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three other members appointed by the governor. The term of office is four years, and the salary of each of the appointed members is $5000 a year.

The office of the commission is in Sacramento. It is authorized to employ a secretary, and such other assistants as it may require at such salaries as it may determine upon.

It is the duty of the commission to protect the interests of the people in the public waters of the state. It must investigate the various streams and lakes of the state in order to determine to what extent water and its use have been filed upon and appropriated by private individuals and corporations. Every such appropriation is declared to be void unless the water is actually being put to some useful purpose, or unless preparations for using it are being carried forward in good faith. One of the principal duties of the commission is to prevent the electric power sites of the state from being acquired in perpetual ownership by private corporations. If all, or a large percentage, of such sites should be thus acquired, and should fall into the hands of some great combination or trust, the people of California would be compelled to pay unfair prices for electric power with little hope of redress. No future appropriations of water or its use may be made except by permission of the commission. Applications must be made to the commission according to details worked out in the law. Every case is investigated and if the commission approves, it issues a license to the person or corporation making the application. Each license is granted under specific conditions as to the manner in which the water is to be used, and the commission has power to revoke any license at any time if these conditions are disregarded. Certain fees must be paid when applications

are filed, and after each license is granted a certain amount must be paid each year to the state, the amount in each case being determined by law according to the quantity of water used.

151. The State Mining Bureau, and Mineral Cabinet." - Mining has been one of the most important industries of California from the first. The mining bureau is simply a bureau of information concerning this great industry. It is under the control of a state mineralogist, who is appointed by the governor for four years at a salary of $3600 a year. The office of the mineralogist, which is the headquarters of the bureau, is in the ferry building in San Francisco. In the same building the bureau maintains a large collection of mineral specimens, and a library of some 5000 books and pamphlets, all bearing on the mining industry of the state. The library also contains numerous maps showing the locations of known mineral deposits, and models and drawings of machinery used in mining processes.

The mineralogist must investigate the operations of persons and corporations dealing, or purporting to deal, in mining stocks, bonds, lands, or other property, with a view to exposing and prosecuting those who are guilty of fraud. He may appoint such assistants as may be necessary to make these investigations, and to carry on the other work of the bureau. It is his duty from year to year to add to the collection of mineral specimens, books, pamphlets, maps, and drawings and models of mining machinery. He must biennially make a detailed report to the governor showing the results of his work and setting forth the condition of the mining industry in the state. He must also from time to time issue bulletins summing up the information which he has collected.

The state mineral cabinet consists of a number of cases of choice mineral specimens in the Crocker Art Gallery in Sacramento. The exhibit is under the control of three trustees appointed by the governor to serve during his pleasure without pay.

152. The Fish and Game Commission.2 Our state laws contain many provisions for the protection of fish and

1 Statutes of 1913, Chapter 679; Statutes of 1907, page 935.
2 Political Code, 88 642, 643.

game. Some of these provisions are as follows: that certain kinds of fish and game may not be killed at certain times of the year; that certain kinds of fish may be caught only with hook and line; that no fish may be caught through the ice; that certain kinds of fish may not be caught with nets of less than a certain specified mesh; that trout of less than one pound in weight may not be bought or sold; that no person may place a dam across a stream without providing a way for fish to pass up and down; that certain kinds of fish and game must never be killed; that birds' nests and eggs must never be destroyed ; that no person may use more than one dog in hunting deer, etc.

The fish and game commission was created to enforce these laws. It consists of three members appointed by the governor to serve during his pleasure without pay. The senate must approve the appointments. The commission maintains its office in San Francisco. Its most important powers and duties are as follows:

1. To appoint a sufficient number of assistants to enforce the fish and game laws of the state. There are some two or three hundred of these assistants scattered throughout the state, who have the powers of peace officers in enforcing the fish and game laws. Some receive regular salaries, but most of them are paid only for the bona fide arrests they make.

2. To establish and maintain hatcheries for the purpose of stocking the waters of the state with fish. Such hatcheries are established at Sisson, Siskiyou county; at Tahoe and Tallac on Lake Tahoe; at Wawona, Mariposa county; at Brookdale, Santa Cruz county; on the Eel river in Hum

1 See section 25), article IV, of the state constitution,

boldt county, and in other places. Fish eggs are procured in countless numbers and are hatched in these hatcheries. The young fish are then distributed to different parts of the state, where they are placed in lakes and running streams. The commission has a special car equipped for transporting the young fish.

3. To raise game birds and other animals for distribution on the public lands or elsewhere in the judgment of the commission. For this purpose the commission has established a game farm in Alameda county.

4. To sell licenses to persons who wish to fish or hunt for sport or for commercial purposes, as well as to persons who wish to deal in fish or game. These licenses are also sold by county clerks. The law specifies the amount that must be paid for each kind of license. The receipts from this source, which amount to over $150,000 each year, are placed by the treasurer in the “ fish and game preservation fund” to be used by the commission in carrying on its work.

153. The Horticultural Commissioner.1 The state horticultural commissioner is at the head of a great state system which exists for the purpose of protecting our horticultural interests, including the raising of fruits, nuts, vegetables, and ornamental trees and plants. In practice, the department does not confine its attention to these interests, but gives valuable assistance to the growers of alfalfa, cotton, potatoes, and other farm products. The system includes a horticultural commissioner and certain deputies, quarantine guardians, and other assistants, appointed by him; as well as all county commissioners, deputies, and inspectors. The state commissioner is ap

Statutes of 1911, page 1127; Political Code, $ 2319 seq.; Statutes of 1899, page 91.

pointed by the governor to serve for four years at a salary of $4000 a year. His main office is in Sacramento, but he maintains an office also in San Francisco. His principal duties are as follows:

1. To guard the state against the introduction of tree or plant diseases and destructive insects from other states or from foreign lands. All shipments of nursery stock,

, fruit, or seed from foreign nations are inspected at the port of entry by horticultural quarantine deputies, who work in conjunction with the United States customs officials. Shipments from other states must not be taken from the custody of transportation companies until inspected. Diseased or infested stock is rendered harmless by fumigation or other treatment; or if this is impossible, it is either destroyed or returned to the place from which it came. Quarantine guardians in all parts of the state have an important part in this work of inspection. The commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may quarantine the state against shipments from places known to be dangerous.

2. To eradicate tree or plant diseases and destructive insects found within the state. Any part of the state may be quarantined at any time. County commissioners and quarantine guardians must be viligant in order that diseases and pests may be promptly located and reported to the state commissioner.

3. To rear and distribute beneficial insects. For this purpose the commissioner maintains an insectory on the capitol grounds in Sacramento. This building is con

1 County horticultural officers are practically all appointed state quarantine guardians by the state commissioner. But there are also quarantine guardians who are not county officers.

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