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any city primary are furnished by the city clerk. A separate ballot is provided for each political party, except in the case of city primaries.

Any candidate may have his name printed on the ballot of his party by filing with the proper officer a nomination paper containing the signatures of the required number of voters. A nomination paper may consist of any number of sections, each section containing one or more signatures. The law provides for “ verification deputies to obtain and verify signatures, and no voter may sign a nomination paper except in the presence of one of these deputies. No voter may sign papers for more than one candidate for the same office, except for offices or boards to which two or more are to be elected.

Candidates for city offices must file their nomination papers with the city clerk at least twenty days before the city primary election. Those for county offices must file their papers with their respective county clerks at least thirty-five days before the August primary. Those for state offices, and for the office of representative in Congress or United States senator, must deliver their papers to the clerks of the respective counties in which they are signed at least forty-two days before the August primary.

The number of signatures obtained by any party candidate for an office to be voted for throughout the entire state must not be less than one half of one per cent nor more than two per cent of the vote cast by the party in

1 Each candidate may appoint one or more of his friends as verification deputies to secure signatures for him. The names of all deputies must be recorded by their respective county or city clerks.

2 State officers include officers who are elected by the state at large and many officers who serve the state, but are elected by districts, such as members of the state legislature, judges of the district courts of appeal, and members of the state board of equalization.

the state at the last election; or if the office is to be filled by the vote of a subdivision of the state, the number of signatures must not be less than one nor more than two per cent of the vote cast by the party in that subdivision at the last election. This does not apply to candidates for judicial, school, county, township, or municipal offices, which are all declared by the law to be nonpartisan offices. Any such candidate must obtain signatures equal in number to not less than one half of one per cent, nor more than two per cent, of the entire vote cast at the last election for the office which he seeks.

City and county clerks must examine all nomination papers and must reject all that are signed by persons who are not registered as voters. At least thirty-seven days before the August primary, each county clerk must send to the secretary of state all papers delivered to him by candidates for state offices, and for the office of representative in Congress, or that of United States senator. The secretary of state must place these papers on file in his office, and at least thirty days before the primary election must send to each county clerk a list of all such candidates as are entitled to be voted for in the county.

City clerks, from the nomination papers filed in their offices, print nonpartisan ballots to be used at city primaries.

1 No candidate for any of these offices can be the candidate of any political party. He must simply offer himself as a nonpartisan candidate on his own merits. The term judicial office" means the office of judge in any court from the township or police courts to the state supreme court; the term “school office " includes the offices of state superintendent of public instruction, county superintendent, and school director or trustee; the term “county, township, or municipal office” means any office that is filled by the vote of a county, judicial township, or city. Thus the offices for which persons may offer themselves as the candidates of political parties are those of presidential elector, United States senator, and representative in Congress, and all elective state offices, including membership in the legislature, except the office of judge and that of state superintendent of public instruction.

County clerks, from the papers filed in their offices, and from notices sent out by the secretary of state, print the ballots to be used at the August state and county primary. The name of each candidate is printed on the ballot of his political party, except that the names of all candidates for judicial, school, county, township, and municipal offices are printed on the ballot of every party.

The law of 1909 provided that the names of candidates for each office should be printed in alphabetical order; but the amended law provides for a rotation of names of all candidates (except for county and municipal offices), that are to be voted for in more than five assembly districts.

There are eighty districts in the state, numbered from one to eighty, beginning at the northern end of the state. The names of candidates for offices that are voted for by the state at large, must be arranged according to the respective offices, in alphabetical order, on the ballots that are used in assembly district number one. In each succeeding assembly district, the list for each office is changed in order by placing first the name which appeared last on the ballot for the preceding district, the remaining names always following in the same order as before. The names of candidates that are voted for by large subdivisions of the state, or by counties that contain more than five assembly districts, are similarly rotated according to assembly districts. The names of candidates for the offices of state senator and assemblyman, for any municipal office, or for any office in any county which is not divided into assembly districts, or which contains less than five such districts, are printed in alphabetical order.

4. The Voter at the Primary. The voter on primary election day enters the polling place and gives his name to the election officers. If they find his name on the list of registered voters, he signs the “roster of voters" and writes after his name the name of his political party, if he is registered as a member of any party. He is given a

1 In order to vote at the primary, he must have registered in the office of the county clerk at least thirty days before the primary. He cannot participate in

ballot with the name of his party printed at the top, and retires to a booth to vote in secret. If his registration shows that he is not affiliated with any party, he is given a ballot which contains only the names of candidates for judicial, school, county, township, and municipal offices. This nonpartisan ballot is an exact duplicate of the righthand or nonpartisan section of each regular party ballot. A part of the sample ballot which accompanies the direct primary law is shown on page 30.

If the entire ballot could be given, it would be seen to contain the names of the candidates for all elective state and county offices, and for the offices of United States senator 1 and representative in Congress. It should be observed that a voter may ignore all candidates for any office, whose names are printed on the ballot, and may write the name or names of his choice in the space or spaces provided for the purpose.

5. The Result. — Returns from city primaries are sent in each case to the city clerk to be canvassed by the city council or board of trustees. Returns from the August primaries are sent to the various county clerks to be canvassed by the respective boards of supervisors, except in San Francisco, where they are sent to the registrar of voters to be canvassed by the board of election commissioners. County clerks report to the secretary of state as to the number of votes received by each candidate for a

the nomination of any party candidate, or in the election of the members of any party committee, unless he is found to be registered as a member of the party in question.

1 The adoption of the seventeenth amendment to the national Constitution requires United States senators to be elected by the voters of the respective states. In California they are nominated and elected like any state officer who is elected by the state at large. The legislature has conferred upon the governor the power to fill any vacancy that may occur until the next election.

OFFICIAL PRIMARY ELECTION BALLOT

REPUBLICAN PARTY
Forty-Eighth Assembly District, August 25, 1914

To vote for a person whose name appear on the ballot, stamp a crou (x) in the square at the RIGHT of the name of the person for whom you desire to vote. To vote for person whose name is not printed on the ballot, write his name in the blank space provided for that purpose.

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