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or mislabeled; in which case the person making the guarantee is responsible.

5. In general, to enforce all state laws that refer to the public health. The state board is given power to adopt any measures that may be necessary for this purpose. In carrying on its work, the department coöperates at all times with the national health officers.

6. To present a biennial report to the governor.

7. The board maintains a department for examining and registering graduate nurses. This department is in charge of a director appointed by the board. No person may be designated as a “registered nurse” unless registered by the department. Graduate nurses may be registered without examination up to July 1, 1914, but after that date only those may be registered who pass an examination given by the state board of health. Certificates of registration are given to all registered nurses.

160. The State Board of Pharmacy.' — This board consists of seven members appointed by the governor. The term of office is four years and each member receives eight dollars a day for the time he devotes to the public service. The board has its office in San Francisco and appoints a secretary, a treasurer, and such inspectors as may be necessary. Its most important duties are as follows:

1. To enforce all state laws relative to the sale of drugs, medicines, and poisons. Inspectors are employed to visit places where such articles are sold. If impure or mislabeled articles are found, prosecutions follow. Inspectors, working in conjunction with local peace officers, also endeavor to arrest and convict persons who sell opium, morphine, cocaine, and other drugs and preparations, contrary to law.

1 Statutes of 1905, page 535; Statutes of 1907, page 766.

2.

“ To examine and register as pharmacists and assistant pharmacists all applicants whom it shall deem qualified to be such." The law imposes numerous conditions that must be observed by the board in this matter, the aim of which is to make certain that drugs shall be handled by competent and experienced persons. Every laboratory or store where drugs are sold or where prescriptions are filled must be in the charge of a registered pharmacist. Pharmacists and assistant pharmacists must renew their registrations annually, paying to the secretary of the state board the fees required by law. The expenses incurred by the board are paid from these fees. All receipts and expenditures must, of course, be strictly accounted for.

161. Boards of Examiners. - No person may engage in the profession or calling of a physician, a dentist, an optician, a veterinary surgeon, an architect, or a public accountant, in this state, without first obtaining a state certificate granting him or her permission so to do. The law provides for boards of examiners to examine candidates and grant certificates to those whom they find to be qualified.

The state board of medical examiners consists of eleven members appointed by the governor, each for two years. Five are appointed from the allopathic system of medicine, and two each from the homeopathic, eclectic, and osteopathic systems. The board grants three kinds of certificates: one kind for the practice of medicine and surgery, another for the practice of osteopathy, and another for the practice of other systems of treatment.

The state board of dental examiners consists of seven members appointed by the governor, each for four years.? 1 Statutes of 1907, page 252.

2 Statutes of 1901, page 564.

The state board of optometry consists of three members appointed by the governor, each for six years.

The state board of veterinary medicine consists of five members appointed by the governor, each for four years.2

The state board of architecture consists of ten members appointed by the governor, each for four years. Five must be appointed from northern, and five from southern, California, the northern boundaries of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties being the dividing line. The members may meet as a state board or as district boards. Examinations are held in San Francisco and Los Angeles by the northern and southern district boards respectively, according to rules adopted by the entire board.3

The state board of accountancy consists of five members appointed by the governor each for four years. 4

Each of these various boards of examiners elects a president and a secretary, and carries on its work according to law. Each collects fees from the candidates whom it examines. The money thus collected is used to pay expenses, including the amount allowed per day to the members for the time they devote to the public service. V 162. State Hospitals. — The care of the insane and feeble-minded is a heavy burden on the state. This is made clear by the fact that the state has invested in institutions for this purpose over $7,500,000, and that the taxpayers must provide over $1,750,000 a year for their support. There are seven such institutions. Six of these are hospitals for the insane, located at Stockton;

1 Statutes of 1913, chapter 598.

3 Statutes of 1901, page 641. 2 Statutes of 1907, page 919.

4 Ibid., page 645. 5 Statutes of 1909, page 56; Political Code, $ 2136 seq.

Napa; Agnews, Santa Clara county; Talmage, Mendocino county; Patton, San Bernardino county; and Folsom, Sacramento county. The hospital at Folsom is for the criminal insane. The seventh is the home for feeble-minded children at Eldridge, Sonoma county. In March, 1912, the state hospitals had 7790 patients, with 653 on parole; and the home for feeble-minded children had 939, with 16 on parole. It should be pointed out that, according to the report of the commission in lunacy for 1910, of the 1800 cases committed to the various hospitals during the preceding year, nearly 500 had become insane through the use of liquor, morphine, and cocaine, and through other forms of dissipation.

A state board known as the “commission in lunacy has general supervision over all these institutions. It consists of the general superintendent of state hospitals, the secretary of the state board of health, the governor, the secretary of state, and the attorney-general. It establishes rules for the institutions under its jurisdiction, fixes the salaries of their officers and determines the number of their employees. It keeps complete statistics concerning these institutions and presents a report to the legislature every two years. The general superintendent of state hospitals is appointed by the governor, and his salary has been fixed by the commission at $5000 a year. He is the only member of the commission who gives his entire time to the supervision of state hospitals.

1 The legislature of 1913 provided for another hospital for the insane to be located in southern California “preferably near to the seacoast.” A commission is provided to select the site and to put up necessary buildings, and $200,000 is appropriated for the purpose.

2 The governor also appoints an officer known as the state dental surgeon, whose duty is to perform dental services for the inmates of the various hospitals. His salary is $2400 a year.

Each institution has a board of five managers appointed by the governor. The term of office is four years, and each member receives ten dollars a day for the time he devotes to the public service. Each board has general supervision of the hospital under its charge, subject to the jurisdiction of the lunacy commission. It appoints a medical superintendent and a treasurer. The medical superintendent is the chief executive officer of the institution. With the approval of the board of managers, he appoints all subordinate officers and employees.

Insane persons are committed to the state hospitals by the order of the superior court. The legislature of 1911, however, provided that persons who are suffering from mental diseases may be admitted for treatment as voluntary patients. The hospitals are supported mainly by state appropriations, but patients who are financially able to do so are required to pay fifteen dollars a month each.

163. State Prisons. — The two state prisons are located at San Quentin, Marin county, and at Folsom, Sacramento county. The land, buildings, and other property represent (1913) an investment of over $2,500,000. In March, 1912, the two prisons contained 3002 prisoners and 501 were out on parole.

Both prisons are under the control of a board of five prison directors appointed by the governor, with the approval of the senate, each for ten years. Their office is in the ferry building in San Francisco. Their most important duties are as follows:

1. To appoint a warden and a clerk for each prison.

1 The state lunacy commission is the board of managers of the Folsom hospital, no local board being provided for.

2 Read article X of the state constitution.

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