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Sherwood was legally ducked for witch- | any such emotion. “If a drop of innocraft in Virginia in 1705, and there was an cent blood should be shed in the proseindictment, followed by acquittal, in Mary-cution of the witchcrafts among us, how land as late as 1712.
unhappy are we!” wrote Cotton Mather.
That the delusion reached this point | Accordingly Mr. Poole has shown that was due to no hardened inhumanity of this eminent clergyman, popularly idenfeeling; on the contrary, those who par- tified beyond any one else with the witchticipated in it prayed to be delivered from craft delusion, yet tried to have it met by united prayer rather than by the courts ; | larged, was transferred to English dominwould never attend any of the witchcraft ion, quite against the will of the same trials; cautioned the magistrates against headstrong Governor, known as “Hardcredulity, and kept secret to his dying day koppig Piet.” The Dutch had thriven, in the names of many persons privately in spite of their patroons and their slaves culpated by the witnesses with whom he and their semblance of aristocratic govconversed. It was with anguish of spirit ernment; they had built forts in Conand the conscientious fidelity of the An- | necticut, claimed Cape Cod for a boundglo-Saxon temperament that these men ary, and even stretched their demands as entered upon the work. Happy would far as Maine. All their claims and posthey have been could they have taken sessions were at last surrendered without such supposed visitations lightly, as the striking a blow. When the British fleet Frenchmen on this continent have taken appeared off Long Island, the whole orthem. Champlain fully believed that ganized Dutch force included only some there was a devil inhabiting a certain isl-two hundred men fit for duty, scattered and in the St. Lawrence, under the name from Albany to Delaware; the inhabitof the Gougou; but he merely crossed ants of New Amsterdam refused to take himself, carolled a French song, and sail- up arms, although Governor Stuyvesant ed by. Yet even in France, as has been would fain have had them, and he was seen, the delusion raged enormously; and so enraged that he tore to pieces the letter to men of English descent, at any rate, it from Nicolls, the English commander, to was no such light thing that Satan dwelt avoid showing it. “The surrender," he visibly in the midst of them. Was this said, “would be reproved in the fatherto be the end of all their labors, their sac- land.” But the people utterly refused to rifices? They had crossed the ocean, stand by him, and he was thus compelled, fought off the Indians, cleared the forest, sorely against his will, to surrender. The built their quaint little houses in the English entered into complete occupation; clearing, extirpated all open vice, and lo! New Netherlands became New York; all Satan was still there in concealment, like the Dutch local names were abolished, althe fabled ghost which migrated with the though destined to be restored during the family, being packed among the beds. later Dutch occupation, which again ceased There is no mistaking the intensity of in 1674. Yet the impress of that nationaltheir lament. See with what depth of ity remains to this day on the names, the emotion Cotton Mather utters it:
architecture, and the customs of that re" 'Tis a dark time, yea a black night indeed, gion, and has indeed tinged those of the now the Ty-dogs of the Pit are abroad among
whole country; and the Dutch had secureus, but it is through the wrath of the Lord of ly founded what was from its early days Hosts .......Blessed Lord! Are all the other In- the most cosmopolitan city of America. struments of thy Vengeance too good for the Their fall left the English in absolute chastisement of such Transgressors as we are? possession of a line of colonies that Must the very Devils be sent out of their own stretched from Maine southward. This place to be our troublers !...... They are not now included some new settlements made swarthy Indians, but they are sooty Devils during the period just described. Carothat are let loose upon us."
lina, as it had been called a hundred years Thus wrote Cotton Mather, he who had before by Jean Ribault and his French sat beside the bedside of the “ bewitched" Protestants, was granted in 1663 by King Margaret Rule and had distinctly smelled Charles II. to eight proprietors, who sulphur.
brought with them a plan of government While the English of the second gener- framed for them by the celebrated John ation were thus passing through a phase Locke-probably the most absurd scheme of Puritanism more intense than any they of government ever proposed for a new brought with them, the colonies were colony by a philosopher, and fortunately steadily increasing in population, and set aside from the very beginning by the were modifying in structure toward their common-sense of the colonists. Being the later shape. Delaware had passed from most southern colony, it was drawn into Swedish under Dutch control, Governor vexatious wars with the Spaniards, the Stuyvesant having taken possession of the French, and the Indians; but it was many colony in 1655 with small resistance. years before it was divided by the King Then the whole Dutch territory, thus en- | into two parts, and before Georgia was set
tled. Another grant by Charles II. was preme control, Penn ordained for his peomore wisely planned, when in 1681 Will ple entire self-government; and he directiam Penn sent out some emigrants, guided ed them from the beginning to a policy by no philosopher except Penn himself, of peace, contentment, and wise comprewho came the following year. A great hensiveness. His harmonious relations tract of country was granted to him as with the Indians have been the wonder a sort of equivalent for a debt owed by of later times, though it must be rememthe King to his father, Admiral Penn ; bered that he had to do with no such fierce the annual rent was to be two beaver-tribes as had devastated the other colonies. skins. Everything seemed to throw Peace prevailed with sectarian zealots, and around the coming of William Penn the even toward those charged with witchcraft. aspect of a lofty enterprise: his ship was Yet even Philadelphia did not escape the named “ The Welcome"; his new city was evil habits of the age, and established the to be called “Brotherly Love," or "Phil. whipping-post, the pillory, and the stocks adelphia." With the opportunity of su- 1 -some of which Delaware, long a part of Pennsylvania, still retains. But there is piece of turf, an instance of which occurred no such scene of contentment in our pio- at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1696, sometimes neer history as that which the early an- carry us back to usages absolutely mediænals of “Penn's Woods” (Pennsylvania) val--in this case to the transfer “by turf record.
and twig" so familiar to historians. All Other great changes were meanwhile that the New England settlers added to taking place. New Hampshire and New their traditional institutions-and it was Jersey came to be recognized as colonies a great addition-was the system of comby themselves; the union of the New Eng- mon schools. Beyond New England the land colonies was dissolved ; Plymouth analogies with inherited custom are, acwas merged in Massachusetts, New Haven cording to Professor Freeman, less clear in Connecticut, Delaware temporarily in and unmistakable; but Professor Herbert Pennsylvania. At the close of the period B. Adams has lately shown that the Southwhich I have called the second generation ern "parish” and “county," the South (1700) there were ten distinct English colo- Carolina" court-greens” and common nies along the coast-New Hampshire, pastures," as well as the Maryland "manMassachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, ors” and “court-leets,” all represent the New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, same inherited principle of communal sovMaryland, Virginia, Carolina.
ereignty. All these traditional instituIt is a matter of profound interest to tions are now being carefully studied, observe that whatever may be the varia- with promise of the most interesting retions among these early settlements, we sults, by a rising school of historical stufind everywhere the distinct traces of the dents in the United States. old English village communities, which The period which I have assigned to again are traced by Freeman and others the second generation in America may be to a Swiss or German origin. The found considered to have lasted from 1650 to ers of the first New England towns did 1700. Even during this period there took not simply settle themselves upon the place collisions of purpose and interest beprinciple of “squatter sovereignty,” each tween the home government and the colofor himself; but they founded municipal nies. The contest for the charters, for inorganizations, based on a common control stance, and the short-lived power of Sir of the land. So systematically was this Edmund Andros, occurred within the time carried out that in an old town like Cam- which has here been treated, but they bridge, Massachusetts, forinstance, it would were the forerunners of a later contest, and be easy at this day, were all the early tax will be included in another paper. It will lists missing, to determine the compara- then be necessary to describe the gradual tive worldly condition of the different transformation which made colonies into settlers simply by comparing the pro- provinces, and out of a varied emigration portion which each had to maintain of developed a homogeneous and cohering the great "pallysadoe" or paling which people; which taught the English minissurrounded the little settlement. These try to distrust the Americans, and caused amounts varied from seventy rods, in case the Americans to be unconsciously weanof the richest, to two rods, in case of the ed from England; so that the tie which poorest; and so well was the work done at first had expressed only affection bethat the traces of the “fosse” about the came at last a hated yoke, soon to be thrown paling still remain in the willow-trees on aside forever. the play-ground of the Harvard students. These early settlers simply reproduced, with a few necessary modifications, those
THY LOVE. local institutions which had come to them
It brightens all the cruel gloom from remote ancestors. The town paling, That closes round me like a tomb, the town meeting, the town common, the
And fills my heart with summer bloom. town pound, the fence-viewers, the fielddrivers, the militia muster, even the tip
It makes me quite forget the pain staves of the constables, are “survivals”
That grief has wrought within my brain, of institutions older than the Norman
And brings a flash of joy again. conquest of England. Even the most It makes the darkest night to me matter-of-fact transactions of their daily More clear than ever day can be, life, as the transfer of land by giving a For in my dreams I am with thee.
CHATTERTON AND HIS ASSOCIATES.
generally been the associates of poets, ber, 1752, in the humble dwelling where his but Chatterton knew little of either, save father had died three months previous. by repute. He imagined an ideal world, Mrs. Chatterton was only twenty at the and peopled it with the creations of his time of her son's birth, and was already own vivid fancy, but the real folk he burdened with the support of another lived among and associated with were, child, a girl of about two years old. Soon without exception, of the most conven- after the birth of her son, who was christional type. The posthumous son of a tened Thomas after his deceased father, poor school-master, Chatterton first saw the widow removed from the free school