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of great honesty, mild, affable, and soberly cheerful :1 not rich, and a man of few words; was son to Hipponicus and brother to Callias. He was present at the death of Socrates. 4

CHARMIDES. He had a considerable estate in lands before the Peloponnesian war, which he thence entirely lost, and was reduced to great poverty. He was present at the symposium of Callias, where he discoursed on the advantages and pleasures of being poor. He ran at the stadium, at Nemea, contrary to Socrates's advice. He was of extreme beauty when a youth.6

ÆSCHYLUS. He was of Phlius, and was introduced by Antisthenes to Socrates.

CRITO. He was father to Critobūlus; was of Alopecæ, and about the same age with Socrates.? He made the proposal to contrive the escape of Socrates out of prison, and to send him into Thessaly ; 8 he attended him daily in his confinement, and at the time of his death; he received his last orders : he closed his eyes, and took care of his funeral.9

1 Xenoph. Sympos.
3 Plato, Cratylus.
6 Plato, Charmid.

Ibid. p. 391 and 408. 4 Plato, Phædo. 6 Plato, Theages. 7 Plato, Apolog.

8 Id. Crito. 9 Id. Phædo.




This is supposed to be the first Dialogue which Plato wrote ; εχει γαρ (says Laertius 1) μειρακιωδες τι το προβλημα: Δικαιαρχος δε και τον τροπον της γραφης όλον επιμεμφεται, ως φορτικον. Dionysius Halicarnassensis 2 calls it one of his most celebrated discourses; and from it he produces examples both of the beauty and of the blemishes of Plato's style, of the xapartmp coxvos kai apelns, which is all purity, all grace and perspicuity; and of the vendos, wherein he sometimes

1 Diog. Laert. L. 3, c. 38. (c. 25 edit. Kraus. Lipsiæ, 1759).

2 Περι της Δημοσθενούς δεινοτητος. p. 270. V. 2, ed. Hudsoni. He attributes the first to Plato's education in the company of Socrates; the latter to his imitation of Gorgias and Thucydides. Vid. et Epist. ad Cn. Pompeium, p. 202.


Platonis Opera, Edit. Serrani H. Steph. 1578, Vol. 3. Vol. 3. p. 227. Akoppevw.] Acumenus was father to Eryximachus, both of them physicians of note, and friends of Socrates.

Ib. Ev Tols Opouocs.] Places in the Gymnasia, where people exercised themselves by walking a great pace, or by running. See Plato's Euthydemus, p. 273. IIeplenaTELTNV EV TW kataotyw Apouw, &c.

rises to a true sublimity, and sometimes falls into an ungraceful redundancy of words and of ill-suited figures ungraceful and obscure.

There is a good analysis of the Phædrus by Mr. Abbé Sallier, wherein he shews its true subject and intention. It is upon eloquence and is designed to demonstrate, that no writer, whether legislator, orator, historian, or poet, can do any thing excellent without a

1 Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions, &c. V. 9, p. 49. See also another analysis by Mr. Hardion in his tenth Dissertation on the eloquence of Greece. Ib. V. 16, p. 378, des Mémoires.


P. 227. Tov Odvjetlov.] The vast temple of Jupiter, begun by Pisistratus, but never finished till the time of the emperor Hadrian.

Ib. IIpoonkovo a ye ool.] Socrates professed the art of love. See Xenoph. Sympos.

Ib. IIpeoßutepw.] He was then threescore and upwards.

Ib. Kατα Ηροδικον.] Ηerodicus of Selymbria, ο παιδοτριβης. See Plat. Protagoras, p. 316. There was also Herodicus, the Leontine, a physician, and brother to the famous Gorgias (See Plat. Gorg. 448 and 456.): the first was also a physician, and the first who regulated the exercises of youth by the rules of medicine. See de Republicâ, L. 3, p. 406, fusè.

228. EO putteto.) He played the coquet; he denied, only to be courted to do what he wished.

Ib. Αυτου δεηθητι, όπερ ταχα παντως ποιησει.] Read, ποιηση, and make no other correction : i.e. “Be now intreated to do, what you will do presently without any intreaty at all.”

229. Tns Aypaias.] The district, or ônuos, was called Aypal, in which stood the temple of Diana Aypotepa. Pausanias, Attic. L. 1, p. 45. ed. Kuhnii.

Ib. Evv Þapuakelą.] Orithyia and Procris were the daughters of Erectheus. Who Pharmacéa was, I do not find.

Ib. Λιαν δε δεινου.] Such disquisitions were the common employments of the sophists and grammarians.

foundation of philosophy. The title prefixed to it, Ilepu Kadoù, cannot be genuine ; it has no other relation to it, than that beauty is accidentally the theme of Socrates's second little oration, which is contained in this dialogue ; not that it is, directly, even the subject of that, for the tendency of it is to prove, “Ως εραστη μαλλον, η τω μη ερώντι δει χαριζεσθαι, as the two preceding orations were to shew the contrary. These are what Laertius calls


P. 230. Typhon or Typhæus, the youngest son rth and Tartarus. Hesiod, Theogon. v. 821. has given a fine description of this portentous form.

Ib. Axelwov.] The Achelous was looked upon in Greece as the principal of all rivers, and his name was used for all fresh water in general : he was usually worshipped in common with Pan and the Nymphs, as here.

Ib. Καρπον πρoσιoντες.] Read προσειoντες, shaking it before them.

231. Nv deoua..] What he desired, will appear but too plainly in the course of these little orations, and must appear a most strange subject of conversation for Socrates, to all who are un. acquainted with the manners of Greece. The President de Montesquieu has observed, but too justly, on the nature of their love and gallantry. Esprit des Loix, V. 1. See also Xenoph. Economic. and Symposium; and the Symposium of Plato ; see also de Legib. L. 1. p. 636.

Ib. Tov vojov.] There were, indeed, laws of great severity in Athens against this vice; but who should put them in force in such general and shocking depravity ?

234. This praise he cannot help bestowing on Lysias's composition, namely, “Οτι σαφη, και στρογγυλα, και ακριβως έκαστα των ονοματων αποτετορνευται. .

235. Ωσπερ οι εννεα.] The Archons took an oath to do this, if they were guilty of corruption, before they took their seats in the Eroa Baoilelos. See Jul. Pollux, L. 8, c. 13. Plutarch in Solon; and Heraclides in Politiis.

Προβληματα μειρακιωδη, though he may mean it of the whole dialogue, which is something juvenile and full of Vanity. Dionysius very justly says, Ην γαρ εν μεν τη Πλατωνος φυσει, πολλας αρετας εχουση, το φιλοτιμον, and before, Πλατων το φορτικωτατον και επαχ

θεστατον των εργων προελομενος, αυτον επαινειν κατα την δυναμιν των λογων, &c.

The Socratick Dialogues are a kind of dramas, wherein the time, the place, and the characters are

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NOTES. P. 235. Παρα γε εμαυτού ουδεν.] It is observable, that Socrates, whenever he would discourse affirmatively on any subject, or when he thought proper to raise and adorn his style, does it not in his own person, but assumes the character of another. . Thus, for instance, he relates the beautiful fable between Virtue and Pleasure after Prodicus ; he treats of the miseries of human life in the words of the same sophist; he describes the state of souls after death from the information of Gobryas, one of the Magi ; he makes a panegyrick on wine in the style of Gorgias; and here he does not venture to display his eloquence, till the Nymphs and the Muses have inspired him. This is consistent with that character of simplicity and of humility which he assumed.

236. Κυψελιδων.] See Pausanias, L. 5, p. 378.

Ib. Oμοιας λαβας.] A metaphor taken from wrestling: you give me a good hold of you. So in Lib. de Republ. 8, p. 544. Παλιν τοινυν, ώσπερ παλαιστης, την αυτην λαβην παρεχε.

Ib. Των Κωμωδων.] The repetition of a person's words by way of reproach. .

Ib. Ποιητην.] Used for one who composes any thing, whether prose or verse. So above, p. 234. Ως τα δεοντα ειρηκοτος του Ποιητού.-Ομνυμι γαρ σοι : what follows should be written thus, Τινα μεντοι ; τινα θεων ; ει βουλει, την πλατανην ταυτηνι.

237. Αγετε δη, ω Μουσαι.] Thus far, says Dionysius, παντα χαριτων μεστα : hence begins a style more turbid and obscure, and disagreeably poetical.

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