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in paying off their debts the new erec-ed window of the church. Inscriptions tions were practically his.
on the pavement are nearly worn away, By 1321 (the time of Archbishop Reyn- though one fine bass-relief design lies well olds) the enlargements and improve- preserved under a door mat. Queer tabments of his successors had made the pal- lets are set in the walls with a mummyish ace an imposing structure. To be order-death's-head-and-cross-bones effect; but it ly in our tour of it we should begin with is a pleasant place to muse in quite alone the parish church, so near as to be almost on those rare English afternoons when integral with it, and of which the Dooms- the sunlight steals down through the tiny day-book and the Textus Roffense both stained window in the belfry. have record. It was extensively renova- The peal of eight bells in the tower is ted so late as 1769, but these alterations, certainly a step in advance of the wooden especially in the matters of architectural rattles with which previous to 680 the peoand ecclesiastical art details, were eupho- ple were raspingly summoned to public niously condemned as “injudicious treat- worship. “The English are vastly fond ment,” and all but the tower was pulled of great noises that fill the air," wrote down and rebuilt in 1851.
Hentzner at the close of the sixteenth cen-
ashes of Bishops Thirlby and Turustall
The church tower stands so close to the
ure which has brought so much of beauty | dishes" from their own tables, adding also and grandeur as safely through all the sums of money. This charity sometimes natural and made vicissitudes of four cen- reached a very grand scale, Archbishop turies. It is built of red brick, with stone Winchelsey being specially mentioned by dressings, and faces the south. In the first Godwin as having "therein excelled all story of the middle portion are the large before or after him." arched Tudor doorway and smaller arch- “He maintained,” says Godwin,“many ed postern to the right, and a large window poor scholars at the universities, and was looks out from the middle of the second exceedingly bountiful to other persons in story. This centre piece is flanked by distress.... Besides the daily fragments of two square and massive towers five stories his house, he gave every Friday and Sunin height, and heavily battlemented. day unto every beggar that came to his
At this gate was distributed the “imme- door a loafe of bread of a farthing price, morial dole.” The meaning of the word sufficient for one person one day .... And “dole”—“share” or “portion”—was very there were usually on such alms days in literally observed in those days, the arch- times of dearth to the number of 5000, but bishops making up munificent “alms I in a plentiful time 4000, and seldom or never under, which alone summed up £500 ments of ten persons every Sunday, Tuesper annum.... Over and above this he day, and Thursday in rotation. This used to give, every great festival day, 150 “dole" continues to be distributed. Enpence to as many poore people; to send tering by the postern, we come under the daily meate, drink, and bread unto such as groined roof of the gateway to the larger by reason of age and sickness were not open arch which faces the north upon the able to fetch alms at his gate; and to send outer court-yard of the grounds. On the
money, meate, and apparell to such as right hand is the door of the porter's he thought wanted the same and were lodge, and across to the left, through a ashamed to beg.”
door of open iron grating, are glimpses The dole at Lambeth in 1806 consisted of laundry and culinary arrangements. of fifteen quartern loaves, nine stone of Passing beyond the arch, immediately to beef, and five shillings in halfpence. The the right is a door leading by a winding beef was made into broth with oatmeal, and stone stair to upper rooms in the eastern the whole dole, divided in three equal por- gate tower, a portion separate in its intions, was distributed among thirty poor ternal management from the rest of the persons, who came to receive it in install- | Gate-house. There, in olden times, was a strongly grated opening in the wall (since | which has been placed all that could be turned into a closet), where warders took recovered of the glass of the windows of note of all who passed up or down the the old hall, comprising likenesses of the stairs. Directly opposite this is a passage saints Jerome, Gregory, and Augustine, through a very thick wall, with heavy and the young portrait of Chicheley, double doors, leading to a small room now queerly encircled with Parker's motto. used as a kitchen. Huge iron rings still Other strange fragments, memorials of fixed in its walls, and inscriptions near Edward III., Philip of Spain, and the age and around the iron-barred narrow win- of Queen Mary, together with the brilldows, are similar to those in the dungeon iant coats of arms of later archbishops, of Lollards' Tower, and it is believed that particularly of those connected with the the overflow from that dismal eyrie were library-for Juxon's Hall is now the palshut in here together, and their convic-ace library-brighten this interesting wintions frequently secured through the de- dow, and the arms of Bancroft and Howtestable process of eaves-dropping.
ley appear again in panels in the north In the western tower of the Gate-house and south end walls. The coats of arms a doorway of the same sort has been closed of the twelve archbishops who have taken up. In this tower the first floor was the the greatest interest in and given most to sitting-room and sanctum of Archbishop the growth of the library have recently, Morton. On the second floor is the record and at his own expense, been placed at or muniment room, where were stored the entrances to the book alcoves, at the the archives of the see, since removed to tops of the cases, by the present librarian, the fire-proof manuscript room next to Mr. S. W. Kershaw. The room is wainJuxon's Hall.
scoted, and has a paved floor; oak, chestThe record room, with its massive door, nut, and other woods are wrought into "spandreled fire-place," and ceils and the beautiful ceiling. walls of oak, is a stately presence-chamber, “Ah, ma'am," says the gate-keeper's though its cracking seams now lean on wife, who goes with us, and plainly loves strong supports.
every inch of the old palace, “if you Along the south side of the outer court could only stand here when the snow is yard extends what is now called Juxon's coming down, when the thick soft flakes Hall, formerly known as the Great Hall. fill the air with that wonderful whiteNothing certain is known of its first foun-ness, then such a strange and beautiful dation, but it existed in the time of Ed- light comes in, ma'am, through the lanward II., and the design of the handsome tern up there, and slips into all the little ceiling is supposed to have originated with places where you can see only the shadArchbishop Chicheley. It was spoiled in ows now, and brings out all the carvings the time of the Commonwealth, but on quite clear in a dim golden light. Oh, the restoration of King Charles, Juxon, it's in a snow-storm you should see that in his brief episcopate of three years, ex- roof, ma'am!". pended £10,000 in rebuilding the hall, Between some of the buttresses are making as exact a re-creation as possible, thriftily growing some cuttings from the in spite of strong influences and counsels famous white Marseilles fig-trees said to in favor of newer designs.
have been planted by Cardinal Pole, which At the south end of Juxon's Hall is a in 1806 rose fifty feet from the soil, covered second covered archway, leading into the an area of forty feet, and bore delicious inner square court-yard. By a small door fruit. in the left wall of this arch we enter this The original use for such halls as these, hall, and find it a noble room nearly 100 both in Lambeth Palace and other great feet long, over 50 feet high, by 38 feet English mansions, was hospitality. Bebroad. A louvre or lantern-house rises sides the hospitable Winchelsey, whose from the roof, and the vane bears the arms enormous charities I have cited, Cranmer, of the “ see of Canterbury impaling those Pole, and Parker were eminent for the of Juxon, with a mitre over them, and the same virtue, and this great hall saw notedate 1663."
worthy gatherings. The five west windows rise between In Knight's London I find that Crantheir deep buttresses to the very and mer's ménage comprised the following in the north bay beyond, what used to be list of officers: “Steward, treasurer, compa doorway is now a beautiful window, in troller, gamators, clerk of the kitchen, caterers, clerk of the spicery, yeoman of ing when “the whole body of the reformthe ewry, bakers, pantlers, yeomen of the tainted bishops and clergy were summonhorse, yeoman ushers, butlers of wine and ed by Archbishop Pole, with Bonner and ale, larderers, squilleries, ushers of the Gardiner at his side," and were absolved hall, porter ushers of the chamber, daily of their heresies, and instructed for their waiters in the great chamber, marshal, future course. groom, ushers, almoner, cooks, chandler,
Again, some forty years later, was conbutchers, master of the horse, yeomen of voked here the equally contrasting assemthe wardrobe, and harbingers." And Phil bly, presided over by Whitgift, acting as ip and Mary gave Cardinal Pole a patent a self-constituted body" to draw up the soto retain one hundred servants. From all called “ Lambeth Articles," which were this service we can imagine what great kept in abeyance by Elizabeth. Gradualand generous state was kept up at the ly this hall fell into comparative disuse palace.
until 1829, when Archbishop Howley came Meals were served here (Juxon's Hall) to the see, and began to repair the palace. at three tables, the guests and house- He spent £75,000-half the sum from hold being seated in order of precedence. his own purse --- and was careful to pre“There was a monitor of the hall,” says serve whatever was really ancient or of one chronicler, “and if it happened that historic interest, but had small scruple in any one spoke too loud, or concerning pulling down the "patchwork jumble" things less decent, it was presently hush- that had been barnacled upon it during ed by one that cried 'Silence!'”—which the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. would be a sensible custom for some Room was thus made for the fine modern fashionable dining salons of to-day. All buildings of the architect Blore's construcstrangers met with full and gentle court- tion, which reach eastward into the garesy, and were assigned to their appropriate dens and front on the inner court-yard. places at the archbishop's “well-spread Howley fitted up the hall with bookboard."
cases and reading alcoves, to receive the Sometimes, however, the burden of the valuable library of ecclesiastical and theohospitality was confessedly felt to be too logical history, exquisitely painted works onerous, as in the primacy of Archbishop of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuAbbot when the High Commission Courtries, art treasures in illuminated MSS. sitting for Surrey was held at Lambeth. and missals now stored there, and the seOn every Thursday while its term lasted, ries of archiepiscopal registers from A.D. the palace was literally filled, the lords 1279 to 1747, entire but for a single break assembling there, together with the jus- of twenty-seven years between 1322 and tices of the whole county. “And be- 1349, comprising the registers of four archsides all this great labor for my servants," bishops, supposed to have been transferred says Abbot's own account, “it cost me to Rome. Since the time of Archbishop some £2000 in money; but, I gave them Potter this series of registers has been entertainment and sate with them, albeit kept at Doctors' Commons. I said nothing, for the confusion was so Lambeth Palace had no public library great I knew not what to make of it." before the seventeenth century, when
Besides consecration banquets, two Archbishop Bancroft began to gather one, meetings of the Houses of Convocation and at his death left the whole of his fine adjourned here, once from St. Paul's and collection for the use of his successors foronce from Westminster, owing to the ill-ever, and so wisely protected this bequest nesses of Archbishops Kemp and Whit- in his will that it could not, in any of the gift. It was in this hall that the oath violent changes that followed, be averted giving the royal succession to the heirs of from its lawful heirs. Abbot, Secker, Anne Boleyn was administered to the Cornwallis, and other primates added clergy by Cranmer; here that Sir Thomas their books to the generous gift of BanMore and Bishop Fisher stoutly repudiated croft, and in 1826 there were 25,000 volit; here that Cranmer and his foe Bonner umes. They were, of course, “learned, recriminated when Bonner and Gardiner rare, and curious works ;" and besides were called before the primate, deposed, ecclesiastics and polemics, English histoand sent to prison; here hat Cranmer ry and topography with some wonderful himself was sentenced to death. Here, embellishments, and romance, poetry, and too, in 1554, came the contrasting meet-general literature.