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earnest magistrates capable of calmly or- du centres, and at Bulandshahr (northdaining that all new house balconies west provinces), may be seen new buildshould be of one pattern, prescribed by ings richly wrought, and rivalling old the municipal engineer, and there are work in beauty, which owe their existmany who think that when they have ence entirely to the energy and taste of reared a clock tower in nineteenth-cen- an officer of the civil service, who is also tury British Gothic in the centre of a na- a learned Oriental scholar, and has the tive city they have taken a serious step sympathetic gift of inspiring natives of in the march of civilization. An exam- means and position with his enthusiasm ple of this folly is to be seen at Amritza, for indigenous art. The declared and where, overlooking the pool in the centre vigorously enforced policy of the governof which the Golden Temple of the Sikhs ment to use native manufactures for its seems to swim like a swan, pure and own needs, instead of constantly ordering bright in marble and gold, is a red brick stores from England, will stimulate naclock tower whose offense nothing short tive industry, while art in its higher sense of dynamite could fitly purge. There is may be benefited by the appointment to another in the Chandney Chowk, the pic- the Ministry of Public Works of Mr. T. turesque main street of Delhi. But in C. Hope, whose researches in the archæfairness it must be said that this mistaken ology of Guzerat are well known, and notion of improvement is giving way to who has an enlightened appreciation of a juster appreciation of the fitness of Oriental architecture. The people are so things. And if zealous civil officers have ready to follow the official lead, it is of occasionally done harm, there are many more importance here than elsewhere that cases in which their strenuous and well- government should at least be sympathetdirected efforts have been the means of ic on this subject. preserving interesting industries from ex- In the Punjab, at all events, the traditinction and noble monuments from de- tion of good timber construction, rich cay. At Muttra, one of the ancient Hin- and fanciful in design, still survives. In Southern India there is nothing to match There is no reason why the skill and the picturesque streets of Northern towns, fancy of Indian wood-carvers should not with their projecting galleries, pretty bal- be known abroad by large work suitable cony windows, and elaborately fretted cor- for architectural uses as well as by drawnices. It would be a curious and interest- ing-room ornaments. A country may be ing inquiry to trace the variations of wood- rich in wit and wealth and yet inherit no building from the quaint Mongolian birthright of its own in the great genealogy temples near Simla southward, the styles of artisticstyle, and need not think it shame changing as dialects and language change. to go abroad in search of adornments Broadly, the most striking result of such for its necessarily eclectic architecture. an inquiry would be a conviction of the There is much that the Indian craftsman predominance of the late Saracenic shaft can do which can not, to put it in homely and mihráb, which, like an Aaron's rod, phrase, be done anywhere else under heaseem to be swallowing up more character- ven for love or money. The best that he istic Hindu forms, where the square pil is capable of has scarcely by this generalar, though chamfered into octagons and tion been asked for. And when, humcunningly notched and sculptured, virtu- bly anxious to please, he has, with great ally remains square. In Northern India pains and labor, produced his copy of EuSikhs, Jains, and other Hindus have ac- ropean work, we turn round and abuse him cepted this soft, half Italian-looking form for his misdirected industry. But is the without reserve, and it is to be found in fault entirely his? He is the least specthe purely Hindu towns of Maharashtra, ulative of mortals, and only makes what Poona, and Nassick, as well as in Guzerat, will sell. He is innocent of many of the where, however, the Hindu sculptor made fine sentiments attributed to him, and his a harder fight against Mussulman influ- whole being is by no means centred in

poetry and metaphysics; but he has wonThe Punjab contains many varieties of derful hands, and is born heir to fine decothe interesting work of the constructive rative traditions. In this matter of carven carpenter, as he is called in contradis-wood-work skillful architects could find tinction to the village carpenter proper, many details which might be built into whose immemorial allotment of labor is modern domestic constructions with adto make the agricultural implements and mirable effect. An interesting experisimple furniture of rustic life. But in ment was tried recently by Mr. Lockwood order to realize its charm it is necessary De Forest, of New York, who, during a reto brave many evil odors, and to lose cent protracted visit to this country, orone's self in the labyrinthine streets and ganized a band of the wood-carvers of alleys of native cities, where weather- Ahmedabad. Among the works wrought worn, richly carved timbers nearly meet by these men may be instanced copies of overhead, where the dyer hangs out his the beautiful windows in perforated sandcloths fresh from the dye vat in brilliant- stone of the Bhudder, which may be conly tinted streamers, and the pigeons flut- sidered as types of the best qualities of ter and perch along the dusty mouldings, Indian design. Such demands made by while the green parrots shoot like live artists and those who care for art can be emeralds from the clear blue of the cold- fully met, and would do more than anyweather sky into the dark shadows under thing else to convince the people of the the fretted eaves.

folly of neglecting their own plastic forms.



DEAD sienna and rusty gold

Fair and green is the marsh in June; Tell the year on the marsh is old.

Wide and warm in the sunny noon. Blackened and bent, the sedges shrink The flowering rushes fringe the pool Back from the sea pool's frosty brink. With slender shadows, dim and cool. Low in the west a wind cloud lies,

From the low bushes “Bob White" calls; Tossed and wild in the autumn skies. Into his nest a rose leaf falls, Over the marshes, mournfully,

The blue-flag fades; and through the heat, Drifts the sound of the restless sea.

Far off, the sea's faint pulses beat. VoL, LXVII.-No. 397.-5

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ANADA in the middle of the seven-west. They were Fathers Marquette and

teenth century was surely rough and Joliet. Their company consisted of five frontier-like enough, yet it was only the other Frenchmen and some Indians, their threshold of an unexplored region whose means of transportation were two bark vastness was then inestimable, and whose canoes, and their provisions a small suppromises of adventure and wealth were ply of maize and smoked meat. Passing very alluring. The French for a long time the posts at St. Mary's and at Michiliafter the first colonization on the Lower mackinac, at the exit of Lake Michigan, St. Lawrence had neither energy nor re- they met Father Allouez at the Bay of sources for advancing beyond Montreal, Puans, now Green Bay, and there prethe very existence of which was a contin-pared to go in search of a great river reuous miracle. Finally, however, a few ported by the Indians as existing further traders or hunters penetrated westward, west. It does not concern me to follow and excelled each other in bringing back them in their voyage along the Wisconglowing accounts of a rich region and of sin to and down the Mississippi. Some, hordes of Indians. This fired the adven- discarding the semi-mythical story of De turous zeal of the Jesuit Allouez, who or- Soto, have credited Marquette with being ganized a band of Indian followers, and the very first white man to discover this sailed up to the head of Lake Huron. greatest of our water-courses. All honor Here, at the Sault Ste. Marie, he “threw to Père Marquette, but he left to a less himself boldly among the savages, rely worthy successor, Father Hennepin, the ing on his powers of persuasion to win first exploration of the region where I their confidence, and the purity of his mo- wish to take my readers—the Upper Mistives to secure success.” This was in 1665. sissippi.

In May, 1673, two other ardent French- When Joliet, leaving Marquette at his men followed his footsteps-men whose prayers and preaching among the Miamis, names are now immortal in the North-worked his way back to Quebec, he found there the Sieur de la Salle, a young man igan. Marching inland, a head-quarters of birth and fortune, who was never tired named Fort Crèvecaur was built near of listening to his tales. La Salle con- where Peoria, Illinois, now stands, and a cluded that the Missouri (Pekitanoni, as winter was passed in preparation. Joliet called it) would furnish a waterway One of the several expeditions La Salle to the northern ocean, and hence through planned was directed to survey the sources to China and the East Indies. Fired by of the Mississippi, of which nothing was this brilliant hope to attempt the passage, known north of the Wisconsin. To Fahe engaged the help of the Chevalier de ther Hennepin was intrusted its conduct, Tonti and the Franciscan Récollet, Père I while La Salle himself went south.

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Hennepin, and began by building the first Two centuries ago, then, on February vessel ever launched on Lake Erie. She 29, 1680, Hennepin set off on his trip—the was of sixty tons burden, fully rigged, length or the dangers of which were totalcarried seven cannon, and had the furni- ly unforeseen-accompanied only by two ture and equipment of a miniature man- Frenchmen, Picard du Gay and Michel of-war.

Ako. His account of the river scenery is This expedition, starting in 1679, and meagre, but one can identify the points. overcoming the loss of its fine ship and For instance, here is his description of various other misfortunes, was finally the strange and beautiful St. Croix, whose landed at the southern end of Lake Mich- dalles are the delight of every tourist :

ships. He is not ex cited about them, though, and one paragraph holds the whole description. I quote it :

"The Navigation of the Meschasipi is interrupted, ten Leagues above this River of the Grave, by a Fall of fifty or sixty Foot high, which we called The Fall of St. Anthony of Padua, whom we had taken for the Protector of our Discovery

There is a Rock of a Pyramidal Figure just in the middle of the Fall of the River."

A few miles further on Hennepin's party had the misfortune to be taken prisoners by the Issati, or Sioux, and during many weeks suffered

untold severities, not so much intentional on the part of the Indians as from the necessary rapidity of their marches, the rigor of the weather, and the scarcity of food. Finally the priest and Picard du Gay, seeing no way to find the sources of the river, nor end to their sufferings, determined to take a canoe and float down to the mouth of the Wisconsin, where they

hoped La Salle would have established “There is another River, which falls, | a post or left a cache of provisions. Miforty Leagues above this last, into the chel Ako, the other canoe-man," chose to Meschasipi ; thro' which one may go into stay with the Indians, seeing he began the Superiour Lake, by making a Port to relish the Barbarians' way of living." age from it into the River Nissipikuet, So, parting in friendly spirit from the red which runs into the same Lake. It is full men, who made no opposition, they emof Rocks and rapid Streams. We named barked. it the River of the Grave, or Mausoleum, It was ou this return trip that Hennebecause the Savages bury'd there one of pin met Greysolon du Lhut (later spelled their Men, who was bitten by a Rattle- du Luth, whence the name of the town snake."

at the western end of Lake Superior). This His next observation of any importance man was famous as a coureur de bois(for he seems to have overlooked the en- “the roving chief of a half-savage crew, trance of the great Minnesota River at trading, exploring, fighting, and laboring Fort Snelling, which is hidden by an isl- with persistent hardihood to foil the rival and) is the falls, to which the name he English traders of Hudson's Bay." Nicogave still clings, and which will remain las Parrot was another of them. Du Lhut, the firmest monument of Hennepin's hard- anxious to open trade with the Sioux and



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