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sition it.would have been less galling, but | fleece his large household was almost while the most distinguished student could wholly clothed. He had in his dairy not rise in the list, the reprobates could twelve negro women, all slaves, and each fall; and the best scholar in the class having a young girl to assist her; each might find himself not merely in a low dairy-maid had the care of twelve cows, and position through his parentage, but flank- they were expected to make from one to two ed on each side by scions of more famed dozen cheeses every day. This was the agfamilies who had been degraded by their ricultural and domestic side; the social life own folly or vice. There could not be consisted of one long series of gay entera more conclusive proof that American tainments, visiting from house to house, provincial society, even in the Eastern fox-hunting and horse-racing with the colonies, was founded, down to almost the then famous breed of Narragansett pacers. time of the final separation from England, Mr. Isaac Hazard had known old men who on an essentially aristocratic basis. in their youth had gone to Virginia to ride - In the same connection it must be re- their own horses at races, and kept open membered that in the eighteenth century house for the Virginia riders in return. To slavery gave the tone of manners through illustrate how thoroughly the habits of all the colonies. No matter how small slavery were infused into the daily life, he the proportion of slaves, experience shows told me that another of these Narraganthat it affected the whole tone of society. sett magnates, his great-uncle, Rowland In Massachusetts, in 1775, there was prob- Robinson, said, impulsively, one day, "I ably a population of some 350,000, of have not servants enough; go fetch me whom but 5000 were slaves.

some from Guinea." Upon this the masenough; the effect followed. It was in ter of a small packet of twenty tons, beCambridge, Massachusetts, not in Vir- | longing to Mr. Robinson, fitted her out at ginia, that Longfellow found his tradition once, set sail for Guinea, and brought of the lady who was buried by her own home eighteen slaves, one of whom was a order with slave attendants:

king's son. His employer burst into tears "At her feet and at her head

on their arrival, his order not having been Lies a slave to attend the dead;

seriously given. But all this was not in But their dust is as white as hers."

Maryland or Virginia; was in Rhode It is curious to compare this command of Island, and on a part of Rhode Island so this dying lady of the Vassall race- much a place of resort for the leading whether it was an act of arrogance or of Boston families that a portion of it is callhumility-with the self-humiliation of a ed Boston Neck to this day. Virginia dame of the same period, who These descriptions could be paralleled, directed the burial of her body beneath though not quite fully, in all the Northern that portion of the church occupied by colonies. The description of the Schuyler the poor, as she had despised them in life, family and of their way of living at Aland wished them to trample upon her bany, as given by Mrs. Grant, of Laggan, when dead. Historians have dwelt too about 1750, is quite on a par with these much, I think, upon the differences in early scenes at Narragansett. In Consocial life between the different colonies, necticut it is recorded of John Peters, faand too little on the points of likeness. ther of the early and malicious historian Let us consider, by way of illustration, of that name, that he “aped the style of a the way of living on the Narragansett British nobleman, built his house in a shore of Rhode Island, and see how close- forest, kept his coach, and looked with ly it resembled that of Virginia.

some degree of scorn upon republicans.” The late venerable Isaac Peace Hazard, The stone house of the Lee family at of Newport, Rhode Island, told me that his Marblehead cost £10,000; the house of great-grandfather, Robert Hazard, of Nar- Godfrey Malbone at Newport cost £20,000; ragansett, used in later life, when he had the Wentworth house at Portsmouth had given away many of his farms to his chil- fifty-two rooms. Through all the colodren, to congratulate himself on the small nies these evidences of a stately way of limits to which he had reduced his house- living were to be found. hold, having only seventy in parlor and These facts are unquestionable, and kitchen. He occupied at one time nearly would not so fully have passed out of twelve thousand acres of land, and kept sight but for another fact never yet fully some four thousand sheep, from whose explained. When the war of independ

VOL. LXVII.-No. 399.-28

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ence came it made no social change in the zealous to madness for liberty. These Southern provinces, but it made a social were the people—as seen, be it remember. revolution in the Northern provinces. ed, through the vexed eyes of a defeated For some reason, perhaps only for the prisoner—who made up the citizenship of greater nearness to Nova Scotia, the gen- the Northern colonies. try of the New England provinces took It is certain that the general model for the loyal side, and fled, while the gentry the colonial governments, and even for of Virginia fell in with the new movement, our present State governments, dates back becoming its leaders. From my window, to the organization of the Virginia House as I write, I have glimpses of some of the of Burgesses, in 1619; and all the colonies large houses of “Tory Row,” in Cam- followed the same principle, with some bridge, Massachusetts, where, according important modifications. But when it to the contemporary description of the came to the government of small local Baroness Riedesel, seven kindred families communities there was a great varia, lived in the greatest luxury until the Rev- tion. The present system of New Engolution, all probably slave-holders, like the land town government had its beginning, Vassalls, and some of them owning plan- according to Professor Joel Parker, in the tations in Jamaica. All fled, most of their action of the inhabitants of Charlestown, estates were confiscated, and the war trans- Massachusetts, when they adopted on Febferred the leadership of the New England ruary 10, 1634–5, an order, which still colonies, as Professor Sumner has lately stands on the record-book, “ for the govwell shown in his Life of Jackson, to a ernm't of the Towne by Selectmen,” thus new race of young lawyers. Hence all the giving to eleven persons, "wth the advice ante-Revolutionary life disappeared, and of Pastor and teacher desired in any case was soon forgotten; slavery disappeared of conscience,” the authority to manage also, while the self-same social order still their local affairs for one year. This form subsisted in Virginia, though constantly of self-government, which could be perdecaying, until a more recent war brought fectly combined with the existence of slav, that also to an end. Mr. Lodge has best ery on a small scale, was inconsistent with summed it up: “The aristocracy of New a system of great plantations, like those in England did not have at bottom any of the Southern colonies; and it was this fact the great strength of that in Virginia; more than anything else which developed but its existence was as real, and its power such difference in character as really exalmost as great and unquestioned.” isted. The other fact that labor was held

There was thus less of social difference in more respect in the Northern colonies among the colonies than is often assumed, than in the Southern had doubtless somebut the difference in municipal institutions thing to do with it; but, after all, there was considerable. Every colony, so far was then less philosophizing on that subas it was left free to do it, recognized the ject than now, and the main influence principle of popular government, limiting was the town meeting. When John the suffrage by age, sex, race, or property, Adams was called upon by Major Langbut recognizing the control of a majority bourne to explain the difference of charof qualified electors as binding. As a rule, acter between Virginia and New England, this gave a political status to the laboring Mr. Adams offered to give him a receipt for class in the Northern colonies, but not in creating a New England in Virginia. It those where slavery prevailed and the la- consisted of four points, “town meetings, boring class was of a different race. We training-days, town schools, and minisnaturally do not obtain from the books of ters." Each colony really based its local the period so clear a picture of the lower institutions, in some form, on English traorder of inhabitants as of the higher; per- ditions: biit the system of town governhaps the liveliest is to be found in the de- ment, as ii prevailed in the Eastern coloscription of General Riedesel, where he nies, has struck deepest root, and has represents the yeomen of New England largely influenced the new civilization of as being thickset, tolerably tall, wearing the West. Thus, with varied preparation, blue frocks girt by a strap, and having but with a common need and an increastheir heads surmounted by yellow wigs, ing unity, the several colonies approach“ with the honorable visage of a magis- ed the 19th of April, 1775, when the shot trate beneath"; as being, moreover, rarely was fired that was “heard round the able to write; inquisitive, curious, and world."





SLOOP OR CUTTER ? N the afternoon of the 22d of Au- | hollow entrance, the easy sections, and the

gust, 1851, the Solent was crowded beamy after-body of the America were with racing craft awaiting the return of squalls they could not luff through, though a squadron of competing yachts. The in truth the model was only cod's head wind was decreasing, the sea - board was and mackerel's tail turned endwise. But obscured by a ghostly haze, and through they were too much for the elders, and a rising mist anxious eyes were trying the legend tells us that one murky southto discover what fortune might have in westerly Saturday night, after unlimited store for England. Presently a salute grogs, and just as eight bells were striking, thundered from the men-of-war, and then mine ancients, laden with models, stood the royal yacht Fairy was seen steam- spectrally out of their club- houses, and ing swiftly out of the smoke toward the tacking down the landing-stairs, beat up Needles.

solemnly for the pilotless narrows which The Queen was on board, accompanied lead to Fiddler's Green, where all good by various members of her family and by sailors go. the officials of her household. Though all scanned the horizon anxiously, yet on the weather-beaten brow of the Rear-Admiral

English schooner. on duty as naval aide black care sat most awfully enthroned. Suddenly a sail, unmistakable in grace of curve and of color,

“America." loomed through the haze, and then, with wings outspread like those of the fabled sea-bird, flew gallantly and alone up the

AMERICA" AND HER waters of the Solent.

“Sir John," said the Queen, “what yacht is that?”

Fortunately for the adoption of the "Madam, it is the American schooner." theories illustrated by the America, a And the second ?"

boat is so largely a question of environ“Madam, there is no second."

ment that the exigencies of English yachtSuch is the conversation reported by ing did not arrest the reaction. Had our the chroniclers of that day. History fails schooner been of the shallow, centre-board to relate if Sir John and the defeated type, nothing might have resulted, but beyachtsmen were ordered to the block; ing deep, fast, safe, and roomy, the conbut this is certain, that if all England servative mind accepted her, and for some had gauged accurately the results of the years English ship - builders contented race when the America, with lowered themselves with reproducing her lines. ensign, slipped past the royal yacht, lau- Not that her type was new either here dates and not misereres would have fill- or abroad, for in our own country Steers ed the ship-yards of the kingdom. It was, had built a number of successful boats indeed, a genuine victory for America, based upon the principles which afterward but, what was better, it gave an impetus made the America famous; and in Euto yachting everywhere.

rope, among the Swedes especially, the In those days the sport was a restricted true path had been discerned, and the enjoyment, and English yachtsmen sat at wave-line theories which she illustrated the feet of marine Gamaliels who had had been adopted long before her day. As fought with Nelson at the Nile; choleric early as 1848 the Mosquito, an iron boat, old gentlemen these were generally, and forty tons in measurement, and of beautiof that Benbow school which believed sea- ful proportions, was designed in England; manship was nothing if not naval, that and novel and successful as she was at he who handled a frigate was master of that time, she would be to-day a notable a yawl, and that all science of ship con- xample of the long hollow bow and cystruction was rounded by the aphorism cloidal design to which so many of the that there was nothing to equal “cod's yachts of this decade are primarily indebthead and mackerel's tail," and a bellying ed for their successes. It was about this sail to drive them. Hence the fine long period also that English ship-building had





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its revival. The repeal of the obnoxious arrived at by calculations based upon navigation laws which enabled ships to length for tonnage, and the assumption be bought in any market; the adoption of that forty per cent. of the displacement our models and the employment of our went to weight of hull, and sixty per cent. clippers; the improvement made in their to carrying power. design by tentative processes, and the All this collected in the shape of a forgrowth of commerce; the larger know- mula would read this way, L and B repreledge of the sea, and the increase of wealth senting length and breadth: and of leisure-all these combined to de

B velop a ship construction which demanded

(L-B) x B x something more both for trading and for


-; pleasure craft than a blind dependence upon precedent or an unshaken faith in or, to make it plain with a practical exrule-of-thumbmodelling. Freeships meant ample, assume a yacht 102 feet in meamany ships, and with the necessity for sured length and 21 feet in measured the best vessels the attainments of the de- breadth; then her tonnage by Thames signers went hand in hand. Old theories measurement would be: of naval architecture were found to be delusions, old practices were shown to be

(102–21) x 21 x snares, until finally there came a day

or 190 tons. when it was not treasonable to believe that the success of the America was so Depth was always taken equal to one-half much a matter of hull plan, sail fit, mast the breadth, owing to the difficulty of rake, and seamanship that improvements measuring it directly, structural arrangein body forms were still possible. She was ments interfering. Now a larger boat benot altogether suited to English theories, ing better than a small one for speed, the nor to the rigorous necessities of British advantages of sailing a big craft on the waters, and many new and intelligent de- allowance of a small one resulted in departures were made. Smaller boats were creasing beam and increasing depth; this needed, and the rule of measurement gave advantages both ways, until finally adopted, combined with the demands made a point of jockeying was reached when by the rocky coast of England, flanked as some of the rated ten-tonners were really it is by long stretches of outlying shoals over twenty-two tons in displacement, and and by treacherous sands, and pierced with in ballast alone carried as much as fourrivers filled with swirling tides and eddies, teen tons of lead. resulted in the adoption of a new type. The penalty affixed to beam as compared

Yachting had become the great national with length naturally induced designers pastime, and the men who were knocking to avail themselves of a large weight of about stormy seas in strong breezes wanted ballast stowed low down in order to secure comfort and safety more than speed. Then great sail-carrying power on long vessels the sport differentiated, and cruising and with small beam and with little nominal racing yachts became necessary. To per- tonnage, until finally the English racing mit a fair competition a standard of classi- machine became curiously like to the Chification was adopted, for, at the best, the nese toy which vibrates upon a ball of lead, Thames Rule is nothing more. To arrive and under all circumstances salaams its at the relative value of boats the length toppling mandarin into a vertical position. was measured on deck from the fore-part Briefly stated, however, the rule, with all of the stem to the after-part of the stern- its disadvantages, produced a boat that post; the breadth was taken to the outside was practically uncapsizable. of the outer plank at the broadest part, This restriction upon beam hampered wherever found; this measured breadth the naval architect in the development of was subtracted from the measured length, body forms, though it gave a type which and this last result was multiplied by the was fast, roomy, handy, and in all weabreadth; finally, this product was multi-thers safe, and which, in light airs and plied by half the breadth-the assumed in any sea, or in rough waters and strong value of the depth-and the result was di- breezes, was faster than the low free-boardvided by 91. The divisor 94 was chosen ed, shallow, beamy boats to which we with reference to the carrying power of pinned our faith. the ships in tons of dead-weight, and was But the development has in some cases


been carried too far, for finding, under | taut as harp-strings. A run outside was their rules, that extreme types give ex- a rare event, and even now, though here treme speed, a class of racing machines and there our radius has been lengthened, has been developed which has so dimin- the typical summer work is narrowed by ished general entries that last year the for- the same old circle-day runs, local hanty-tonners Anasona and Sleuth-Hound dicaps, fortnight cruises to the eastward, carried off most of the prizes, the former and on exceptional occasions ocean races winning, out of thirty-five starts, twenty- which glow in paragraphs and flame in eight first prizes and one second prize, spread heads of newspapers thankful for amounting in money to £1590. What something new. ever may be said, extreme boats will not And the cause of this has been the amdo for cruising, and hence the man who bition to obtain extreme speed under specan own but one boat, and desires comfort, cial conditions. Of the three elements, safety, and speed as well, can not hope to speed, safety, and comfort, speed has been compete with knife-edges or with skim- the insatiable Joss to whom we have tossed ming-dishes, which are designed purely coppers, burned fire-works, and poured liand simply for racing purposes.

bations innumerable; for while it counted Radical as is the English development, as two among the moderate devotees who it has been a gradual one, and tracing the were satisfied with an occasional trophy, descent of the cutter through fifty odd to the extreme mug-hunters it meant all years, the survival and growth of depth, three. For our waters in ordinary and the decrease of beam, and the increase of inside weather we did get the speediest free-board are found in an ultimate cutter boats in the world, though as our racing known as the Chittywee.

lacked that heroic character found abroad,

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In the mean time we have done nothing we have in extraordinary or normal outof which to boast, either in novelty of idea, side weather, especially in the smaller or in loyalty to a type which proved itself crafts, lagged in the race. the best thirty odd years since, for our de- Thanks to a few yachtsmen fond of venvelopment has been mainly in the direc- turesome voyages, the chapter of skimtion pointed out as that best fitted to river ming dishes has been here and there puncsailing. Our cruisings have been in shal tuated with deeper boats, and keels have

| low waters which fringe shores akin in the so much increased in number, or rather yachting season to those of lotos-lands; have so much taken anew the lines of old under our lee there have always been development we had abandoned, that this ports of refuge ; our indulgence in the class, which in 1866 made but fifteen per sport has rarely been more than the re- cent. of the New York Squadron's list, now laxation of summer days when commer- includes over fifty per cent. ; and, better cial affairs were stagnant; and our regat- still, in all the boats of any size building, tas have been more often drifting matches two keels are being laid down to every than those keen struggles for mastery centre-board designed. Why we should when a yacht flies over blue water with a have persisted in a path which common bone in her teeth, and with a rattling song reasoning showed to be faulty seems ringing out from weather shrouds as strange enough when it is recalled that

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