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tory Resolves" of 1764, which were the From this time forth the antagonisnt precursors of the “Stamp Act.” The dis- increased, and it so roused and united the cussion occasioned by these measures was people that the student wonders how it more important than any other immedi- happened that the actual outbreak was deate effect they produced; they afforded an layed so long. It is quite remarkable, in academy of political education for the peo- view of the recognized differences among ple. Those who had called themselves the colonies, that there should have been Whigs gradually took the name of Patri- such unanimity in tone. There was hardots, and from Patriots they became “Sons ly anything to choose, in point of weight of Liberty.” Every successive measure and dignity, between the protests drawn struck at once the double chord of patriot- up by Oxenbridge Thacher in Massachuism and pocket, so that “Liberty and prop- setts, by Stephen Hopkins in Rhode Islerty” became the common cry. The colo- and, by the brothers Livingston in New nists took the position, which is found ev- York, and by Lee and Wythe in Virginia. erywhere in Otis's Rights of the Colonies, The Southern colonies, which suffered that their claims were not dependent on least from the exactions of the home govthe validity of their charters, but that ernment, made common cause with those their rights as British subjects were quite which suffered most.
All the colonies sufficient to protect them.
claimed, in the words of the Virginia Assembly, “their ancient and indestructible most in open rebellion. I rejoice that right of being governed by such laws re- America has resisted." Then came the specting their internal polity and taxation riot between people and soldiers called the as were derived from their own consent, Boston Massacre,” in 1770; and the capwith the approbation of their sovereign or ture by the people of the armed British his substitute.”
schooner Gaspee, off Rhode Island, in 1772. The blow fell in 1765, with the Stamp In 1773, the tea was thrown into the harAct-an act which would not have been bor at Boston; at Annapolis it was burnunjust or unreasonable in England, and ed; at Charlestown it was stored and left was only held so in America because it in- to spoil; at New York and Philadelphia volved the principle of taxing where there it was returned. The next year came the was no representation. For a moment Boston Port Bill, received with public the colonies seemed stunned; then the mourning in the other colonies, and with bold protest of Patrick Henry in Virginia grim endurance by the Bostonians. A was taken up by James Otis in Massachu- thriving commercial city suddenly found setts. He it was who proposed an “Amer- itself unable to receive any vessel whose ican Congress" in 1765, and though only cargo had not been first landed at a port nine out of the thirteen colonies sent dele- then thirty miles away by road-Marblegates, this brought them nearer than ever head—or to discharge any except through before. It drew up its “Declaration of a custom-house at Plymouth, then forty Rights.” Then followed, in colony after miles by road in the other direction. All colony, mobs and burnings in effigy; no- the industries of the place were stopped, body dared to act as stamp officer. When and the price of fuel and provisions rose the news reached England, the Earl of one-third; for every stick of wood and evChatham said: “The gentleman tells us ery barrel of molasses had to be landed that America is obstinate, America is al- | first on the wharf at Marblehead, and then nified oppression; the one clergyman wrote to deprecate war in England, the other almost invoked it in America.
The Congress met, every colony but little Georgia being soon represented. Its meeting signified that the colonies were at last united. In Patrick Henry's great opening speech he said:
British oppression has effaced the boundaries of the several colonies; the distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, NewYorkers and New England
ers are no more.
not a Virginian, but a NewEnglander."
There is, I think, an undue tendency in these days to exaggerate the differences between the colonies; and in bringing them to the eve of a great strug
gle it is needful to considREV. EZRA STILES, D.D., LL.D., PRESIDENT OF YALE COLLEGE, 1777-1795. From the painting in the Trumbull Gallery, New Haven.
er how far they were different, and how far they
were one. I agree with that laboriously reshipped to Boston, or be sent careful student, Professor Shaler, in thinkon the long road by land. But as tyran- ing that the points of resemblance among ny usually reacts upon itself, the volun- the different colonies far exceeded the tary contributions which came from all points of difference. They were mainly parts of the colonies to the suffering city of the same English race; they were maindid more to cement a common feeling ly Puritans in religion ; they bore with than years of prosperity could have done. them the local institutions and traditions;
In this chafed and oppressed position all held slaves, though in varying proporthe people of Boston awaited events, and tions. On the other hand, they were subthe country looked on. Meanwhile the ject to certain variations of climate, purfirst Continental Congress had met at suits, and local institutions; but, after all, Philadelphia, September 5, 1774, with a sole these were secondary ; the resemblances
a , the people of every colony pledging them. The style of architecture prevailing selves in one form or another to abide by throughout the colonies in the early part the decision of this body. In July of that of the eighteenth century gives proof year, long before the thought of separation enough that the mode of living among the took shape even in the minds of the lead higher classes at that period must everyers, Ezra Stiles wrote this prophecy: “If where have been much the same. The oppression proceeds, despotism may origi- same great square edifices, the same stacks nate an American Magna Charta and Bill of chimneys, the same tiles, the same maof Rights, supported by such intrepid and hogany stairways, and the same carving persevering importunity as even sover- are still to be seen in the old dwellings of eignty may hereafter judge it not wise to Portsmouth, Newburyport, Salem, Boston, withstand. There will be a Runnymede Newport, Philadelphia, Annapolis, and in America." Such was the change from Norfolk. When Washington came from 1640 to 1774 ; the mother-country which Mount Vernon to Cambridge as to Hooke signified paradise, to Stiles sig- mander of the American army, he occu
pied as head-quarters a house resembling ness of the windows as to have made a note in many respects his own; and this was of it. The stairway at Arlington is sinone of a line of similar houses, afterward gularly disproportioned to the external known as “ Tory Row," and extending dignity of the house, and there is a tradifrom Harvard College to Mount Auburn. tion that at the funeral of Jefferson the These were but the types of the whole se- stairway of his house at Monticello proved ries of colonial or rather provincial houses, too narrow for the coffin, so that it had to North and South. Sometimes they were be lowered from the window. All this built of wood, the oaken frames being was the result of the out-door climate, and brought from England, sometimes of apart from these trivial variations the life bricks brought from Scotland, sometimes North and South was much the same,
of stone. The chief difference between stately and ceremonious in the higher the Northern and Southern houses was classes, with social distinctions much more that the chambers, being less iinportant in thoroughly marked than we are now aca warm country, were less ample and com- customed to remember. fortable in the Southern houses, and the We know by the private memoirs of the windows were smaller, while for the same provincial period—for instance, from the reason there was much more lavishness in charming recollections of Mrs. Quincythe way of piazzas. Every one accustom- that the costumes and manners of the uped to the Northern houses is surprised at per classes were everywhere modelled on the inadequate chambers of Mount Ver- the English style of the period. Even non, and it appears from the diary of Mr. after the war of independence, when the Frost, a New England traveller in 1797, wealthier inhabitants of Boston had largethat he was then so struck with the small- ly gone into exile at Halifax, the churches were still filled on important occasions with “quinquennial," of our older colleges. gentlemen wearing wigs, cocked hats, and Down to the year 1768 at Yale, and 1773 scarlet cloaks; and before the Revolution at Harvard, the students of each class will the display must have been far greater. be found arranged in an order which is In Maryland, at a somewhat earlier period, not alphabetical, as at the present day, but we find an advertisement in the Maryland seems arbitrary. Not at all; they were Gazette of a servant who offers himself arranged according to the social positions " to wait on table, curry horses, clean of their parents; and we know from the knives, boots, and shoes, lay a table, shave, recollections of the venerable Paine Winand dress wigs, carry a lantern, and talk gate that the first thing done by the college French; is as honest as the times will ad- authorities on the admission of a new mit, and as sober as can be.” From this class was to ascertain by careful inquiry standard of a servant's accomplishments the relative social position of the parents. we can easily infer the mode of life among According to this position the young stuthe masters.