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Election and term of office of Governor.
SEC. 2.

The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and places of voting for members of the Assembly, and shall hold his office four years from and after the first Monday after the first day of January subsequent to his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified. (8 126.) Qualifications of Governor.

SEC. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor who has not been a citizen of the United States and a resident of this State five years next preceding his election, and attained the age of twenty-five years at the time of such election.

Election of Governor, how made known.

SEC. 4. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the Speaker of the Assembly, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the Legislature. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but, in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the Legislature shall, by joint vote of both houses, choose one of such persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor. Governor to be commander-in-chief.

SEC. 5. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the army and navy of this State. (§ 127.) Governor to transact executive business.

SEC. 6. He shall transact all executive business with the officers of government, civil and military, and may require information, in writing, from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices. (8 127.) Governor to see that laws are executed.

SEC. 7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed. Governor to fill vacancies.

SEC. 8. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no mode is provided by the Constitution and law for filling such vacancy,

the Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the Legislature, or at the next election by the people. Governor may call extra session of Legislature.

SEC. 9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the Legislature by proclamation, stating the purposes for which he has convened it, and when

so convened it shall have no power to legislate on any subjects other than those specified in the proclamation, but may provide for the expenses of the session and other matters incidental thereto. (88 123; 127, II.)

Governor's message.
SEC. 10.

He shall communicate by message to the Legislature, at every session, the condition of the State, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient. ($ 127, II.) Governor may adjourn Legislature. SEC. II.

In case of a disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the Legislature to such time as he may think proper; provided, it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next Legislature. Officer of the United States not to act as Governor. SEC. 12.

No person shall, while holding any office under the United States or this State, exercise the office of Governor except as hereinafter expressly provided. Governor to keep great seal.

SEC. 13. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called “ The Great Seal of the State of California.”

SEC. 14.

Form of commission.

All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of California, sealed with the great seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

Lieutenant Governor, qualifications and duties.

SEC. 15. A Lieutenant Governor shall be elected at the same time and place and in the same manner as the Governor, and his term of office and his qualifications shall be the same. He shall be President of the Senate, but shall only have a casting vote therein. (As amended November 8, 1898.] ($ 128.)

Lieutenant Governor may become Governor, when.

SEC. 16. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, or his removal from office, death, inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability shall cease. And should the Lieutenant Governor be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or be absent from the State, the President pro tempore

of the Senate shall act as Governor until the vacancy in the office of Governor shall be filled at the next general election when members of the Legislature shall be chosen, or until such disability of the Lieutenant Governor shall cease. In case of a vacancy in the office of Governor for any of the reasons above named, and neither the Lieutenant Governor nor the President pro tempore of the Senate succeed to the powers and duties of Governor, then the powers and duties of such office shall devolve upon the Speaker of the Assembly, until the office of Governor shall be filled at such general election. [As amended November 1898.] State executive officers.

SEC. 17. A Secretary of State, a Controller, a Treasurer, an Attorney General, and a Surveyor General shall be elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner as the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, and their terms of office shall be the same as that of the Governor. Secretary of State — Duties.

SEC. 18. The Secretary of State shall keep a correct record of the official acts of the legislative and executive departments of the Government, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the Legislature, and shall perform such other duties as may be assigned him by law. ($ 129.) Compensation of executive officers.

SEC. 19. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Surveyor General shall, at stated times during their continuance in office, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected, which compensation is hereby fixed for the following officers, as follows: Governor, ten thousand dollars per annum; Lieutenant Governor, four thousand dollars, the Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer, and Surveyor General, five thousand dollars each per annum, and the Attorney General, six thousand dollars per annum, such compensation to be in full for all services by them respectively rendered in any official capacity or employment whatsoever during their respective terms of office; provided, however, that the Legislature may, by law, diminish the compensation of any or all of such officers, but in no case shall have the power to increase the same above the sums hereby fixed by this Constitution. No salary shall be authorized by law for clerical service, in any office provided for in this article, exceeding eighteen hundred dollars per annum for each clerk employed. The Legislature may, in its discretion, abolish the office of Surveyor General; and none of the officers hereinbefore named shall receive for their own use any fees or perquisites for the performance of any official duty. [As amended November 3, 1908.) ($ 139.)



Governor not eligible to United States Senate.
SEC. 20.

The Governor shall not, during his term of office, be elected a Senator to the Senate of the United States.



SEC. 2.

Judicial power — How vested.

SECTION I. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in the Senate, sitting as a court of impeachment, in a Supreme Court, District Courts of Appeal, Superior Courts and such inferior courts as the Legislature may establish in any incorporated city or town, township, county, or city and county. (As amended October 10, 1911.) ($ 203.) Supreme Court — How constituted.

The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. The court may sit in departments and in bank, and shall always be open for the transaction of business. There shall be two departments, denominated, respectively, Department One and Department Two. The Chief Justice shall assign three of the Associate Justices to each department, and such assignment may be changed by him from time to time. The Associate Justices shall be competent to sit in either department, and may interchange with each other by agreement among themselves or as ordered by the Chief Justice. Each of the departments shall have the to hear and determine causes and all questions arising therein, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained in relation to the court in bank. The presence of three justices shall be necessary to transact any business in either of the departments, except such as may be done at chambers, and the concurrence of three justices shall be necessary to pronounce a judgment. The Chief Justice shall apportion the business to the departments, and may, in his discretion, order any cause pending before the court to be heard and decided by the court in bank. The order may be made before or after judgment pronounced by a department; but where a cause has been allotted to one of the departments, and a judgment pronounced thereon, the order must be made within thirty days after such judgment, and concurred in by two Associate Justices, and if so made it shall have the effect to vacate and set aside the judgment. Any four justices may, either before or after judgment by a department, order a case to be heard in bank. If the order be not made within the time above limited the judgment shall be final. No judgment by a department shall become final until the expiration of the


period of thirty days aforesaid, unless approved by the Chief Justice, in writing, with the concurrence of two Associate Justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court in bank at any time, and shall be the presiding justice of the court when so convened. The concurrence of four justices present at the argument shall be necessary to pronounce a jųdgment in bank; but if four justices, so present, do not concur in a judgment, then all the justices qualified to sit in the cause shall hear the argument; but to render a judgment a concurrence of four judges shall be necessary. In the determination of causes, all decisions of the court in bank or in departments shall be given in writing, and the grounds of the decision shall be stated. The Chief Justice may sit in either department, and shall preside when so sitting, but the justices assigned to each department shall select one of their number as presiding justice. In case of the absence of the Chief Justice from the place at which the court is held, or his inability to act, the Associate Justices shall select one of their own number to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Chief Justice during such absence or inability to act. (§ 212, 2.) Justices of the Supreme Court, election of.

SEC. 3. The Chief Justice and the Associate Justices shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at large at the general State elections, at the time and places at which State officers are elected; and the term of office shall be twelve years, from and after the first Monday after the first day of January next succeeding their election; provided, that the six Associate Justices elected at the first election shall, at their first meeting, so classify themselves, by lot, that two of them shall go out of office at the end of four years, two them at the end of eight years, and two of them at the end of twelve years, and an entry of such classification shall be made in the minutes of the court in bank, signed by them, and a duplicate thereof shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of State. If a vacancy occur in the office of a justice, the Governor shall appoint a person to hold the office until the election and qualification of a justice to fill the vacancy, which election shall take place at the next succeeding general election, and the justice so elected shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term. The first election of the justices shall be at the first general election after the adoption and ratification of this Constitution.

Jurisdiction of Supreme Court and District Courts of Appeal — Appellate

districts. SEC. 4. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction on appeal from the Superior Courts in all cases in equity, except such as arise in Justices' Courts; also, in all cases at law which involve the title or possession of real estate, or the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, toll, or municipal fine,

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