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great ceil beam in the centre, though some and scratched with several inscriptions in accounts, lending a less simple interest to old English characters. A dismal cell it the name, state that prisoners who under- is to be found in a religious house; but the went preliminary examinations here were privilege granted to the clergy by King flogged at this post, and thence shown John's charter of being arraigned only through the south door into a dungeon, before ecclesiastical courts is said to have through whose upper gratings the Thames first built prisons in episcopal palaces. sometimes flowed in at high tide.

Archbishop Bouchier sorrowfully admitted Now the waters of the Thames lie some that they were a necessary check to gross yards away, tossing themselves against profligacy among the clergy. Dean Hook, the beautiful embankment, which renders Dr. Maitland, and other writers think the the archbishop's barge no longer necessa- Lollards were never shut up here; that ry. Of a group of three towers at the Peter Lollard, who started Lollardism, sufnorthwestern corner of the palace, the fered as a “disaffected political agitator" largest and central one, built by Chicheley at Cologne in 1321, two years before Wyein 1436, is known as the Lollards' Tower. liffe was born; that the latter, though a

A winding stair leads to the dungeon heretic, was an unswerving loyalist; and at the top, whose thick doors, rude locks, that the confusion in this matter arose and other peculiarities indicate that it is from the circumstances which brought the oldest portion of this palace, not even these two movements so near each other excepting the half-filled-up and little-used in time, and sometimes seemingly in symcrypt. It is the only part of the palace pathy. now standing that is built of stone, and There was a Lollards' Tower of which here it has been thought that the Lollards Latimer said he “would rather be in purwere imprisoned. Eight large rings are gatory than lie in it," and of which anfixed in its oak-lined walls, which are cut other victim exclaimed, “If I were a dog, you could not appoint a worse or viler | er named Watts kept an, open table on place." But it is asserted that this tower market-days for neighboring gentry and was never at Lambeth; that, on the con- clergy. Moore ate of this board; but at trary, when the great fire swept away all last Watts noticed that he ceased to come, traces of old London House, of Bonner's and bluntly questioned him about it. “I Inquisition and dungeons, with old St. am at this time already £10 in your debt," Paul's, the traditions of the true Lollards’ Tower of London House were fastened easily to the dismal iron-ringed cell of the so-called Lollards' Tower at Lambeth. This seems further confirmed by the acknowledged contrast in the characters of Archbishop Pole, tolerant and gentle for a Romanist, and the cruel Bonner, Bishop of London, Pole preferring to pacify the Pope by cremating the dead, while Bonner and Winchester enjoyed burning the living.

Thirlby, the first and last Bishop of Westminster, and the deposed Bishop of Durham, were honored guests rather than captives of Archbishop Parker, and the unfortunate Earl of Essex staid here before being taken to the Tower of London. Still, several authorities contend that the Lollards really suffered at Lambeth. In this disagreement one thing remains indisputable, that the tower was a place of misery for many in the seventeenth century. One Dr. Guy Carleton was rescued from it by his wife. She came in a boat to the foot of the Water Tower, provided with a rope, which she managed to get to

From photograph by Samuel A. Walker, London, him. It was too short, but he let himself down by it, and in dropping the remain

EDWARD WAITE BENSON, D.D., THE PRESENT ing distance both dislocated and broke his leg.

With her help he crawled into the boat. She hid him, and sold her clothing and worked at day labor to support was Moore's reply, “and as I can not pay him until he could escape to France, it, I do feel a little delicacy in further inwhence he returned on the Restoration, truding at your hospitable table.” But and had the bishoprics of Bristol and Chi- Watts begged him to return, assuring him chester.

there were £20 more there at his service. From June 7 till August 11, in 1780, Later, Watts became very poor, but Moore, during the Lord Gordon riots, the palace who had in the mean time “risen to the was regularly garrisoned, the primate and mitre,” sought him out, placed him in comhis family having been prevailed on to fort, and settled an annuity on his widow, seek other refuge. The officers were well which, until her death, at the age of ninelodged and entertained by the two chap- ty-seven, was regularly paid by his family. lains, and the soldiers, with their wives Of John Tillotson, who cried out concernand children, ate in the great hall, and ing the French refugees and the Edict of had of the best, and doubtless were a lit- Nantes, “Charity is above rubrics,” Tanstle sorry when the troublesome times were well relates that in private life “he always past.

set apart one-fifth of his income for the Excellent anecdotes are chronicled of poor and for good works," and on becomsome of the Archbishops of Canterbury. ing archbishop spent his income in this John Moore (archbishop in 1783) was ear- way so entirely that he could only at death ly in his life a poor curate of Brockley, in leave two volumes of his sermons to his Northamptonshire. A well-to-do plumb- family. These brought £2500!



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At a dinner of the domestics during | sie Surties was the prettiest girl in all Laud's primacy it is told that King Charles Newcastle, while Mrs. Sutton was always I.'s jester pronounced this grace: “Give the pumpkin-faced thing she is at pregreat praise to God, but little Laud to sent.” On one occasion Erasmus went the devil,” for which piece of vicious with Dean Colet by boat to see Archbishwit the fool is said to have paid by long op Warham. As the boat glided along, imprisonment, if not death. Concerning the dean sat poring over Erasmus's Remthe wife of Manners-Sutton, Lord Eldon, edy for Anger. Arriving at the palace, when dining with that prelate and George they were received most cordially, but III., was quite as rude as the king's Dean Colet grew suddenly very glum, jester, and certainly more coarse, when and it was only by the gentlest tact that he said: “It's a curious fact that your the amiable Warham could win him to Majesty's Archbishop and your Lord Chan- good humor again. When they were in cellor both married their wives clandes- the boat once more the dean explained to tinely. But I had some excuse, for Bes- Erasmus that he had found himself at ta

ble just opposite an uncle whom he cor- | land who have made Lambeth their home, dially hated, but that the effect of reading few names will be remembered with more the Remedy for Anger, together with the reverence and affection than that of the archbishop's patience, had finally over- late archbishop, Dr. Tait. He knew much come his wrath, even to the point of be- of personal sorrow, and the readers of that ing reconciled to his uncle. As long as tender and touching book, the memorial of Warham lived he was most kind to Eras- Catherine and Craufurd Tait, compiled mus, “the brave, sensitive scholar at partly by the husband and father himself, whose heels all the ignorance and bigotry will remember Mrs. Tait's own account of of Europe were yelping." Mr. Green re- the affliction which befell them in 1856, lates that Warham once sent a horse to when her husband was Dean of Carlisle, Erasmus, which - very likely getting in the deaths of five lovely little daughters changed en route-appeared so little to by scarlet fever within as many weeks. advantage in the eyes of his new master, And though he lived in a comparativehe wrote to Warham that his horse was ly happy period of English history, the very “like a father confessor, being vice- Church knew troublous times, in which its less except for gluttony and laziness, and head needed to be the strong, true, broad only too prudent, modest, humble, chaste, man that he was. The words of one and peaceable.”

writer, that “his kindliness, wisdom, and The officials of the Stationers' Company moderation entitle him to the lasting gratused to wait formally on the archbishop itude of the English Church,” may be truto give him copies of their almanacs- ly cited as expressing the general opinion which were not issuable without the sanc-l of his labors. In his summer home at tion of the Established Church-and re- Croydon and at Lambeth Palace he apceive in return cakes and ale. This cus-peared, among the daughters left to him, tom arose in this way. When Tenison a loving father and a most gentle host. enjoyed the see a relation of his, hap- I heard him speak of Garfield's death pening to be master of the Stationers' from the pulpit of St. Martin's -in-the Company, thought it a compliment to call Fields, and I thought it the justest and in full state in his barge with the new al-fittest utterance made on that theme in manac. The archbishop sent out wine, England. On his death-bed he remained bread, cheese, and ale sufficient for all in still mindful of the work that was given the barge. Now the custom is limited him to do, and his last efforts were directsolely to the giving the almanacs, minused with successful tact to the removal of the recompensing “cakes and ale."

one of the difficulties in the way of the The palace grounds as a whole cover reconciliation of the parties in the Church. an area of about twenty-two acres. To the new primate, Dr. Benson, who

The dwelling apartments of the primate comes from vigorous and able work in his and his family are in the modern range, see of Truro, he has left that best of legastretching to the east from Cranmer's cies—the fruits of the life of a man who Tower, erected by Blore during the pri- was both good and wise. macy of Howley. They are large, and in all their arrangements tasteful and comfortable. His Grace's study* has a quaint

THE FOLDING. fire-place, all the usual literary appoint

“ There shall be one fold and one shepherd." ments, is full of books, and convenient to his private rooms, which are large and Wild bird flying northward, whither thou?

And vessel bending southward, what thy quest? pleasant. The most remarkable of the rooms is the large drawing-room, with its Clouds of the east, with sunshine on your brow, tall, wide windows looking north upon

Whither? and crescent setting in the west ? the pleasant greenswards.

Still we pursue while the white day is ours : The Houses of Parliament, with a

The wild bird journeys northward in his strength ; glimpse of the Abbey, are seen to the The tender clouds waste in their sunny bowersleft, and the handsome wards of the St.

One shepherd guides and gathers them at length. Thomas Hospital, and the whole view is lovely.

Fly swift, ye birds, against the north wind fly! In the long roll of Primates of All Eng- And crowd your sail, ye vessel southward bound !

Sleep, sleep, ye clouds, upon the happy sky! Marked on chart as “private library." Thus nightly in the fold shall all be found. VOL. LXVII.-No. 397.-2

JUROPEAN history makes much of the dians, whereas the English often went

of ty Years' War;" and when we think of a commonly put in practice the reality. continuous national contest for even the The Pilgrims, when in great distress at least of those periods, there is some- the very beginning, took baskets of corn thing terrible in the picture. But the from an Indian grave, and paid for them feeble American colonies, in addition to afterward. The year after the Massachuall the difficulties of pioneer life, had to setts colony was founded, the court desustain a warfare that lasted, with few in- creed: “It is ordered that Josias Plastowe termissions, for almost a hundred years. shall (for stealing four baskets of corne It was, moreover, a warfare against the from the Indians) returne them eight basmost savage and stealthy enemies, gradu- kets againe, be fined five pounds, and ally trained and re-enforced by the most hereafter called by the name of Josias, formidable military skill of Europe. With- and not Mr., as formerly he used to be.” out counting the early feuds, such as the As a mere matter of policy, it was the Pequot War, there elapsed almost precise- general disposition of the English settlers ly a century from the accession of King to obtain lands by honest sale; indeed, Philip in 1662 to the Peace of Paris, which Governor Josiah Winslow, of Plymouth, nominally ended the last French and In- declared, in reference to King Philip's dian War in 1763. During this whole War, that “ before these present troubles period, with pacific intervals that some broke out the English did not possess one times lasted for years, the same essential | foot of land in this colony but what was contest went on; the real question being, fairly obtained by honest purchase of the for the greater part of the time, whether Indian proprietors." This policy was France or England should control the quite general. Captain West in 1610 continent. The description of this pro- bought the site of what is now Richlonged war may therefore well precede mond, Virginia, for some copper. The any general account of the colonial or Dutch Governor Minuit bought the islprovincial life in America.

and of Manhattan in 1626 for sixty gildThe early explorers of the Atlantic ers. Lord Baltimore's company purcoast generally testify that they found chased land for cloth, tools, and trinkthe Indians a gentle, not a ferocious, ets ; the Swedes obtained the site of people. They were as ready as could be Christiana for a kettle; Roger Williams expected to accept the friendship of the bought the island of Rhode Island for white race. In almost every case of forty fathoms of white beads; and New quarrel the white men were the imme- Haven was sold to the whites in 1638 for diate aggressors, and where they were at “twelve coats of English cloth, twelve tacked without seeming cause—as when alchemy spoons, twelve hoes, twelve hatchSmith's Virginian colony was assailed by ets, twelve porringers, twenty-four knives, the Indians in the first fortnight of its ex- and twenty-four cases of French knives istence-there is good reason to think that and spoons.” Many other such purchases the act of the Indians was in revenge for will be found recorded by Dr. Ellis. And wrongs elsewhere. One of the first im- though the price paid might often seem pulses of the early explorers was to kid- ludicrously small, yet we must remember nap natives for exhibition in Europe, in that a knife or a hatchet was really worth order to excite the curiosity of kings or more to an Indian than many square the zeal of priests; and even where these miles of wild land; while even the beads captives were restored unharmed, the dis- were a substitute for wampum, or womtrust could not be removed. Add to this pom, which was their circulating medium the acts of plunder, lust, or violence, and in dealing with each other and with the there was plenty of provocation given whites, and was worth in 1660 five shilfrom the very outset.

lings a fathom. The disposition to cheat and defraud the So far as the mere bargaining went, the Indians has been much exaggerated, at Indians were not individually the sufferleast as regards the English settlers. The ers in the early days; but we must rememearly Spanish invaders made no pretense ber that behind all these transactions there of buying one foot of land from the In- often lay a theory which was as merciless

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