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structed on the plan of a greenhouse and is devoted entirely to the rearing of insects and other life forms which prey upon destructive insects. These enemies of dangerous pests are frequently obtained from foreign nations or from other states. The United States government has trained entomologists searching for them in foreign lands, and the department of agriculture, which has charge of all such work, heartily coöperates with the horticultural commissioners of the various states.
4. To collect books, pamphlets, and periodicals containing information relating to horticulture; and to collect statistics showing the condition and progress of horticulture in this state and elsewhere. He must require annual reports from all county horticultural commissioners. He must issue bulletins from time to time, making public any information in his possession which in his judgment will be of benefit to the horticultural interests. He must make a detailed report each year, showing the work of his department and accounting for all money received and expended. This report is made to the governor on evennumbered, and to the legislature on odd-numbered, years.
This account of the work of the horticultural commissioner is exceedingly brief. Any person wishing more detailed information should write to the commissioner for bulletins and reports.
1 The legislature of 1913 passed a law creating a state board of viticultural commissioners to consist of nine persons appointed by the governor to serve without pay for four years. The state is divided into six districts and one commissioner must be appointed from each district, the other three being appointed from the state at large. The board appoints a secretary who gives his entire time to his official duties. His office is in Sacramento. It is the duty of the board to collect and disseminate useful information relating to viticulture, including the best methods of growing grapes and handling the grape and its products,” to study diseases and pests of vineyards and methods of control, “to study methods of coöperatiön among grape growers and manufacturers of grape products,” and to arrange for meetings of persons interested in grape culture. This board has no connection with the horticul
154. The State Veterinarian, 1 - The state veterinarian is appointed by the governor for a period of four years at a salary of $3600 a year. The governor appoints also an assistant at a salary of $3000 a year. The veterinarian appoints a deputy and a clerk. The office of the veterinarian is in the capitol, but he and his assistant spend a good part of their time traveling about the state in the discharge of their duties. Their traveling expenses, of course, are paid by the state.
It is the duty of the veterinarian to protect the health of domestic animals in the state. All veterinary surgeons are required by law to report cases of contagious diseases to him.
With the consent of the governor, he may quarantine the state against live stock from any other state or nation where infection is known to exist; and in a similar manner he may quarantine any part of the state. When any contagious live stock disease is discovered in any county, he must report the matter to the board of supervisors, who must take steps immediately to eradicate the disease. He has general supervision over all county live stock inspectors. The legislature in 1909 and in 1911 made special appropriations for the appointment of sheep inspectors by the state veterinarian to eradicate a special sheep disease known as scabies. Owners of sheep infected with this disease must administer such treatment as the inspector directs. The veterinarian must make a biennial report to the governor as to the work of his office.
It is evident that the law at present does not provide a complete scheme for the protection of live stock against diseases. Sufficient
tural commissioner, but it must depend upon his department to put into practice any information that it may gather relative to grape diseases,
1 Statutes of 1909, page 437.
provision is not made for local inspectors, as county boards of supervisors may or may not appoint live stock inspectors, and the sheep inspectors above referred to are the only ones that may be appointed by the state veterinarian.1
155. The State Board of Agriculture.2 – This board consists of twelve members appointed by the governor. The term of office is four years and they serve without pay. Their principal duty is to provide for and conduct the annual fair which is held in the fall of the year at Sacramento. The fair grounds comprise eighty acres of land located outside of the city limits. The land belongs to the state and is equipped with buildings and other necessary improvements. The office of the board is at the grounds. The legislature appropriates money for the employment of a secretary, an assistant secretary, a stenographer, and a night watchman. Money is also appropriated to be used by the board in collecting, compiling, and publishing each year statistics, giving information as to the yield of “ agricultural and other farm and industrial products” in the state and showing the number of acres of land under irrigation, including information as to new irrigation enterprises. The state board of agriculture is referred to in the codes and statutes
state agricultural society.” The original state agricultural society was incorporated in 1854. The plan of organization provided for a board of twelve directors to be appointed by the governor,
and for a general membership to consist of those who paid the regular dues. There are no such members at present, but the board of directors, or the state board of agriculture, is still referred to as “state agricultural society.” 3
as the “
1 The appropriation for the purpose amounts to less than $10,000 each year. 2 Statutes of 1880, page 212.
3 The legislature has divided the state into forty-five agricultural districts in which associations may be formed for the purpose of holding district fairs; and such fairs are from time to time held in different parts of the state.
156. The State Dairy Bureau. — This branch of the state government is under the control of a board of three members appointed appointed by the governor,
by the governor, each for four years. They serve without pay, but their expenses incurred in the public service are paid. They employ a secretary and a number of trained inspectors. The office of the secretary is in San Francisco. The most important duties of the bureau are as follows:
1. To prevent the sale of milk or milk products from dairies where diseased cows are kept, or where unsanitary conditions exist.
2. To prevent the sale of dairy products that are adulterated, or mislabeled, or that contain chemical preservatives, thickening material, or coloring matter.
3. To compel all manufacturers of oleomargarine and other substitutes for butter to label such manufactured products properly. Also to see that all cheese manufactured in the state is so branded as to show whether it is “ full cream," "half-skim,” or “skim” cheese.
4. To prevent short measure and short weight in selling dairy products.
5. To compile and disseminate statistics and useful information relative to the dairy industry.
To enable the bureau to enforce these and other regulations imposed by law, every dairy where more than four cows are kept, and every factory where milk products are manufactured, must file with the secretary of the bureau, on blanks furnished by the secretary, a statement giving full details as to the size, output, and general character of the dairy or factory. Furthermore, every person or corporation engaged in manufacturing or selling oleomargarine, or any other substitute for butter, must annually procure a license from the secretary of the bureau. A fee established by law is charged for each
1 Statutes of 1897, page 68.
license. The bureau is supported by the money thus collected, in addition to appropriations made by the legislature. The bureau sends inspectors and chemists to all parts of the state to see that the dairy laws are enforced. District attorneys and peace officers are required to coöperate with them in their work. They coöperate with the local health officers in preventing the sale of unhealthful dairy products; and they report all cases of diseased cows which come under their observation to the state veterinarian. The bureau must report biennially to the legislature.
157. The Labor Commissioner.2 – The labor commissioner is at the head of the state bureau of labor statistics. He is appointed by the governor for a term of four years. His office is in San Francisco, but he maintains a branch office in Los Angeles. He appoints a deputy commissioner for the main office, and a deputy and an assistant deputy for the Los Angeles office. He receives $3000 a year, each deputy $2400, and the assistant deputy $2100. He is also authorized to appoint an attorney at a salary of $2400 and a "statistician, a stenographer, and such agents and assistants as he may from time to time require.” His most important duties are as follows:
1. To compile statistics relative to labor conditions in the various occupations and callings in the state. These statistics are to give information relative to hours of labor ; the amount of labor required; the cost of living; the number of people depending on their daily labor for support; the value of lands, buildings, machinery, and other means of production; the number, age, and sex of the unemployed; sanitary conditions under which people work; etc. County assessors are required to assist in the collection of this information. The commissioner and his deputies and agents
1 The appropriation amounts to something over $20,000 a year.