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to changes that, in the estimation of the board, should be made in the laws governing these institutions, or in the methods employed in their management. This report usually has great weight with the legislature and thus the board has considerable influence in spite of the fact that it has little direct authority.

169. The Commission of Immigration and Housing. – This commission consists of five members appointed by the governor to serve during his pleasure. They receive no compensation, but their traveling expenses are paid by the state. The main office of the commission is in San Francisco, but it is authorized to establish branch offices in other places according to its judgment. It appoints a secretary and may employ such other experts and assistants as it may require.

A good many immigrants from Europe have been coming to California within recent years, and it is expected that still larger numbers will come after the opening of the Panama Canal. It is very much to be hoped that these people will not congregate in cities to the extent that immigrants have done in the eastern part of our country, but that they will move into the smaller towns in the rural sections of the state. To induce them to do so is the most important duty of the commission of immigration and housing. The commission must collect information relative to the demand for labor on the farms of California, and also with reference to“ the agricultural possibilities and opportunities for settlement on land within the state." It must collect information also relative to the demand for labor in other industries, and must coöperate with state and municipal employment bureaus, as well as with private employment agencies, to

1 Statutes of 1913, chapter 318.

the end that immigrants may find employment in the places where they are needed. It must put the information which it collects in such form that it may be of service to immigrants and must devise methods for distributing it among them.

It is the further duty of the commission to give constant attention to the general interests of immigrants: to see that they receive fair treatment in places where they are employed, and in places where they may be temporarily lodged upon their first arrival; to see that they are not imposed upon by railroad or steamship companies, or by pawn brokers, real estate agents, or other persons or corporations with whom they may have dealings; and to see that state laws and municipal ordinances relative to tenement houses are enforced. The method of the commission in attending to these various matters is to make investigations and to bring cases that need attention to the notice of local authorities.

170. The Veterans' Home of California. - This institution is located at Yountville, Napa county. Its property, consisting of 910 acres of land, and some forty-five buildings, has a value of nearly $425,000. It was formerly owned and managed by the Veterans' Home Association, a corporation formed by the Grand Army of the Republic, and the Associated Veterans of the Mexican War; but it was deeded to the state by the association in 1897. It is under the control of a board of seven trustees appointed by the governor. Their term of office is four years and they serve without compensation. They appoint a commandant, who is the chief executive officer of the home, and other necessary officers and employees. There were 928 veterans

1 Statutes of 1905, page 471. CIVIL GOV. IN CAL.

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present at the home in 1910. No charge is made to them for their support. The home is maintained by appropriations from the state and national governments. The federal government allows $100 a year for each veteran maintained at the home. The government in addition maintains a veterans' home at Sawtelle, Los Angeles county.

171. The Women's Relief Corps Home.1 This institution is located at Evergreen, Santa Clara county. The property consists of five and one half acres of land and a number of buildings, valued at nearly $25,000. The home is under the control of a board of trustees consisting of eleven members appointed by the governor. Their term of office is two years and they serve without compensation. They appoint a matron and other officials and employees. The home is intended for ex-army nurses, and widows, mothers, daughters, and sisters of Union veterans of the Civil War. The institution is supported by appropriations from the state treasury.

172. The State Library.2— The state library in the capitol building is under the control of five trustees appointed by the governor to serve four years without pay. They appoint a librarian and assistants, make rules for the library, and administer the library fund. This fund consists of appropriations by the legislature amounting (1913) to nearly $100,000 a year. Books are used by state officers, and by people throughout the state who receive them directly, or through local libraries. If received through county libraries, the state pays the transportation charges.

The state librarian receives $3600 a year. In addition to his work in Sacramento, he is chairman of the state board of library examiners, which, besides himself, consists of the city librarians of San Francisco and Los

1 Statutes of 1907, page 702 ; Political Code, § 2210 seq.
2 Political Code, 2292 ; Statutes of 1899, page 30, as amended in 1913.

Angeles. No person may be appointed as a county librarian in the state without a certificate from this board. Examinations are given to those desiring such certificates. The state librarian has general supervision over all county libraries, and county librarians must make reports to him. He calls a convention of county librarians each year, which they are obliged to attend at the expense of their respective counties.

173. The Superintendent of State Printing - The superintendent of state printing has charge of the state printing office. He is appointed by the governor, with the approval of the senate, to serve during the pleasure of the governor. His salary is $5000 a year. The printing plant occupies an entire building on the capitol grounds. The superintendent appoints necessary assistants and has entire control of the establishment. All supplies are purchased under the sanction of the state board of control. The office prints state school textbooks; the reports of state officers; laws passed by the legislature; the journals of the legislature; blank forms for the supreme court, the governor, secretary of state, and other state officers; and numerous other pamphlets, bulletins, and public documents.

174. The Superintendent of the Capitol and Grounds.? This official is appointed by the governor to serve during his pleasure. His salary is $3000 a year. He has entire control of the capitol and grounds and is given authority to appoint gardeners, special policemen, janitors, engineers, electricians, and other employees. He purchases all fuel and other supplies for the building and grounds under the sanction of the board of control.

175. The Code Commission.3 — The code commission, mission for the revision and reform of the law" as it is often called, is not a permanent branch of the state government, but is provided for from time to time as the legislature considers that its services are needed. Previous to 1903, when it existed, it consisted of three mem

or

com

1 Statutes of 1911, page 1127.
2 Ibid., page 572.
3 Statutes of 1907, page 294: Statutes of 1909, page 997.

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bers; since then it has consisted of one member. The term of the last commissioner expired October 1, 1911.

A code is the systematic arrangement of the law according to topics and subtopics, properly indexed, and sanctioned by the legislature. In 1868, the legislature appointed a commission of three members to codify the laws of the state. The commission was appointed for two years, but as it had not completed its work at the end of that time, the legislature provided for the appointment of a second commission of three members, by the governor. This commission continued the work of the first, and in 1872 submitted to the legislature a complete codification of the laws of California as they then existed. The legislature approved the work, and the code of 1872, as amended to date, is still in force. It consists of four divisions, each printed in a separate volume: The Political Code, The Civil Code, The Code of Civil Procedure, and The Penal Code. A fifth volume, called the General Laws of California,” accompanies the codes." It contains either full texts of, or references to, all acts of the legislature, or statutes, other than those that consist of amendments to the codes.

A code commissioner is provided for from time to time to make such recommendations to the legislature as will enable it to correct any errors that may exist in the codes, and to keep them in harmony with the decisions of the supreme court; and also to “ ascertain, determine, and designate, according to his best judgment, those statutes now in force, and those expressly or by implication repealed, and to report the same to the next legislature.”

176. State Landmarks. — Two historic landmarks belonging to the state should be mentioned: Sutter's Fort in Sacramento and Marshall's Monument at Colma, Eldorado county. Sutter's Fort was built in 1839 by John A. Sutter and figured prominently in the early history of California. It was donated to the state in 1891 by the Native Sons of the Golden West. It is now under the control of a board of five trustees appointed by the governor. Marshall's Monument was erected by the state at a point overlooking the spot where James W. Marshall discovered gold in 1848. It is a statue of Marshall and is in charge of a guardian appointed by the governor.

1 It is customary to pluralize the word.

? The legislature of 1913 appropriated $ 5000 to erect a monument in Sonoma at the spot where the bear flag was raised in 1846.

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