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be defeated. It is when the new way to the Bergh's remonstrance about killing the Indies becomes his one idea that Columbus elephant Pilot, Mr. Barnum replies that discovers America. It is when Luther defies he is not likely to inflict a serious loss upon all the opposing devils, although they are as himself by killing one of his animals unless many as the tiles upon the roofs, that he it were clearly necessary. All this may be establishes Protestantism.

conceded. But it is very fortunate for the The doctors and the distinguished company community that there are sentinels of humandecide upon Mr. Gerry's complaint that the ity who will summarily challenge everything bicycle-riding of the children at Barnum’s is that has an evil appearance, and compel a healthful and not injurious, and to Mr. clear and complete explanation.

Editor's Literary Record.

THEN Carlyle, in one of his pragmatical | tions, it was impossible for him to put them

moods, likened collections of letters out of sight even if he had been so minded. to "an uncounted handful of needles in an And so, true to his character whenever he unmeasured continent of hay,” he not alto- had a difficult, or a perplexing, or a disgether inaptly described the character and agreeable thing to do, now that he had no quality of the letters of Mrs. Carlyle, which longer Mrs. Carlyle to shuffle his burthen years afterward he was destined to collect upon, he shuffled it upon Mr. Froude, Mr. and annotate in much tribulation of spirit, Forster, and Mr. John Carlyle. He could and which are now edited and given to the not make up his mind to direct positively world by Mr. Froude. Undoubtedly Mrs. the publication of the letters, nor could he Carlyle's Letters and Memorials 1 have their make up his mind to interdict it; he would full proportion of the sort of material that seem_anxiously to desire it; Mr. Froude, Carlyle, in his high and mighty way, con- Mr. Forster, and Mr. John Carlyle would temptuously sets down as “hay;” but it is solve the problem for him, perhaps to doubtful if there are any letters extant that publish, possibly to stifle. The last two teem more abundantly than hers with pas- died, however, in Mr. Carlyle's lifetime, sages radiant with brilliant intellect, or when the responsibility fell entirely upon sparkling with apt anecdote and illustration, Mr. Froude; and Mr. Froude was not a man or coruscating with graphic description and to suppress facts, however unwelcome. Evidelicate portraiture, or bristling with points dently still undecided in his own mind, a sharp, incisive, and penetrating as a needle few months before his death—the letters -many of which last must have punctured having then been in Mr. Froude's hands Carlyle to the quick when he came to read nearly ten years—Carlyle asked Mr. Froude them, after the patient writer had laid down what he meant to do with them, and rethe weary load that his selfishness and ceived for reply that, when the Reminiscences thoughtlessness had shuffled upon her had been published, he had decided that the through long years. These letters and Letters might and should be published also. memorials furnish the key to the cheap This settled the matter. In his will Carlyle sentimentalities, made up of penitential requested that Mr. Froude's judgment should ejaculations and self-flagellations, with which be accepted as his own. Whether it was Carlyle's Reminiscences were so liberally gar- his genuine desire that the letters should be nished. That he“ did not order their pub- published, or whether he had a secret hope lication, though he anxiously desired it," as that they might be ultimately withheld, will Mr. Froude informs us in the preface, must remain an unsolved problem. It must not have been because of a lingering sense of be inferred from anything that has been shame on the one hand, and a feeling of said that Mrs. Carlyle's Letters and Memorials remorse on the other. He shrunk from are wholly, or even in large part, taken up admitting the world to a sight of the life he with the story of her drudgery, discomforts, had made an intolerable burthen; but yet and mortifications, and of Carlyle's trying he was irresistibly drawn to make a public humours and more trying neglect. Far expiation in the nature of a public con- otherwise ; for the first twenty years of their fession. Moreover, it could not be concealed London life her letters are not merely that he had been engaged in collecting Mrs. cheerful and contented, but light-hearted, Carlyle's letters, with a view, as it was sur-merry, and prodigal of blithesome foremised, to their publication, and therefore, castings, revealing a thoroughly happy home, though he could not have been other than rendered so no less by Carlyle's loving self-convicted by their unwelcome revela- admiration for and frank comradeship with

his wife than by the magnetism of her I Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle. Prepared for Publication by Tuomas

CARLYLE. Edited by smoothed his life by her tact, her industry,

own personal graces and attractions. She JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE. 2 vols. cr. 8vo. London: Longmans, Green & Co.

and her admirable domestic management, so that it was possible for him to absorb him- men. From the time when Emerson, attracted self in his work without being cumbered by byimpassioned utterances that voiced his own cares; and she brightened and sweetened it musings, first hunted out Carlyle in his lair at by her gaiety, her spirit, her versatility, and Craigenputtock, in 1833, until the close of her skill in the art of making all around her Carlyle's life in 1881, a little more than a year bright and happy; and he gladdened her before the summons came to Emerson himself, life by imparting to her his projects, plans, these two, so dissimilar in their temperaments and hopes, and by selecting her for his and in the general structure of their minds, earliest and most trusted critic. But gradu- but so much alike in many of their sympaally, after the lapse of a score of years, the thies and aspirations, were bound together by shadows begin to fall upon the bright letters, ties of the most genuine and unalterable and year by year thereafter they fall more friendship. To Carlyle, who was hungering and more swiftly. The drudgery that had for the recognition that he conceived to be been a joy is becoming a burthen too heavy his due, but which his countrymen were slow for her to bear, because the treasured com- to vouchsafe, or gave grudgingly only, the panionship that had made self-sacrifice a vision of the young and intellectual American pleasure is no longer hers, but is shared scholar, already a deep and independent with others, who not only rob her of his thinker and a dreamer of profound dreams, society, but wound her womanly pride and was not unlike that of an angel from heaven, mortify her wifely feelings. Still, when the and frequently in after-years he was wont to shadows fall heaviest and darkest, Mrs. liken it to that of a “ sky-messenger who Carlyle makes no parade of her grievances, alighted to him in the Desert, and then vanbut her letters continue as gay, as sprightly, ished into the Blue again.” Emerson's acute as full of loving-kindness for others and of and discriminating praise and the generous loving thoughtfulness for Carlyle himself, as enthusiasm of his admiration were like a ever; only here and there, as if wrung from ray of sunlight upon the life of the moody, her in a moment of pain and mortification, a irritable, and morbidly self-conscious word or a sentence crops out that betrays student, and coming from the denizen of the fire that is smouldering in her heart. another hemisphere, seemed to him to be Mostly it is in her letters to old and dear prelusive of the verdict of posterity-a friends to whom she may speak freely welcome and relishing foretaste of the fame that we are able to read a sadly pitiful that awaited him in the future. The corresmeaning between the lines—a meaning pondence that ensued after this first meeting implied rather than expressed, and which consists of one hundred and seventy-three filled Carlyle's rugged heart with compunc- letters, nearly equally divided, and generally tion when it was too late. Aside from these responsive, and it covers every year from 1834 dark threads, which are so delicate as to be to 1872, with the exception of 1857, 1863, and almost imperceptible, the letters are very 1868, when there are gaps, which were not charming compositions—more free-spoken, caused by any intermission of their friendperhaps, and charged with stronger epithets, ship, but are probably due to their letters in than we should expect from a woman of those years having been lost or mislaid. The refined taste, besides occasionally betraying correspondence ceases with 1872, in which an unfeminine contempt for sacred things, year Emerson went to England, and the two but sweet and wholesome in their general friends met again. After a short stay tone, and pouring out pure and gentle and Emerson proceeded_to the Continent and generous thoughts in a rich 'stream. Con- Egypt, returning to London in the spring of sidered as a whole, they are a delightful 1873. “ Then, for the last time," as Promedley of wit and humour, of shrewd and fessor Norton observes in a closing paragraph, practical sense, of crisp criticism, of spirited Carlyle and he saw each other. In May, description, of graphic characterisations of Emerson went home. After this time no men and things, and of most minute and letters passed between him and Carlyle. They genial delineations of the peculiar characters were both old men. Writing had become and bizarre society that revolved around the difficult to them. They were secure in each Carlyle hearth-stone, as wellasofthesurround-other's friendship. Carlyle died, eighty-four ings of Carlyle's own every-day literary and years old, on the 5th of February, 1881. Emdomestic life. The letters appeal in a special erson died, seventy-nine years old, on the 27th manner to the sympathies of women, and will of April, 1882.” The letters are eminently scarcely increase their veneration for Carlyle. characteristic of the men, and admit the

reader to an undress rehearsal of their THE Correspondent of Carlyle and Emerson, opinions and impressions of the productions admirably edited by Professor Norton, and and personal traits of many prominent men just published in two compact volumes, of letters among their contemporaries, and also admits us to a close view of a very pleasing of their own and each other's productions. side of the character of both these eminent In the case of Carlyle these judgments of

other men are invariably marked by his conI The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph stitutional arrogance, and his tendency to grooves he had laid out for himself, and they as a boy and as a man, and of incidents illusno less bear the stamp of his native shrewd trative of his mental and moral evolution, or and caustic sagacity. In Emerson's case connected with the composition of some of his these judgments are more generous, more poems and essays. In addition to this Mr. catholic, more dispassionate, and more just. Conway affords us delightful glimpses of As relates to theiropinions of their own works, Emerson's friends, companionships, and the Carlyle betrays a lack of delicacy and a degree surroundings of his daily life, and gives us the of self-assertion of which Emerson is never opportunity to read several characteristic letguilty, and with this self-assertion is coupled ters of Emerson that have never before been å habit of speaking disparagingly and even printed, together with certain of his miscelcontemptuously of his own performances, laneous writings that are not to be found in which does not seem to have been altogether his collected works. The book is highly ingenuine, but to have been assumed in order teresting and valuable as a personal memorial, to invite welcome contradiction. It is not to but its chief interest consists in its subtle be denied that a vein of mutual admiration delineation of the unfolding of Emerson's pervades the letters on both sides, but in the religious and philosophical opinions, and its main it is so discriminating and frank as to careful historical account of his writings. be inoffensive. If we compare the letters, the meed of superiority must be acccorded DOUBTLESS the reading people of our day, to those of Emerson. He is less occupied those at least who do not live within the with self and its concerns than Carlyle, is charmed circle of St. James' and Westminmore affluent of thought on extraneous ster, know far less of the Court and diplothings, more poetic, more philosophical, matic life of the Victorian era than they more evenly balanced in his judgments and know of the Georgian period, so graphically feelings, and his diction is incomparably and entertainingly pictured by Fanny Burney more chaste and finished, though this last and her contemporaries. The Queen has hermay have been due to Emerson's habit of self given us a glimpse of the inner life of the preparing first drafts of his letters to Carlyle, Royal Family; but the gossip and bons mots and of sending off the copies as carefully cor- of the Court, save for the slight newspaper rected as if he were finishing them for the tattle that is soon lost sight of and forgotten, press. Carlyle's letters are more spontaneous is reserved for the enjoyment of a future than Emerson's, as if written on the spur of generation. No doubt many a Pepys is at the moment, and doubtless to this extent this moment busy with his diary for the they reflect the individuality of the man more benefit of posterity, but to Lady Georgiana accurately than the letters of Emerson. In Bloomfield we are indebted for the publifact, while reading Emerson's letters we are cation in our own day of a most interesting often led to doubt whether he is not utterly chronicle of the time, based upon her own lacking in individuality except of a purely long experience of Court and Diplomatic life. negative and colourless kind. While read- The Hon. Georgiana Liddon, afterwards ing Carlyle's letters we never lose sight of Lady Bloomfield, began her career as a Carlyle. He is always brooding over himself, Maid of Honour to the then youthful and perpetually exasperating himself by the Queen, though previous to that she had contemplation, from which he finds relief only seen and heard much of Court life through by parading his contempt of others. As we her elder sister, the Marchioness of Norread Emerson's letters we are conscious of his manby, being a Lady in Waiting, and had presence only by his attachments and envi- attended State balls, and been present at ronments—his family, his garden, the charms the Queen's Coronation, of which she speaks of nature, the society of men and books. If in the early pages of her narrative. From he is conscious of himself, it is only amiably so the year 1841, when she was appointed Maid as a part of the great whole, and his subtlest of Honour, to the close of 1871, when with introspections seem to be prosecuted as a her husband she retired to private life, her means toward comprehending and influencing daily history was one succession of novel the thoughts and hearts of others.

. : Chatto and Windus.

depreciate whatever lay outside of those YOL. LXVII.-No. 397.–10.

Waldo Emerson, 1834-1872.

experiences, and into it there came famous

people, historic scenes, splendid pageants MR. Conway has succeeded in making a without number. It is interesting to comvery pleasant book on Emerson at Ilome and pare the daily routine at Buckingham Palace Abroad, and pending the elaborate Life of and Windsor with Miss Burney's lively Emerson, which will be written in due time, his picture of the dull Court of Queen Charlotte. sketch of the poet-philosopher is something to Among the striking scenes of this period are be grateful for. Although it is far from being the christening of the Prince of Wales, at an exhaustive biography, it is a very generous which the King of Prussia was present, and genial sketch, and supplies numerous the Queen's yachting pageant on the Channel, interesting details of Emerson's life, movements, manners, habits, and personal traits 1 Reminiscences of Court and Diplomatic Life. By


traits and six illustrations after original sketches by the

By MONCURE D. author. In 2 vols. post. 8vo. London: Kegan Paul, CONWAY. 12mo. pp. 383. London: Trubner & Co. Trench & Co.

1 Emerson at Home and Abroad,

and visit to Louis Philippe at Château d'Eu already been given to French readers in a -the first visit paid by a British Sovereign series of historical studies contributed by to France since the Field of the Cloth of the author from time to time to the Revue Gold-Her Majesty's visit in State to the des Deux Mondes, but the revelations there City, to open the Royal Exchange, and made or hinted at are now for the first time several Royal journeys to distant places. brought to a focus, so to speak, by the pubThe descriptions and narrative are enlivened lication of the complete and connected story, always with racy anecdotes, bits of conver- and certain historical facts which have been sation, and extracts from letters, and give a suppressed for nearly a century and a half charming picture of the domestic life of the are brought at last into the full light of day. Royal Household.

The literary career of the Duc de Broglie In 1845 the author's marriage to Mr. has been as distinguished as his history as a Bloomfield took her to new and distant statesman, and more successful. His first scenes, and the Reminiscences from this laurels were won during the lifetime of his point are devoted chiefly to diplomatic life father, as Prince Albert de Broglie, and at the Courts of St. Petersburg, Berlin, and his great work, Le Secret du Roi (translated Vienna, where her husband (who soon after by Mrs. Cashel Hoey, and published in the marriage became Lord Bloomfield) served London under the title of The King's Secret), in turn as British Minister for more than a placed him high amid the historians of the quarter of a century. The pictures of Russian age. That work, with its extraordinary Court life and of the famous people and revelation of the secret diplomacy of Louis places Lady Bloomfield met with during the XV., of which the Duke's own ancestor, the six years she spent at St. Petersburg, are Count de Broglie, was at once the agent and perhaps the most novel and interesting of the victim, has all the fascination of the the reminescences. At that day (as late most exciting romance, and includes a sketch as 1851) there were no railways in Russia, of the career of Poniatowski and the secret the native manners and customs were almost history of the partition of Poland, which is uninfluenced by the rest of Europe, and the not surpassed in brilliancy by any writer Czar Nicholas ruled his people with greater within our knowledge. case and security than any other European The present work is a political study of sovereign. Before the Crimean war began, the first two years of the reign of Frederick Lord Bloomfield had been transferred to the Second of Prussia, therefore it ranges in Berlin, and some account is here given of point of time with a portion of The King's the painful state of mind prevailing in the Secret, but does not touch at all upon the German capital at that time. The great same points of history, and is entirely unpolitical changes going on in Europe are of connected with it as a whole. The opening course often referred to, for during Lord of the Archives of Vienna and Berlin to the Bloomfield's service at St. Petersburg, researches of students has placed at the Berlin, and Vienna, Germany became an disposal of the Duke a vast mass of unpubempire, Italy was united under Victor lished and hitherto unavailable documents Emmanuel, France experimented with no less relative to the invasion of Silesia, the taking than four different forms of Government, of Prague, the political and military career Spain with two, and Mexico with two, while of Marshal Belle Isle, and the transactions of Austria-Hungary became united, and Lord Frederick the Second with his allies and the Bloomfield was present officially at the Court of Vienna, and these, supplemented by Emperor's Coronation. Some idea of the his family papers---for the correspondence scope of the reminiscences may be gathered of Marshal de Broglie is of great historical when we remember that the official promi- value-have enabled him to enrich literature nence which Lady Bloomfield shared with with a truly memorable work. A more comher husband brought her into contact with plete, convincing, unanswerable indictment most of the leading spirits in European has never been framed by a historian than politics during all these years, and nothing this one against the Prussian monarch. We that was memorable or interesting seems to do not even except Macaulay's tremendous have escaped her.

castigation of Barère—for the Duc de Broglie's

tone is more calmly critical, and its contempt ONE of the most important literary events is finer and more cold. The Carlyle myth of the year that has now half finished its vanishes before the array of inexorable course has been the publication, in French facts brought against it, but almost without and English almost simultaneously, of the allusion to it, for the Duke contents himDuc de Broglie's long-expected volumes on self with a mild expression of surprise that Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa. A the eminent English writer should have foretaste of their remarkable contents has fallen into errors of statement which he Frederick had owed his life to the interces of the Committee of Council on Educasion of the Emperor, Charles VI., with his tion to invite two of the most eminent brutal father, the “dumb poet” of Mr. Scandinavian antiquarians, Dr. Hildebrand, Carlyle), of his alliance with France, the the Royal Antiquary of Sweden, and Chamhereditary enemy of Austria, and of the berlain Worsaae, Director of the Royal execrable meanness, falsehood, and treachery Museums and Archeological Monuments of that marked every stage of that alliance, Denmark, to prepare handbooks for English until his defection which shocked the con- readers on the Industrial Arts of their counscience of all Europe, though it has unfor- tries. The first of these to appear was Mr. tunately found an English historian to defend Worsaae's treatise on the arts of Denmark it, is told with masterly skill, and such from the earliest times to the Danish conrefinement of style as renders the book a quest of England, a period which to most literary monument.

might have avoided, even though the docui Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa. From Hither- ments now brought to light were not procurto. Unpublished Documents, 1740-1742. By the Duc de able in his time. The shameful story of the and Mr. John LILLIE. In 2 vols. post. 8vo, London: invasion of the territory of his

benefactor's Sampson Low & Co.

daughter by the King of Prussia (for

readers is shrouded in darkness, but by the The revelations of D'Ameth and Droysen ; skill of the author, aided by the numerous the correspondence of the Marquis de Valori; illustrations and maps, the Stone Age, Maria Theresa's letters to Cardinal Fleury; Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Viking Period the story of Voltaire's vile letter to Freder- are made almost as real to us as the last ick on his breach of faith with France; the century. Among the remarkable discoveries secret history of Belle Isle's mission; the of objects of this very remote antiquity that petty spite and vindictiveness of Frederick's have been made, and are illustrated in the nature; his avarice; his absolute absence handbook, are tools, ornaments, weapons, and of moral sense; his habitual lying and low utensils of the Stone Age; similar objects of craftiness; his profanity; his baseness and the Bronze Age, and also articles of clothing, his genius; his cynical disbelief in any good; armour, vases, gold vessels, and rock carvings his utter selfishness, and the shamelessness of the same period ; while of the Iron Age, that so staggered his victims that they could in addition to the above, are ornamented not even protest against one who trampled vessels in earthenware, silver, gold, bronze, principles and appearances, treaties and wood, and glass, helmets and coats of mail, forms underfoot equally; all these make a spurs, horse's bit with chains attached, stirwonderful picture. The artist to whom we rups, rings, bracelets, brooches and buckles owe it will no doubt go on with these of gold and silver, gold trumpets, and woven masterly studies, and in time present the cloth with gold and silver thread, and a great full and true record to the world of the man variety of other things—the illustrations bewhom it has been sought to exalt into a demi- ing more than two hundred in number. god by the English evangelist of brute force, In sketching the Industrial Arts of Scandiwho in his own turu now stands revealed to navia, Dr. Hildebrand has followed the the world as a cold and cruel domestic tyrant. same plan as Mr. Worsaae, but his style is

In the Frederick of these two years, 1740- even more clear and attractive, and many of 42, we see the Frederick of after days—he the illustrations, especially those of the who drove his miserable soldier-slaves back jewels, ornaments, and weapons of the later into the battle with a curse—“ The Iron Age in Gotland and Scandinavia, are do they want to live for ever?” (surely the beautiful. The word Scandinavia, by the most brutal utterance recorded in history)

—way, is generally misapplied by English and in the young Queen of Hungary, of people to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. whom the Duke, while upholding the anti- According to Dr. Hildebrand it should proAustrian policy of France, writes with noble perly be applied to Sweden and Norway only. enthusiasm, we see the perfect wife and mother, and the wise sovereign, the loss of whose counsels to her daughter was, in later with the Players, has supplemented those

The author of A Book of the Play, and Hours days, one of the great premonitory calamities admirable books by another of similar value, of France. The vividness of the style, the vitality of

but in a different way, called Nights at the the portraiture, the minute and careful

PlayS Probably no English writer of the sequence, never for a moment tedious, of the drama or so keen an insight and so

present day has so thorough a knowledge of this chapter in European history, unite with felicitous a way of describing what passes its authentic value and the entire novelty of the materials of which it is composed, to theatrical reviews which he has been contri

on the stage as Mr. Dutton Cook, and the place it in the very first rank of politicohistorical literature.

| The Industrial Arts of Denmark. From the Earliest

Times to the Danish Conquest of England. By J. J. A. In the summer of 1882 a special loan WORSAAE, Hon. F.S.A., M.R.I.A., F.S.A. Scot., etc. exhibition was opened at the South Kensing. Chapman & Hall


8vo. Pp. 206. London : ton Museum, made up of a rich collection of · The Industrial Arts of Scandinavia in the Pagan Time. Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian antiquities, with numerous woodcuts.

By HANS HILDEBRAND, Royal Antiquary of Sweden.

8vo. Pp. 150. London : sent from the Danish museums by permission Chapman & Hall. of the King. The great interest manifested 3 Nights at the Play. A view of the English stage. By


London: Chatto & in these remarkable collections led the Lords Windus.

2 vols. 870.

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