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forty-seventh year of his age, Ol. 92. 1. Euripides is also mentioned as still in the city: he left it to go into Macedonia, Ol. 92. 4, and, consequently, it must have
bon has not explained this. See also Laertius in Protagoras, L. 9. 54. We have still an oration of Alcidamas in the person of Ulysses against Palamedes. It may be also observed, that Laertius (L. 9. c. 25.) when he mentions Zeno Eleates, cites by mistake the Sophistes, instead of the Phædrus of Plato. Isocrates, in his oration on Helena, indeed says, that Zeno in his disputations would shew the same things to be possible and impossible.
P. 262. Eστιν ουν όπως τεχνικος κτλ.] Read μεταβιβαζωναπαγειν –to answer to διαφευγειν.
264. Χαλκή.] Epitaph on Midas, by some attributed to Homer and by others to Cleobulus of Lindias. See Vit. Homeri, Herodoti ut dicitur, (V. Herodot. Edit. Gronov. 1715, p. 559.) and D. Laertius in Cleobulo, L. 1, c. 89.
265. Definition of a general complex idea, Εκ πολλων ιων αισθησεων εις εν λογισμω ξυναιρουμενον.-Εις μιαν τε ιδεαν συνορώντα αγειν τα πολλαχη διεσπαρμενα.
266. Almost all these persons are mentioned by Quintilian L. 3, 1., as having written arts of rhetorick, and were all now flourishing, Ol. 92, except Tisias of Syracuse, Evenus of Paros, Protagoras of Abdera, and Licymnius.
Ib. See Quintilian, L. 4. c. 1. 2. 3. and L. 5. c. 1. 4. and L. 8. C. 5. for an explanation of the terms, Προοιμιον, Διηγησιν, Μαρτυριας, Τεκμηρια, Πιστωσιν, Ελεγκος, Διπλασιολογια, Γνωμολογια, Εικονολογια, Ευεπεια, Επανοδος Or Ανακεφαλαιωσις.
267. Oικτρογοων επι γηρας και πενιαν ελκομενων.] An allusion to some poet: he means that Thrasyinachus had gained great wealth by his art. .
268. Διεστηκoς τo ητριον.] A metaphor from an unequal and ill-woven texture. 269. Μελιγηρυν Αδραστον.] An allusion to Tyrteus :
Ουδ' ει Τανταλιδεω Πελοπος βασιλευτερος ειη,
Γλωσσαν δ' Αδρηστου μειλιχογηρυν εχοι.
happened in some year of that Olympiad, probably the 2d or 3d, and Plato must have written it in less than ten years afterwards, for his Lysis was written before
80 that perhaps we should read in this place μειλιχογηρυν for μελιγηρυν.
P. 270. Νου τε και ανοιας.] He (i.e. Anaxagoras).attributed the disposition of the universe to an intelligent cause, or mind, whence he himself was called Nous. He was nearly of the same age with Pericles, and came to Athens Ol. 75. 1, where he passed about thirty years.
Ib. Ιπποκρατει.] That famous physician was then about fifty years of age ; and his works were universally read.
272. Αλλα του πιθανου.] See the allusion to this passage in Quintilian, L. 2, c. 15.
273. Η αλλος όστις δη ποτ' ων τυγχανει, και oπoθεν χαιρει ονομαζομενος.] The art, which bore the name of Tisias, was not certainly known to be genuine. He says this in allusion to the custom of invoking the gods by several names. See Callim. . Hymn. ad Jovem. Hor. Od. Sæcul. &c. &c. See also Plato in Protagoras, p. 358. and in Cratylus, p. 400. and in Euthydemus,
274. Θεύθ.] The Egyptian deity, Mercury, to whom the bird Ibis was sacred. Vid. Platon. Philebum, Edit. Serrani, vol. 2. p. 18. Επειδη φωνην απειρον, &c.
275. This discourse of Thamus (or Jupiter Ammon) on the uses and inconveniences of letters is excellent; he gives a lively image of a great scholar, that is, of one who searches for wisdom in books alone: Τουτο των μαθοντων ληθην μεν εν ψυχαις παρεξει μνημης αμελητησια, ατε δια πιστιν γραφης εξωθεν υπ' αλλοτριων τυπων, ουκ ενδοθεν αυτους υφ' αυτων, αναμιμνησκομενους" ουκουν μνημης, αλλ' υπομνησεως, φαρμακον ευρες" σοφιας δε τους μαθηταις δοξαν, ουκ αληθειαν, ποριζεις. πολυηκοοι γαρ σοι γενομενοι ανευ διδαχης, πολυγνωμονες ειναι δοξωσι, αγνωμονες, ως επι το πλήθος, οντες και χαλεποι ξυνειναι δοξοσοφοι γεγονοτες αντι σοφων.
Ib. Δρυος και πετρας.] An allusion to that saying, Απο δρυος, η απο πετρης.
Hom. 11. V. 126.
the death of Socrates, which was Ol. 95. 1, but the Phædrus was still earlier, being his first composition ; so he was between twenty and twenty-nine years of age.
P. 276. Αδωνιδος κηποι.] Corn and seeds of various kinds, Sown in shallow earth to spring up soon, which were carried in the procession on the feast of Adonis. Theocritus, Idyll. 15. v. 113.
Παρ δ' απαλοι κάποι πεφυλαγμενοι εν ταλαρισκους
Αργυρεους and the Schol. on the passage : see also the Emperor Julian in his Cesares : “ Κηποι, ούς αι γυναικες τω της Αφροδιτης ανδρι φυτευουσιν οστρακιους επαμησαμενοι γην λαχανιαν χλωρησαντα δε ταυτα προς ολιγον αυτικα απομαραινεται. Julian. Op. Edit. Lipsie, 1696, pag. 329.
Ib. Αντι τουτων δις λεγων.] Do not, with Serranus, correct it to έν τι ; yet read oία λεγω.
278. Νυμφών νάμα και Μουσων.] The Ilyssus was consecrated to the Muses, who had an altar on its banks under the title of Μουσαι Ειλισσιαδες, possibly near the scene of this dialogue.
1b. Ισοκρατην τον καλον.] Isocrates was now about twentyfive years of age, and had a share in the friendship both of Socrates and of Plato. Laertius, L. 3. C. 8.
279. Πλεον η παιδων.] Subauditur, οι αλλοι ανδρες ; the same ellipsis is used in Plato's 4th Epist.
H, ΠΕΡΙ ΦΙΛΙΑΣ.
THERE is no circumstance in this dialogue to inform one at what time it is supposed to have happened ; but it is certain that Plato wrote it when he was yet a young man, before Ol. 95. 1, for Socrates heard it read. The scene of it is in a Palæstra, then newly built, a little without the walls of Athens near the fountain of Panops, between the Academia and the Lycæum. The interlocutors are Socrates, Hippothales, and Ctesippus,
1 Νεανισκος τις Παιανιευς, μαλα καλος τε καγαθος, την φυσιν όσον
υβριστης δε, δια το νεος ειναι. In Euthydemo, Piat. Op. V. 1. p. 273. Both Ctesippus and Menexenus were present at Socrates's death. (In Phædone.)
NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT.
Platon. Op. Serrani, Vol. 2. p. 203. From 204 to 211.] Thus far the dialogue is very easy and elegant, particularly the short conversation with Lysis, which is an example how children of fortune and family ought to be treated, in order to correct that arrogance which those advantages are apt to inspire, and to win them,gradually to reflection and good sense.
P. 204, Mikkos.] Perhaps the same person who is mentioned by Suidas, as a Mytilenean, who settled at Athens, and father to Alcæus the comick poet, who flourished Ol. 97. 4. V. Schol. ad Plutum Aristophan. in Arguinento. We see the sophists
two young men of Athens; Lysis, a boy of noble birth and fortune, beloved by Hippothales, and Menexenus, also a boy, and cousin to Ctesippus, and friend to Lysis. The characters are, as usual, elegantly drawn; but what is the end or meaning of the whole dialogue, I do not pretend to say. It turns upon the nature and definition of friendship. Socrates starts a hundred notions about it, and confutes them all himself; no
1 The discourse with Menexenus is intended to correct a boy of a bolder and more forward nature than Lysis, by shewing him that he knows nothing; and leaves him in the opinion of his own ignorance. The second title of the dialogue is a false or an incorrect one, for friendship is only by accident a part of it; the intent of the whole seems to be, to shew in what manner we should converse with young people according to their different dispositions.
frequented the Palæstræ, as the publick resort of the youth, and taught their art there.
P. 204. Ilapataonoeta..] Enecabitur, conficietur.
Ib. Ως “Ερμαια αγoυσιν αναμεμιγμενοι, εν ταυτω εισιν οι νεανισκοι Kal ól taides.] A festival celebrated in all the places of education for boys. We see here how little the severe laws of Solon on this head were observed, which particularly forbade grown persons to be admitted on that occasion. Æschin. Orat. in Timarchum in principio.
Ib. Ilaidotpißns.] The master of the Palestra, who taught them their exercise.
207. Επηλυγασαμενος προεστη, read προσεστη, as in p. 210, ανεμνήσθην ότι και προσεστως, &c.
208. Ilaidaywyos.] Commonly some old slave who waited on them to the schools and to the Palæstræ.
211. Optuya.] The passion of the Athenians for fighting quails and game-cocks is well known. See Plutarch in Alcibiade.
213. Either leave out our in that passage, óre nkpoâto OUK ούτως εχειν, or read perhaps, ουκ ήσυχως.