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eign imported into the country is made to assume native Indian forms, and disguised so cleverly that one would swear it was a native invention." It would be better to say “completely assimilated” than “cleverly disguised," for while Indian races are soft as wax to receive impressions from foreign sources, they absorb and fuse them into a harmonious unity which, as already remarked, is the most striking characteristic of their work. Sir George Birdwood, indeed, has boldly declared that the arts of India are the illustration of the religious life of the Hindus as that life was already organized in full perfection under the code of Menu, B.C. 900. This generalization is simple, but it omits very much that ought to be taken into consideration. The arts of Hindustan proper and of Northern India are not so much illustrations of Hindu religious life as evidences of Mohammedan domination, and of the docility with which distinctly anti - Hindu ideas were accepted and naturalized. The well-known Taj Mahal at Agra is a late example of Moslem architecture, and

it succeeded buildings intrinsicAFTÁBA (WATER VESSEL), COPPER TINNED, FROM PESHAWUR. ally better in design which may

be taken broadly as the predom

inant type of Northern Indian of art so fundamentally opposed to that art. In many of these but little of the of Europe is too large a question for dis- Hindu may be traced -save the patient lacussion here.

bor of his vassal hand. It will be seen that the historical side of The distinction between Hindu and Mothe subject is a large and difficult one. hammedan remains in art and craftsmanLearned scholars are still contending as to ship, as also, unhappily, in race antipathy the original founts of inspiration, and the --the most striking feature of the subject. task of apportioning to Greek, Bactrian, Certain crafts in the hands of the latter Byzantine, Persian, Arab, Tartar, Mogul, are treated in accordance with Mogul or Ghorian, and the rest, his exact share in Persian tradition, while others, preserved building up the art we know to-day, may by the curious caste system of the Hindus, be left in their hands. The Indian alpha- can claim kinship to older Turanian or bet itself is now said to be foreign; and in Indo-Aryan originals. These distinctions, a paper supporting this view a distin- however, though it is necessary to bear guished scholar makes a remark which them in mind, are not invariable, and are to those who know the country will ap- not always easily traced. The potters who pear a mere truism, but which expresses make glazed ware are Mohammedan, for fairly enough a consideration not suffi- their craft was originally an accessory of ciently taken into account. “We con- that Mogul magnificence which covered stantly find in India that something for the domes and lined the walls of tombs and mosques with a splendid mosaic of scent. In Madras also and the central enamelled tile-work.


provinces, where this beautiful art is wanThe village potter, who forms one of ing, poor Mohammedans feebly keep alive the units of the Hindu commune, each of the traditions of splendid stuffs once whom has fixed duties and claims, and wrought for luxurious Mohammedan who only makes unglazed ware, is a Hin- princes. Stone-masons and carvers in du. The potter's craft is in some respects Guzerat, Central India, Rajputana, and an exception to the rule of decay, and in some districts of the northwest prova distinct revival and extension of the art inces where purely Hindu buildings are of making glazed ware is taking place. still raised, are Hindus. There are a few Carpet-weaving, where it subsists as an Mohammedan stone carvers in Delhi and independent craft, is Mohammedan, and Northern India who preserve Mogul canthe weavers of Wurrungal and other ons, which also greatly modify modern

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places in Southern India-little colonies | Hindu styles, such as the Jain architectamong populations of Hindus, claim Per- ure of Rajputana. The inlay wrought sian descent, which certainly can be al- at Agra, of agate, jasper, carnelian, bloodlowed to their patterns. Armorers, dam- stone, etc., in white Jeypoor marble, is asceners, sword-cutlers, and gun-makers now in the hands of Hindus chiefly, alare Mohammedan, but the village black- though an art of Mussulman origin. The smith who makes the hoe and the reap- miniature painters of Delhi are all Moing - hook is generally a Hindu. The hammedan, as lax in their respect for the gold-embroiderers, gilt-wire and gold-lace precepts of Islam as their Persian progenmakers of the prosperous northern cities itors. of Amritza and Delhi are usually Mo- Many ordinary handicrafts are prachammedan, as also are shawl-weavers and ticed by both creeds, such as carpentry, kindred embroidery crafts of Persian de ordinary weaving (in silk weaving Mussulmans preponderate), the coppersmith's and brazier's trades, wherein Hindus are in the majority. The comparatively recently introduced tinsmith's trade seems to be reserved to Mohammedans — perhaps because of the necessity of handling vessels unclean from cooking, which is repugnant to the Hindu. Seal-engraving, an important craft in India, is a peculiarly Mohammedan art. Even in ordinary trades, practiced by both, distinctions may be traced. Thus a copper or brazen water vessel in the hands of a Moslem arti


ficer becomes Persian in name and character - Aftába, graceful and elegant; while the Hindu brazier makes it useful and quaint, and piously calls it Gunga Ságar, after the sacred river. Brass is invariably used by Hindus, while Mohammedans affect tinned copper.

Taking metal first, it should not be difficult to show that there is still good design in the land. Unfortunately, objects handy for exportation and suited to Western uses are the first to show the deterioration complained of. A native metal chaser when at work on articles for home use proceeds in a perfectly simple and rational way, fitting the scrolls, leaves, or grotesque creatures of his decorative répertoire with consummate propriety and tranquil certainty of hand to hooka.

bowls, water vessels, rosewater sprinklers, and the like-objects of definite and accustomed uses, and of forms that only vary in subtlety of line, and are never tortured by willful efforts to attain mere novelty. For these, however, Western folk have but little use. They demand from him tea-pots, cream-jugs, race-cups, and "vases"--a terrible word, meaning a


Italian alabaster horror

three feet high to the opal and ruby Bohemian-glass chimney ornament. So he is shown English silversmiths' and electroplaters' illustrated catalogues. These come with the sanction of finer print and paper than the Indian workman has ever seen; and being English, have an authority which only those who have tried to explain their real worthlessness to the native can understand. These, it is plain, are disturbing influences, and the problem of fulfilling Western uses without losing the Oriental spirit can only be satisfactorily solved by the improved cultivation and taste of Western buyers.

Since natives almost invariably use brass or copper for culinary, domestic, and sacrificial purposes, the coppersmith's trade, with the attendant crafts of casting, beaten or repoussé work, and chasing, is universally practiced. It may be noted that very little engraving, in the Western sense of the word, is done in India as a means of decoration, and the fine meagre lines on perfectly true, hard surfaces, the pride of European workmen, are comparatively unknown, since the graver, or burin, held underhand, cutting a clean line from which the burr is scraped, is not used. The hammer, punch, and chisel SACRIFICIAL SPOONS, OLD BRASS, HINDU. produce a bolder, simpler, and more effective decoration. An illustration gives some of the forms of older brass-ware, but the most popularly known variety of this their peculiarly pleasant, waxy surface is work as a commercial product is the Bescarcely translatable in black and white. nares ware, largely produced for a not

very intelligent market. The entire surface is covered with grotesque figures and foliage, boldly chased and highly polished. The forms are very various, but the prodigality of thoughtless labor, which leaves no morsel of skillfully contrasted plain field, ends by being tiresome. In this case as in other branches of industry the Hindu middle-men and dealers, who, like all the clerkly races of Hindus, such as Bengali baboos, khutriyas, etc., are curiously indifferent to art, care only that there shall be plenty work” on the wares they sell. The truth is that better brasswork than that of Benares can be had in several large towns, especially at Ahmedabad, in

Guzerat; while scattered over LOTA (DRINKING VESSEL), SILVER INCRUSTATION ON COPPER, TANJORE. the country are artificers who make lamps, antimony bottles, images, served in places, and polished to a perfectcaskets, sacrificial spoons, etc., in purely ly smooth surface, is one of the most faHindu taste, using elephants, birds, ani- miliar and highly finished forms of Inmals, and grotesque divinities in the fash- dian metal-work. It is really a revival, ioning of these pleasantly quaint and in- and owes much to the fostering care of teresting objects.


a member of the government, and of a

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a. Bidree Hooka, silver on black metal, modern. 0. Aftába (water vessel), siyah kalambari, Moradabad.

c. Gulab-pash (rose-water sprinkler), siyah kalambari, Moradabad.

The siyah kalambari, a sort of niello native gentleman of position. The patmade at Moradabad (north west provinces), terns show the usual modern tendency to where deep graving in brass is filled with excessive minuteness, and mechanical fina hard black composition, and then tinned ish is perhaps more considered than varieor silvered, with sometimes the brass re- ty of design. But the art is capable of ex,

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