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decent, and persuasive. All instruments of great compass and of luxuriant harmony, the lyra, the cythara, and the fistula, are allowed; and the various rhythms or movements are in like manner restrained.
P. 398. Μιξολυδιστι.] The Dorian harmony is thus described by Heraclides Ponticus ap. Athenæum, L. 14. p. 624. ουν Δωριος αρμονια το ανδρωδες εμφαινει και το μεγαλοπρεπες, και ου διακεχυμενον ουδ' ιλαρον, αλλα σκυθρωπον και σφοδρον, ουτε δε ποικιλον, ουτε πολυτροπον. The Syntono-Lydian and Ionian are mentioned by Pratinas ; (Athenæus ib.)
Μη συντονον διωκε, μητ' ανειμενην
Ιαστι ουσαν" Athenæus ut sup. (Platon. Lachet. p. 188.) The Ionian was frequently used in the tragick chorus, as being accommodated to sorrow, as was also the Mixo-Lydian, invented by Sappho. See Burette on Plutarch de Musicâ, note 102. 103. Vol. 10. and 13. of the Mém. de l'Acad. des Belles-Lettres.
399. Τριγωνων.] The Τριγωνος was a triangular lyre of many strings, of Phrygian invention, used (as the Πηκτις) to accompany a chorus of voices. The latter is said to have been first used by Sappho :
Πολυς δε Φρυξ τριγωνος, αντισπαστα γε
Αυδης εφυμνει πηκτιδος συγχορδια. Sophocles in Mysis, ap. Atheneum, L. 14. p. 635, where per. haps we should read Λυδης for Αυδης ; for Pindar, cited in the same place, calls the IInktus a Lydian instrument, and Aristoxenus makes it the same as the Mayadus, which Anacreon tells us had twenty strings; afterwards, according to Apollodorus, it was called Ψαλτηριον.
400. Tρια ειδη, εξ ών αι βασεις πλεκονται.] Τετταρα, όθεν αι πασαι αρμονιαι.
Ib. Εις Δαμωνα.] (V. Lachetem, p. 180.) These opinions of Plato on the efficacy of harmony and rhythm seem borrowed from Damon : Ου κακως λεγουσι οι περι Δαμωνα τον Αθηναιον, ότι τας ωδας και τας ορχησεις αναγκη γινεσθαι κινουμενης πως της ψυχης, και αι μεν ελευθεριοι και καλαι ποιoυσι τοιαυτας· αι δ' εναντιαι τας εναντιας. Αthenaeus, L. 14. p. 628.
P. 401. The same principle is extended to painting, sculpture, architecture, and to the other arts.
P. 403. Love is permitted, but abstracted from bodily enjoyment. Diet and exercises, plain and simple meats, are prescribed.
P. 405. Many judges and physicians are a sure sign of a society ill-regulated both in mind and in body. Ancient physicians knew no medicines but for wounds, fractures, epidemical distempers, and other acute complaints. The diætetick and gymnastick method of
1 Iνα μη εν κακιας εικοσι τρεφομενοι ημίν οι φυλακες, ώσπερ εν κακη βοτανη, πολλα έκαστης ημερας κατα σμικρον απο πολλων δρεπομενοι τε και νεμομενοι, έν τι ξυνισταντες λανθανωσι κακον μεγα εν τη αυτων ψυχη. Αλλ' εκεινους ζητητεον τους δημιουργους, τους ευφυως δυναμενους ιχνευειν την του καλου τε και ευσχημονος φυσιν ιν', ώσπερ εν υγιεινω τοπω οικουντες, οι νεοι ωφελωνται απο παντος, όπoθεν αν αυτοις απο των καλων εργων η προς οψιν η προς ακοην τι προσβαλη, ώσπερ αυρα φερουσα απο χρηστων τοπων υγιειαν, και ευθυς εκ παιδων λανθανη εις ομοιοτητα τε και φιλιαν και συμφωνιαν τω καλω λογω αγoυσα. Πολυ καλλιστα ούτω τραφείεν. De Republ. 3. p. 400.
Ρ. 404. Υπνωδης αυτη.] Euripides describes them as great eaters; Γναθου τε δουλος νηδυος θ' ήσσημενος. Fragment. Autolyci (Dramatis Satyrici) ap. Αthenaeum, L. 10. p. 413, where Athenæus gives many instances of extreme voracity in the most famous athlete, and adds, παντες γαρ οι αθληται μετα των γυμνασματων και εσθιειν πολλα διδασκονται.
Ib. Συρακουσιων τραπεζαν.] Vid. Plat. Epist. 7. p. 326. 327. and 336.
405. Φευγων και διωκων.] The image of the talents and turn of the Athenians at that time.
437. Πιλιδια.] Sick people went abroad in a cap, or little - hat. .
cure, or rather of protracting diseases, was not known before Herodicus introduced it.
P. 409. The temper and disposition of an old man of probity, fit to judge of the crimes of others, is described.
P. 410. The temper 1 of men, practised in the exercises of the body, but unacquainted with musick and with letters, is apt to run into an obstinate and brutal fierceness; and that of the contrary sort, into indolence and effeminacy. The gradual neglect of this, in both cases, is here finely painted,
P. 412. Choice of such of the soldiery, as are to rise to the magistracy; namely, of those, who through their life, have been proof to pleasure and to pain.
P. 414. An example of a beneficial fiction. It is difficult to fix in the minds of men a belief in fables, originally ; but it is very easy to deliver it down to posterity, when once established.
P. 416. The habitation of the soldiery: all luxury in building to be absolutely forbidden them : they are to have no patrimony, nor possessions, but to be supported and furnished with necessaries from year to year by the citizens; they are to live and eat in common, and to use no plate, nor jewels, nor money.
1 Vid. Platon. Politicum, p. 307 and 308.
NOTES. P. 409. OUKOUV KOL LATPLKN.] See the Gorgias, p. 587 and 588.
414. POLVIKLKOV Tl.] He alludes to the Theban fable of the earth-born race, which sprang from the dragon's teeth, and which, in another place, he calls To tou Eidwvlov uvoolomua, meaning Cadmus. See de Legibus, L. 2. p. 663.
HEADS OF THE FOURTH DIALOGUE,
P. 419. Objection : that the ovlakes (or soldiery), in whose hands the government is placed, will have less happiness and enjoyment of life than any of the meanest citizens."
Answer: that it is not the intention of the legislature to bestow superiour happiness on any one class of men in the state ; but that each shall enjoy such a measure of it, as is consistent with the preservation of the whole.
P. 421. Opulence and poverty are equally destructive of a state ;2 the one producing luxury, indolence, and 1 See De. Republ. L. 5. p. 466. and L. 7. p. 519.
? See De Legib. L. 5. p. 729 and 743.
NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT. Ρ. 420. Ανδριαντας γραφοντας.] Ανδριας seems used here for a painting, and not for a statue.
Ib. Evotidas.] Evotis was a long variegated mantle, which swept the ground, worn by the principal characters in tragedy, and on great solemnities by the Greek women:
Βυσσοιο καλον συροισα χιτωνα, ,
Theocrit. Id. 2. v. 73.
a spirit of innovation ; the other producing meanness, cunning, and a like spirit of innovation.
The task of the magistracy is to keep both the one and the other out of the republick.
P. 422. Can such a state, without a superfluity of treasure, defend itself, when attacked by a rich and powerful neighbour ?
As easily as a champion, exercised for the olympick games, could defeat one or more rich fat men unused to fatigue, who should fall upon him in a hot day.
The advantage of such a state, which neither needs riches nor desires them, in forming alliances.
Every republick formed on another plan, though it bear the name of a state, is in reality several states included under one name; the rich making onel state, the poor another, and so on; always at war among themselves.
P. 423. A body of a thousand men bred to war, and united by such an education and government as this, is superiour even in number to any thing that almost any state in Greece could produce.
P. 424. No innovation is to be ever admitted in the original plan of education. A change of musick in a country betokens a change in their morals.
1 See De Republ. L. 8. p. 551.
2 This was an opinion of the famous Damon. See De Legib. 1.. 2. p. 657. and L. 3. p. 700.
P. 420. Ootpelw.] The colour of the purple-fish used in painting, and not only in dying ; so in Plato's Cratylus : Evlote μεν οστρεoν, ενιοτε δε ότιoύν αλλο φαρμακον επηνεγκαν.
427. Efnintas.] See Plato's Euthyphro.