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tended application, and its means are so simple that it will be difficult to vulgarize it. Obviously it must be very bad ornament indeed to offend the eye when delicately traced in silver and gold on a ground of pure black.
An older method of decorative metal work-silver inlaid in a black material resembling pewter, but much harder-is known as Bidree ware, from the old Mohammedan town of Beder, where it is believed to have originated. The pattern and not the ground is here graven and channelled, and tiny plates and wires of silver cut to shape with scissors are hammered into the forms, the final polishing resulting in a silver mosaic on fine-toned mat black, which, however, is scarcely black. Formerly the designs were bold as well as delicate, and portions of the dark field were left, while now an equal distribution is aimed at. Both notions are sound enough, but the exclusive practice of the latter gives the work an air of monotony. Hyderabad, in the Deccan, is the modern seat of this manufacture, but it is also practiced at Lucknow.
In Southern India, at Tanjore and Madura, copper vessels, trays, etc., incrusted with silver cut in the forms of fishes, animals, flowers, and ornaments of distinctly Turanian character, are produced. The
SCRAHI (WATER VESSEL), MODERN CASHMERE WARE, silver is worked in thicker pieces than seems necessary to the effect, and when new the contrast between the red copper | ing—the incrustation of gold and silver and the white silver is more pronounced wire on steel. Following the invariable than pleasing.
tendency of Indian crafts, this art is now One of the most important varieties of localized, and is most practiced at Sialkot surface decoration in metal is damascen- and Gujerat, in the Punjab. It is identical
artificers have turned their attention to forging caskets,candlesticks, cups, salvers, shields (fordecorative purposes), and a hundred similar things, the supply of which seems more than equal to the demand. It is vexatious to see an inkstand made out of a jockey-cap, a horseshoe, a hunting-whip, and a saddle copied in good red gold and honest blue steel; but the workman is scarcely to blame if inanities of this sort are demanded from him. Here, as in other branches of Indian work, are
large numbers of GOLDEN TEMPLE," OR DURBAR SAHIB," skillful men, who
really possess good art traditions, ready
and willing to rein principle with, and strongly resembles spond to a demand for the best they can in detail, the damascening of Syria, which do. Some of them, such as Ibrahim of also was like Spanish and Venetian work. Gujerat, Kuth Din of Sialkot, and others, In the days-only just passed by–when are capable of artistic and well-considerthe Punjab was the battle-ground of In- ed design. Generally speaking, modern dia, arms were the most important manu- damascening, or koft-work, is apt to defacture of its large towns. Even now a generate into minute and meaningless ornative prince occasionally turns out his nament, as if the infiltration marks on a cavalry escort in chain or plate armor, moss - agate or sea-weed forms had been and there still survive workmen who have copied. The gold wire, too, is replaced by been employed all their lives on defensive a merely superficial gilding sometimes, gear, the counterpart of which is to be while, for the sake of cheapness, gold and found depicted in the Bayeux tapestry; silver of inferior purity are used. for although the use of armor may have The metal chasing of Cashmere is of been originated in the East, it never at- Persian origin, and copper is the favortained the wonderfully elaborate devel- ite material. Arabesque ornaments that opment which clothed the later Christian sometimes recall the fine patterns on old knight as completely in flexible steel as Persian wine bowls, but more frequently an armadillo is clothed by its scales. The a uniform distribution of minute details round basnet with movable nose-guard resembling the shawl patterns, are enand dependent curtain of chain - mail is graven, and then filled with lac, the raised still made here exactly as it was worn by parts being tinned like Moradabad niello, the Paynim host in the time of the Cru- only in the Cashmere work the surface is sades; and the char aina-four plates- not made so mechanically perfect. Bethe prototypes of the skillfully fitted sides this pleasant roughness, which gives plate - armor of Europe, survive in their a better one to the Cashmere ware, the pristine simplicity. But now, Othello's design is in a quite different style and occupation being gone in great part, the feeling Silver is treated in a similar
way, without a black ground, but some- silver is more timid and tiny than it times with the addition of colored enam- need be. el, usually disagreeably raw and crude in An interesting example of the occasioncolor, and more often with a light gilding al value of religious endowments in preon the raised parts, which produces a sin- serving forms of art is afforded by the regularly delicate and pleasing effect, the poussé-work in copper done at Amritza, rest of the chased work being left in a the sacred city of the Sikhs, for the Sikh peculiar tone of dead and half-burnished temple known as the Golden Temple, or white, like snow and pearls just touched Durbar Sahib. The upper part of this with gold. In nearly all modern Cash- building is covered with copper plates em
mere products the bossed and heavily gilded, while the lowwell-known pine er portions and the surrounding paveform of the shawls ments are an inlay of precious stones in may be considered marble, resembling the Agra pietra dura the decorative unit, inlay, but differing in that, with Hindu re - appearing in freedom of fancy, human figures and creapainted papier- tures are introduced. The revenues of maché, wood-work, this temple not only support the priests, and metal. This but also keep agoing workshops where misruled country beaten-work in metal and marble inlay
is liable to famines, are wrought. WATER VESSEL, COPPER and in former times The application of vitreous enamel to TINNED, OLD CASHMERE large numbers of metal is the choicest of Indian arts, and
workmen emigra- one of the few which can rival Japanese
ted to the plains. work in technical skill. No cloisonné, “ Cashmere" silver-work is now made at however, is done here. In the time of Lucknow, and at Amritza is an important the Moguls enamel was used for arms, but trade in Cashmere shawls.
it is now chiefly confined to articles of The silver-work which takes its name feminine adornment. That of Jeypoor (in from the kingdom of Cutch, and the best Rajputana) is considered the finest, but of which is made at Bhuj, the capital of Delhi almost equals it in quality of color. a native state north of the Bombay Presi- Both are remarkable for a beautiful red, a dency, is nowadays applied to articles of fine white, and great delicacy of finish. At European use, and finds extensive sale. Multan, Jhang, and other places in the The workmen are Hindus, and among Northern Punjab silver ornaments are their ornaments figures of animals and enamelled in two tints of blue, a fine black, occasionally of divinities are seen. Gen- and inferior red and yellow. The best erally the patterns are of equally distrib- of this is champ levé, i.e., the enamel is uted scrolls and foliage in relief on a filled into graven hollows, but in much ground dotted or roughened by the punch. of the ordinary work the metal, instead of In buying this ware the weight of the sil- being engraven, is beaten into a die, and ver is first charged, and then so much per the resulting raised line is consequently rupee is added for workmanship—a rate poor and mechanical. which varies according to the elaboration Bahawalpur, a native state on the Punand quality of the work. This practice is jab border, has a reputation for semi-transuniversal where metal is concerned. A lucent blue and sea-green enamel, applied mechanically better finished kind of sil- to large pieces, some of the gilded surface ver repoussé on the same principle is being left plain or only chased in lines, made at Delhi, but the forms are apt to with admirable effect. But the supply is become meagre and thread-like. The col- limited, and the work is more costly than lector at times comes across large pieces it need be. of embossed silver for which there seems There is a pretty variety of semi-transto be no use in our civilized life, boldly parent green enamel incrusted with gold hammered up and chased, with no sui- figures and ornaments delicately lined, cidal attempt to smooth off the marks of known as Pertabghur enamel, which is hammer and chisel. These, though some- now one of the numerous crafts of Delhi. times merely coarse and clumsy, have Some of the most interesting of this class, often a quite royal effect, and seem to from an artist's point of view, is the comindicate that our Western treatment of paratively rude work done at Kangra, in
the lower Punjab | known abroad, such as the gold-work of Himalaya, at Ha- Delhi set with precious stones, pretty and yara on the fron- occasionally European in taste; the silver tier, and other filigrain of Cuttack, which resembles the places. There is a dainty metal cobwebs of Malta and Gensimplicity of mo- oa; the Swami gold and silver ornaments tive and boldness of Trichinopoly and Madras, rough with of design in these grotesque, many-armed gods, and the chisrusticeffortswhich elled silver of Lucknow, are not quite the you miss in the best and most characteristic forms the
finely finished ar- country can show. Among the hill peoNECKLACE, ENAMEL ON SIL- ticles of Delhi and ple and in outlying districts are still to be VER, SEMI-BARBARIC HILL Jeypoor.
found bracelets, necklets, and other gear, WORK,
KANGRA, Indian jewelry rough, indeed, in workmanship, but bold
is too vast a sub- in design, resembling more the ornaments
ject to be adequate adorning the figures of ancient Hindu ly treated in so brief and general a sketch sculpture than the comparatively flimsy as this. The universal custom of putting things made for the English market. savings by in the form of gold and silver Many of the best of these are too barbaric ornaments necessitates the presence of a in general form for adoption by English silversmith in every village. The wife or American ladies, who would object to of a peasant whose gross annual income their size and massiveness. Their simis but two hundred rupees, all told, and plicity, however, is real and natural, and whose house is furnished only with a very unlike the bald plainness the Westbed and a few cooking pots, wears on ern goldsmith attains when he cunningly her person from fifty to eighty rupees' strives for this precious quality. worth of ornaments, and other classes in But little space is left for a notice of Inproportion. The nostrils are sometimes dian work in wood. This is only known pierced and the ears riddled with perfora- abroad by bibelots, which, though pretty, tions from top to bottom of the distorted give no idea of the real strength of the nalobes; the ankles are by some castes loaded tive artificer—his treatment of wood in dowith heavy, bell-studded fetters, the wear- mestic architecture. To fitly understand ing of which would be considered a griev- this it is necessary to see such towns as Ahous punishment by a Western belle; the medabad in Guzerat, Amritza and Lahore head is laced with chains, studs, and plates; in the Punjab, the old doorways of Delhi, the arm is loaded sometimes from wrist to and many others scattered over the counshoulder; toe rings are common, and oc- try. Even bibelots, however, may be casionally rings on each finger are con- characteristic, and the richly worked sannected by chains with a large ornament dal-wood carving of Canara and Southern or gold-set mirror on the back of the hand. India, with its boldly undercut rows of All kinds of things are used for ornaments; whirling and fantastic figures and scrolls, natural marigolds are set with plates of is a not wholly despicable repetition of the talc, necklaces of cloves are considered crowded and coral-like incrustation of good for the headache, and are certainly sculptures on Southern Hindu temples. pretty; pewter, iron, brass, zinc, copper, The similar work of Surat and Bombay glass, horn, shell, and lac are used for may be known by its flatter projection and bangles, tons of glass and lac being annu- the absence of figures, while the same maally worked up for this purpose alone. terial at Ahmedabad, where some of the There is material for a volume in the best wood-carving in India is wrought, quaint fancies and superstitions associated combines figures with ornament in a mewith precious stones, each of which is mi-dium degree of relief. The black-wood nutely classified in all possible varieties. furniture of Bombay is a naturalized imEach caste and race also wears ornaments portation, and being based on a false idea of distinctive forms, and though railway of wood construction, has degenerated into travelling has diffused geographical vari- an elaborate and tiresome agglomeration ations, it has by no means suppressed of “curlie - wurlies, whigmaleeries, and them. Without attempting more than a open-steek’d hems," to quote Andrew reference to this subject, it may be fairly Fairservice's apt description of thoughtless said that the jewelry by which India is ornament. Chair, couch, or table is lost in a profusion of heavily carved open- / white wood. At Dera Ismail Khan, in the work, the motive of which can scarcely be Punjab, fern-like scrolls of almost incredtraced. The sandal-wood, ivory, and bison- ible minuteness and delicacy are thus prohorn combinations of Vizagapatam are lit- duced on caskets, tables, and a large vatle more than a superior class of stationers' riety of objects, all of which, however, are goods. Nor is the ivory, pewter, and eb- and must be circular. If this fine quality ony mosaic in sandal-wood of the Bombay of surface-covering could be applied withwork-box of a much higher character. out the intervention of the lathe, it would At Bijnaur and Nagind (north west prov- be a great gain. The domestic charpoy, inces) is localized curious craft of mi- wedding stool, and spinning-wheel are still nute geometrical carving of surface diapers the chief native uses of the craft, and in ebony, in very low relief but beautifully among well-to-do people ivory studs and crisp execution. Combs, caskets, trays, other elaborations are added to their simenvelope boxes, and the like, are the usual ple forms. Sometimes pretty models of forms, but the supply is irregular. At cooking vessels are made in this material Mainpuri, in the same provinces, a dainty for wedding gifts, as also toy-like saucesort of damascening in dark hard wood is pans in silver or sometimes in bead-work. done, brass wire being inlaid in salvers, Obviously, if everybody gave real vessels, trays, etc., with that infinite fancy of flow- the bride would be buried in pots and pans. ing line that never fails the native crafts- Charming and characteristic as are the man. At Hushiarpur, in the Punjab, is a small wares in wood thus briefly degrowing industry of shisham-wood inlaid scribed, there is a higher interest and oftwith ivory and brass. The comparative en better art in Indian applications of freedom of design in this work reminds wood to domestic architecture. There are one of Italian tarsia. For cabinet-work, few Northern towns which can not show panels of any size could be supplied in whole house fronts carved with that peany quantity. The present applications culiarly Oriental elaboration which seems are chiefly desks, work-boxes, cabinets, and to take no thought of time or expense. small articles of furniture. The wood is Balconies, windows, brackets, and cora dark red-brown, something like rose- nices, occurring among stone, brick, or wood, but tougher and stronger. Hushi- lime work, are ornamented with sunk arpur is also strong in turned and lacquer- flowers, enriched mouldings, columns, ed wood-ware. Native house furniture is and pilasters, with a surety, crispness, and exceedingly simple, being limited usually felicity which can only be appreciated to a bed and a stool or two. A part of when seen in their native sunshine. Coneach marriage outfit in Northern India is sidered as construction merely, some cara charpoy (low bedstead), and a quaint, pentry of other nations is perhaps soundhigh-backed, low stool, both of turned er; but even in this respect there is nowood ornamented with lac. Very little thing despicable. The reckless waste of painting on wood is now done, and the lac the once fine forests—which the governsurface, obtained by pressing what is virtu- ment is doing its best to remedy-has ally a stick of colored sealing-wax on the greatly enhanced the price of timber, and revolving object, is a harder and more solid tends to choke a still living craft. The covering than any paint. The heat de architecture imported by the English has, veloped by friction melts the lac, and far- however, done more grievous injury than ther friction with a bit of bamboo polishes can be estimated with calmness. Bara coat of color which resists dust, the great racks, churches, and houses, designed for heat of the hot weather, and the damp of the most part by people who have had no the rains. But there are many refine- education in architecture of any kind, but ments in this most simple art. In Sindh who are at best fair engineers, are looked and in the Punjab layer upon layer of upon by natives as authoritative examcolored lac of infinitesimal thinness is laid. ples, and their blank ugliness is copied Then with a stylus these coats are stratch- with exasperating fidelity. ed through in a manner analogous to Ital- Municipal improvements, too, are often ian sgraffito. Supposing red to have been devastations, and the names of active dislaid first, then green, and lastly black, the trict officers are given to new buildings black is scratched through for green leave of uniform hideousness which replace the