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under or above this term to be brought up, but exposed, and the parents severely censured ; as are all who meet without the usual solemnities, and without the license of the magistrate.

P. 461. All children, born within seven or ten months from the time any person was permitted to propagate, are to be considered as their own children: all that are born within the time, in which their parents are suffered to breed, are to regard each other as brethren. Marriage is to be prohibited between persons in these circumstances.

P. 462. Partiality and dissension among the soldiery are prevented by these appointments. A fellow-feeling of pleasures and of pains is the strongest band of union which can connect mankind.

P. 466. Children are to be carried out to war very

NOTES.

P. 473. 'Piyavras ta iuatia.] It was the custom of the Greeks, when they prepared themselves for sudden action, to throw off their pallium : so the chorus in Aristophanes's Irene, v. 728. Acharn. v. 626. Lysistrat. 663 and 687, and Thesmophor. v. 663, lay by their upper garment to dance the Parabasis.

474. EpwTikw.] Vid. p. 402 and 368. L. 3 and 2.

Ib. 'O jev óti oluos.] This is imitated by Ovid. de Arte Amandi L. 2. v. 657.

Nominibus mollire licet mala ; fusca vocetur,

Nigrior Illyricâ cui pice sanguis erit, &c. and by Lucretius, L. 4. v. 1150. “Nigra, Medexpoos, est &c." Whence H. Stephanus would correct this passage, and read for μελαγχλωρους, μελιχροου, but the true reading is μελιχλωρου. So Theocritus Idyll. 10. v. 26.

Συραν καλεοντι τυ παντες, ,
Ισχναν, άλιοκαυστον

eyw

δε μονος μελιχλωρον. .

early, to see and to learn their intended profession, and wait on their parents in the field.

P. 468. A soldier, who deserts his rank, or throws away his arms, is to be reduced to the rank of a mechanick: he, who is taken prisoner alive, is never to be ransomed.—The reward of the bravest.

P. 469. It is not permitted to reduce a Greek to captivity, nor to strip the dead of any thing but of their arms,

which are forbidden to be dedicated in the temples; it is not permitted to ravage the country farther than to destroy the year's crop, or to burn the buildings.

P. 472. The reason, why a state, thus instituted,

NOTES.

P. 474. Ilepőeovol TOLS ALOvvoloLs.] The Dionysia were celebrated three times * a year at Athens, the Avdeotnpla in the month which took its name from them, and answers nearly to our February; the Anvata immediately afterwards in the same month, anciently called μων ; and the Διονυσια Αστει, (par icularly so named) between the eighth and eighteenth of Elaphebolion (or March), and once in the Piræeus. All these were accompanied with tragedies, comedies, and other musical entertainments. There were also Ta kat' aypous solemnized in the country in Posideon, or December. The Scholiast on Aristophanes, and some other authors, confound these with the Lenæa, which were undoubtedly held in the city.

Ib. Twv kara Kwuas.] We see therefore that chorusses were performed in the villages on these festivals, as well as in the city. Isocrates indeed tells us, that the city was divided into Kwual, and the country into Anuoi. (Areopagit.)

* See the Fasti Attici Edw. Corsini V. 2. Diss. 13. and Spanheim. ad Ranas Aristophan. in procemio, who imagines those in the Piræeus to be the same with the Anthesteria.

1

seems an impossibility. No people will ever be rightly governed, till kings shall be philosophers, or philosophers be kings.

P. 474. The description of a genius truly philosophick.

P. 476. The distinction of knowledge and opinion.

DE REPUBLICA.

BOOK VI.

HEADS OF THE SIXTH DIALOGUE.

PLATO is no where more admirable than in this book : the thoughts are as just as they are new, and the elocution is as beautiful as it is expressive; it can never be read too often : but towards the end it is excessively obscure.

P. 485. The love of truth is the natural consequence of a genius truly inclined to philosophy. Such a mind will be little inclined to sensual pleasures, and consequently will be temperate, and a stranger to avarice and to illiberality.

NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT. Ρ. 485. Της ουσιας της αει ουσης, και μη πλανωμενης υπο γενεJEWS Kal poopas.] Our general abstracted ideas, as they exist in the mind independent of matter which is subject to continual changes, were regarded by Plato as the sole foundations of knowledge, and emanations, as it were, from the divinity him. self.

Ib. Of ideas independent of matter. To tw OKOTW Kekpaμενον, το γιγνομενον τε και απολλυμενον, or το αισθητον, are put in opposition to the το νοητον, το οντως ον, ή ουσια. Thus he calls pure speculative geometry, tov AEL OVTOs ywous. See Mr. Locke on the reality of our knowledge with regard to mathematical truths. L. 4. c. 4. s. 6. See also De Republ. L. 9. p. 585.

P. 486. Such a mind, being accustomed to the most extensive views of things and to the sublimest contemplations, will contract an habitual greatness, and look down, as it were, with disregard on human life and on death, the end of it; and consequently will possess the truest fortitude. Justice is the result of these virtues.

Apprehension and memory are two fundamental qualities of a philosophick mind.

P. 487. Such a genius is made by nature to govern mankind.

Objection from experience: that, such as have devoted themselves to the study of philosophy, and have made it the employment of their maturer age, have turned out either very bad men, or entirely useless to society.

P. 488. Their inutility, with regard to government, is allowed and accounted for. The comparison of a bad government to a ship, where the mariners have agreed to let their pilot have no hand in the steerage, but to take that task upon themselves.

NOTES.

P. 488. MeyeOEL MEV Kal Pwun.] Aristotle (Rhetor. L. 3. 121.) speaking of similes, mentions this of Plato ; Ý ELS TOV Onuov, όμοιος ναύκληρω, ισχυρω μεν, υποκωφω δε. The image seems borrowed from the Equites of Aristophanes.

Ib. 'Ol ypapers tpayelapovs.] The figures of mixed animals, such as are seen in the grotesque ornaments of the ancients, and imitated by the modern painters, &c.

Ib. Mnte exovta aTodelča..] Vid. Menonem, et Protagoram,

p. 357.

Ib. Metewpoo Kotov.] Vid. Politicum, p. 299, and Xenoph. Economic. p. 494. 496.

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