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CRITOBŪLUS. A man of fortune; his estate was worth above eight talents, which in Athens was very considerable. Had served the offices of gymnasiarch, choregus, &c. the most expensive of the city. Of an amorous disposition; negligent of economy; a lover of dramatick spectacles; he married a very young inexperienced woman, with whom he conversed very little : 1 he was present at the entertainment given by Callias to Autolycus, Socrates, and others, and at that time was newly married. Ol. 89. 4. He was remarkable for his beauty; his fine panegyrick on it: was passionately fond of Clinias. Crito, his father, introduced him to the acquaintance of Socrates, that he might cure him of this passion.2

ISCHOMACHUS. He was called in Athens, by way of pre-eminence, ο καλος καγαθος ; he married a young maid under ffteen years of age, whom he educated and instructed himself. His first serious conversation with her, related by him to Socrates, on the duties of a mistress of a family. The order and arrangement of his house de1 Xenophon, Economic.

2 Id. Sympos.

scribed : his morning exercises, walk to his villa, and ride from thence. He was a remarkably good horseman, of a vigorous constitution, and lasting health ; was one of the richest men in Athens. His instruction and treatment of his slaves; his knowledge in agriculture. His father before him was a great lover of that art. He meddled not much in publick affairs : 2 believed, while he lived, to be worth above seventy talents; but at his death he left not twenty, to be divided between his two sons. 3



His genealogy :.....Phænippus

Callias 4 ο Δαδούχος.



Callias o

Hipponicus ?


1 Xenophon, Economicus.

2 Id. Eod. 3 Lysias, Orat. de bonis Aristophanis, p. 348.

4 Dictus ó Aakkor Moutos. Herod. 5. Plutarch in Aristide. Scol. in Demosthen. p. 393. Victor Celete Ol. 54.

5 Dictus Ammon. Athenæus, L. 12. Plutarch de Malign. Herodoti.

6 ó Aakkotlovtos, uti et avus. Plut. in Aristide. Herodot. 7. Demosth. de Fals. Legat.

7 Qui ad Delium occubuit, Ol. 89. 1. Thucyd.—Plut. Alcib. Andocides in Alcibiadem

Callias was in love with Autolycus, the son of Lyco, who gained the victory (while yet a boy) in the Pancratium during the greater Panathenæa, Ol. 89. 4, upon which occasion Callias gave an entertainment to his friends 1 at his house in the Piræeus. He had been scholar to the sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, and Prodicus; was very wealthy; and had learned the art of memory from Hippias of Elis, at the recommendation of Antisthenes. He was IIpoŝevos of the Lacedæmonians who came to Athens; was hereditary priest of the Eleusinian deities, ó Aadoûxos; was remarkable for his nobility and the gracefulness of his person ;2 he had two sons, who were instructed by Evenus, the Parian sophist;3 he entertained Protagoras, Prodicus, and Hippias, and other sophists, their companions, in his house, Ol. 90. 1.4

NICERATUS. He was son to the famous Nicias; was present at the symposium of Callias, Ol. 89. 4, and then newly married. He could repeat by heart the whole Iliad and Odyssee, and had been scholar to Stesimbrotus and Anaximander. He was very wealthy and somewhat covetous; was fond of his wife, and beloved by her ;5 was scholar to Damon, the famous musician, who had been recommended to his father by Socrates ; 6 and finally, he was put to death by order of the Thirty, with his uncle Eucrates.?

2 Ibid.


1 Xenophon, Symposium ; Athenæus, L. 5, p. 216.

Plato, Apolog. 4 Plato, Protagoras. 5 Xenophon, Sympos.

6 Plato in Lachete. Xenophon, Gr. Hist. L. 2. Andocides de Mysteriis.



He was extremely poor, but with a contempt of wealth ; was present in the symposium of Callias, where he proved that riches and poverty are in the mind alone, and not in externals. His way of life was easy and contented : he passed whole days in the company of Socrates, who taught him (he says) to be mentally rich. He was much beloved in the city, and his scholars were esteemed by the publick. He recommended Prodicus and Hippias the Elean to Callias ;1 bore great affection to Socrates, and was present at his death.2


A man of warmth and eagerness of temper ;3 he was a friend to the liberties of the people ; he fled to and returned with Thrasybulus ; he died before Socrates's trial; for he is mentioned in Socrates's Apology, as then dead, and in the Gorgias, as then living: his death must therefore have happened between Ol. 93. 4. and Ol. 95. 1. He consulted the Delphian oracle to know if any man were wiser than Socrates. His brother, Chærecrates, survived him. 4

EPIGENES. He was the son of Antipho of Cephisia : 5 and was present at the death of Socrates. 6

1 Xenophon, Sympos.
3 Vid. Charmidem, p. 153.
o Plato, Apol.

2 Plato, Phæd.

Apol. Socrat.


6 Phædo.

APOLLODORUS. He was brother to Aiantodorus :1 was a man of. small abilities, but of an excellent heart, and remarkable for the affection he bore to Socrates;2 he was present in the prison at the time of his death. He lived at Phalerus, of which Anjos he was ;

was but a boy when Socrates was fifty-three years old, and must therefore have been under thirty-seven, at the time of Socrates's death. He was called Mavikos from the warmth of his temper.

PHÆDO. He was an Elean. See his account of Socrates's last moments.5

SIMMIAS. He was a Theban, and a young man at the time of Socrates's death (as was Cebes), at which they were both present. He had received some tincture of the Pythagorean doctrines from Philolaus of Crotona ; and was inquisitive and curious in the search of truth, far above all prejudice and credulity.

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He was a Theban. (Vid. Simmiam.)

He was a man of piety, and believed in divination.
He was present in Callias's symposium ; was a person


3 Id.

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6 Plato, Phædo.

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