honor, dignity, and justice of the nation would be lost forever, yet he can not help repeating on this occasion so interesting a sentiment, and leave it as his last injunction to every officer and every soldier who may now view the subject in the same serious point of light to add his best endeavors to those of his worthy fellow-citizens toward effecting these great and valuable purposes on which our very existence as a nation so materially de-in-chief is about to retire from service. pends.

"The Commander-in-chief conceives but little now wanting to enable the soldiers to change the military character into that of the citizen but that steady and decent tenor of behavior which has generally distinguished not only the army under his immediate command, but the different detachments and separate armies through the course of the war. From their good sense and prudence he anticipates the happiest consequences, and while he congratulates them on the glorious occasion which renders their service in the field no longer necessary, he wishes to express the strong obligations he feels himself under for the assistance he has received from every class and in every instance. He presents his thanks in the most serious and affectionate manner to the general officers as well for their counsel on many interesting occasions as for their ardor in promoting the success of the plans he had adopted; to the commanders of regiments and corps and to the other officers for their great zeal and attention in carrying his orders promptly into execution; to the staff for their alacrity and exactness in performing the duties of their several departments; and to the non-commissioned officers and private soldiers for their extraordinary patience and suffering as well as their invincible fortitude in action. To the various branches of the army the General takes this last and solemn opportunity of professing his inviolable at tachment and friendship. He wishes that more than bare professions were in his power, that he were really able to be useful to them all in future life. He flatters himself, however, they will do him the justice to believe that whatever could with propriety be attempted by him has been done.

The curtain of separation will soon be drawn, and the military scene will be closed forever."

The casual reader, or one who does not comprehend fully the circumstances at that time or the purpose for which it was written, will see in this address only good fatherly advice, without any particular significance or force. But there never was an address more carefully studied, or filled with a loftier purpose, nor better adapted to produce great and decisive results.

It was designed to hold that scattered, impoverished army within those safe bounds without which all would be lost, and which Congress could not do. Washington knew the dangerous temper in which that army had been disbanded, its hatred to that government which must be upheld by them, or all that had been won would be worse than useless, and yet a government for which they had neither love nor respect, but instead scorn and contempt. This was a perilous state of things, and there was nothing to hold these neglected and often reckless men but their unbounded love and veneration for Washington. He had proved its great strength when the Newburgh letters convulsed the army, and this was his last effort to employ it for his country. Though he had condemned that government in unsparing language, and told it plainly that its conduct imperiled the "very existence of the nation," yet he now defended it. With all its injustice and weakness, there was nothing else to look to; he therefore

leaves it as his last injunction to every officer and soldier" to support it. He makes every possible appeal to them. He reaches the consciences of these Puritan soldiers by telling them that their wonderful success is a standing miracle, brought about by Providence being on

their side, thus making them look away from themselves to that Being they had been taught to reverence. He tells them that the only way to enjoy the priceless blessings they have won is to prove themselves as wise and prudent citizens as they have been brave and self-sacrificing soldiers; in short, to show themselves as great in peace as they have proved great in war. He tells them of his own unbounded love for them, and promises over again that justice shall be done them in the future, and their claims satisfied. How completely he sinks himself, the great central figure, out of sight! He does not refer to his own sacrifices or achievements. He sees only his country, and thinks only of her welfare, and his whole soul is bent on keeping that army which has followed his fortunes so long true to its interests. Viewed in this light it stands unparalleled as a farewell address from a military chieftain to his soldiers, and shows a sagacity and far-seeing glance that seems more like prophetic vision than


human foresight, and displays in the strongest light the great and lofty traits of his character.

After he has thus put in their hands a chart to guide their future course, and laid down the only principles on which they can safely act, after having done all in his power to serve and save his country, he at last lets his thoughts revert alone to their bravery, their toils and devotion, and as he contemplates his final parting with them forever, his heart gives way to a burst of affection; and he bids them farewell with a benediction and prayer for their welfare that shows how deeply that great heart was moved.

As one rises from the study of this address, viewed in connection with the times and purpose for which it was written, he says, with Fisher Ames: "Of those who were born, and who acted through life as if they were born not for themselves but for their country, how few, alas, are recorded in the long annals of the ages! Two Washingtons come not in one age.


REE from the oppressive dictation of a guide-book, we wandered far into Dalecarlia, wherever the picturesqueness of people or landscape led us, regardless of the conventionalities of travel. The long days of midsummer, with no darkness and little twilight, followed one another like a succession of day-dreams, for no arbitrary nature drove us to bed or summoned us to rise. At midnight we were sometimes working on sunset-color studies or sitting at the window reading. We started for our day's walk an hour after supper, sleeping when we were sleepy, and eating when we were hungry. How long a man accustomed to a lower latitude could endure the dissipation of this irregular life we did not discover, for our experiment was not long enough to fix the limit of our endurance. For a while at least it was an agreeable change, and we looked forward to dark nights with no pleasant anticipation. There came continually to mind the complaint of the thrifty New England housewife, who, although rising at dawn, and continuing her work by evening candle-light, never thinks her day half long enough for the hundred duties that are crowded into it. But the Dale


carlian farmer doubtless finds his working hours as many as human nature can endure, for he is obliged in this short season to make up for the long and dark winter, when candles are lighted in the middle of the afternoon, and the cattle do not leave the barns for months. The farm-boy hitches up the horses to harrow at ten o'clock in the evening; toward midnight the carts laden with hay rumble along the village streets, and there are sounds of life all night long. Even the birds scarcely know when to cease singing, and their twitter may be heard far into the evening. Rise when you like in the morning, and you will always find the farmer already at work. In the heat of high noon he may be asleep in his wooden bunk in the living-room, but most of the day the house is deserted, and the key hangs on the door jamb or is stuck in the shingles of the low porch. The laborers come in for their dinner after hours of dusty work in the fields. A huge copper pot is brought out in the middle of the court-yard and filled with water. The girls take off their kerchiefs and bathe their arms and necks, huddling together in the shade of the porch. Men follow, and repeat the oper

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ation. Then the girls dip their feet in the bath, and dry them on the embroidered towels hanging in the sun, and finally the men and boys likewise finish their dinner toilet in the same water. The meal is a simple one-porridge, milk, unleavened bread, and perhaps some dry or pickled fish. Weak fermented drink is handed round in a clumsy wooden firkin, with side and cover painted or carved two generations ago. At the close of the meal they sit around the room and sing a hymn together before they return to the fields. Everything in the house is of the most primitive order. In the single large room on the ground-floor are chairs made of hollow tree trunks, tables of rough-hewn planks turn up on folding legs against the side of the room, and there are bunks in the wall with curiously carved and painted trimmings. Beside the rude stone fire platform, where the smoke curls up under an overhanging hood, stands the wellworn chopping-block, where during the long evenings of the winter months the farmer sits by the hour splitting kindling

wood and whittling. From the smoky beams overhead hang tools, baskets, and poles draped with great bunches of folded rye bread, about the appearance and texture of coarse brown paper. To lighten up the dull-toned interior the farmer's wife has hung her embroidered towels and brilliant coverlets along the front of the straw-filled bunks, and spread a richly colored piece of soft home-woven wool over the painted chest where the Bibles and hymn-books are carefully stored. On the floor she has sprinkled fresh birch leaves or stretched a piece of home-made rag carpet. Geraniums and roses bloom in the long low window, where the green-toned glass set in lead lets in a mellow light. The rakes which hang by the door are whittled out of tough wood. The beer mug, the old hand-mangles, and the saddle-bows are carved in grotesque forms or covered with intricate ornamentation. Among the few pieces of coarse crockery is found perhaps a quaint silver cup, and sticking in the same rack with the clumsy wooden ladles is a battered but serviceable silver spoon

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