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may return it me, that I may find the brought to no perfection either in line true owner.
en or woollen ; every woman made her “ You have seen, no doubt, the spe- web, and bleached it herself; it never cimen of a Scotch Review. My first rose higher than two shillings a yard, conjecture was, that Carlyle * was the and with this cloth was every one author ; but Dr Blair has convinced clothed. The young men, who were me that it is much more probably the at this time growing more nice, got production of your spiritual guide, theirs from Holland for shirts, but Tom Hepburn. † But, whoever be the the old ones were satisfied with necks father, the child has a great deal of and sleeves of the fine, which were salt, and spirit, and humour. I wish put on loose above the country cloth. he would continue, though at the ha- I remember in the 30 or 31 of a zard of my getting a rap over the ball, where it was agreed that the knuckles from time to time. For I company should be dressed in nothing see in this hero the spirit of a draw. but home manufactures. My sisters cansir, who spares neither friend nor were as well dressed as any, and their foe. I think I can reckon about twen- gowns were stript linen at 2s. 6d. a ty people, not including the king, yard; their heads and ruffles were of whom he has attacked in this short Paisley muslins, at 4s. 6d. with 4d. performance. I hope all his spleen is edging from Hamilton, all of them not exhausted. I should desire my the finest that could be got. A few compliments to him, were I not afraid years after this weavers were brought that he would interpret the civility as from Holland, and manufactories for paying black mail I to him. I am, linen established in the west. The dear John, yours sincerely,
dress of the ladies was more expensive David Hume." than at present, though not so often
renewed. At the time, I remember,
hoops were wore constantly four yards VIEW OF THE CHANGE OF MANNERS and a half wide, which required much IN SCOTLAND DURING THE COURSE silk to cover them; and gold and sil
ver was much used for trimmings,
never less than three rows round the (The following remarks, which will be petticoat. Their heads were all dresfound extremely curious and valuable, were
sed with lace from Flanders, no written by a lady of an ancient family in Renfrewshire, who was as much distin- blonds, nor coarse edging used; the guished for goodness of heart as solidity of price of these were high, but
two suit judgment ;-- they are now first printed from would serve for life. They were not the original manuscript.)
renewed but at marriage, or some
great event; who could not afford I am sensible, that, in order to make them wore fringes of thread. Their these remarks properly, it is necessary tables were as full as at present, one should have lived more in the though the meat was ill cooked, and world than I did during the times I write of, as the manners in the chief pewter, often not clean, but were
as badly served up. They ate out of towns would be something different nicer in table-linen than now, which from those in the country, but, as
was renewed every day in gentlemen's our customs are brought from the families, and always napkins. The metropolis, the people of fashion in servants ate ill, having a set form by the country cannot be far behind. the week of three days broth and salt The year 1727 is as far back as I can meat, and three days meagre, with remember ; at that time there was plenty of oat bread, and small beer. little bread in Scotland, manufactories Their wages were small till the rails
were abolished; the men from L.S
to L. 9 in the year, the women from Reverend De Carlyle, minister of In. 30s. to L. 2. At those times I menveresk.
tion, few of the women servants would + Reterend Thomas Hepburn, minister either sew, or iron linen, which was of Athelstonford. Of this ingenious gen: all smoothed in the mangle, except tleman we hope to give a biographical notice in our next Number.
the ladies' head-dresses, which were * This was a sort of tax paid to free done by their own maids. They iu booters, to obtain exemption from theis general employed as many servants as inroads.
they do at present in the country, not
OF THE LAST CENTURY.
in towns where one man-servant was his hours of devotion were marked, thought sufficient for most families, that nothing might interrupt him; or two at most, unless they kept á he kept his own seat by the fire, or at carriage, which was a thing very un- table, with his hat on his head, and common in those days, and only used often particular dishes served up for by the nobles of great fortune. The himself, that no one else shared of. price of provisions were about a third Their children approached them with of what they are now. Beef from awe, and never spoke with any de 11d. to 2d. a pound ; butter 3d. ; gree of freedom before them. The cheese 2d.; eggs 1d. a dozen ; a fowl consequence of this was, that, except 4d.; turkies and geese 1s. Neither at meals, they were never together, was the price of provisions much in- though the reverence they had for creased till after the Rebellion in 45, their parents taught them obedience, when riches flowed much into the modesty, temperance. No one helpcountry.
ed themselves at table, nor was it the
fashion to eat up what was put on Had we a particular account of the their plate, so that the mistress of the manners of our own country, and of family might give you a full meal or the changes that have taken place from not, as she pleased, from whence came time to time since the reign of Wile in the fashion of pressing to eat, so far liam the Conqueror, no history could as to be disagreeable, be more entertaining. But those Before the Union, and for many changes have been so little marked, years after it, money was very scarce that what knowledge we have of them in Scotland. A country without trade, we owe more to the essay writers in or culture, or money to carry on either, Queen Anne's time, than to any of must improve by slow degrecs. Á our historians. Addison, Pope, and great part of the rents of estates were Swift, give us some idea of the man- paid in kind ; this allowed gentle ners of the times they wrote in; since men to live comfortably at home, that period the information we have though they could not elsewhere, had from our parents and our own it introduced that hospitality so much observation only can instruct us. It boasted of in Britain. This way of is to be wished that some good writer life led to manners very different from would make his observations on this the present, - nothing could affect subject during his own life, which, if them more than the restraint young carried down by others, would contain people were under in presence of their both useful and entertaining know- parents ; there was little intercourse ledge. Nobody that has lived any between the old and the young, time in the world but must have made the parents had their own guests, remarks of this kind, though it is on which consisted for the most part of ly the men of genius that can make their own relations, and near neighthe proper use of them, by represent bours. As few people could afford to ing the good or ill consequences they go to town in the winter, their acmay have on society.
quaintance was much confined. The Those changes I have lived myself children of this small society were une to see, I wish to remember and mark der a necessity of being companions for my own use ; my observations to each other; this produced many cannot go much farther back than the strong friendships, and strong attachyear 1730, which period verged on the ments, and frequently very improper açe of my grandfather, who was one marriages. By their society being of those born betwixt the 60 and confined, their affections were less dif 70 of the century before, many of fused, and centered all in their own whom reinained beyond the period family cirele. There was no enlargeabove mentioned.
Their manners ment of mind here ;--their manners were peculiar to themselves ; as some were the same, and their sentiments part of the old feudal system still re- the same. They were indulgent to mained, every master was revered by the faults of each other, but most sem his family, honoured by his tenants, vere on those they were not accustomand aweful to his domestics; his hours ed to, so that censure and detraction of eating, sleeping, and amusement, seemed to be the vice of the age. were carefully attended to by all his From this education proceeded pride family, and by all his guests. Even of understanding, bigotry in religions,
and want of refinement in every uses That the manners of the times I ful art.
write of may be shown in a fuller While the parents were both alive, light, I shall give Mr Barclay's relathe mother could give little attention tion of the most memorable things to her girls, - domestick affairs, and that passed in his father's house, amusing her husband, was the busi- from the beginning of the century ness of a good wife. Those who to the year 14, in which his father could afford governesses for their chil- died. My brother,” says he, dren, had them, but all they could married in the year 4, at the age learn from them was to read English, of 21 ; few men were unmarried af, and plain work: the chief thing re- ter this time of life. I myself was quired was to hear them repeat psalms, married by my friends at 18, which and long catechisms, in which they was thought a proper age. Sir James were employed an hour or more every Stuart's marriage with President Dalday, and almost the whole day on rymple's second daughter brought to. Sunday. If there was no governess gether a number of people related to to perform this, it was done by the both families. At the signing of the chaplain, of which there were one in eldest Miss Dalrymple’s contract the every family. No attention was given year before, there was an entire hogs. to what we call accomplishments, head of wine drank that night, and reading or writing well, or even spel- the number of people at Sir James ling, were never thought of; musick, Stuart's was little less. The marriage drawing, or French, were seldom was in the President's house, with as taught the girls. They were allowed many of the relations as it would hold. to run about, and amuse themselves The bride's favours were all sewed on in the way they chose, even to wo- her gown, from top to bottom, and manhood, at which time they were round the neck and sleeves. The generally sent to Edinburgh a win- moment the ceremony was performed, ter or two to learn to dress themselves, the whole company ran to her, and to dance, and to see a little of the pulled off the favours ; in an instant world. This world was only to be she was stript of them all. The next seen at church, at marriages, burials, ceremony was the garter, which the and baptisins. These were the only bridegroom's man attempted to pull public places where the ladies went from her leg, but she dropt it on the in full dress, and as they walked the floor ; it was a white and silver ribstreets, they were seen by every bo- bon, which was cut in small morsels dy; but it was the fashion in undress to every one in company. The bride's always to be masked. When in the mother then came in with a basket of country, their employment was in co- favours belonging to the bridegroom ; loured work, beds, tapestry, and other those and the bride's were the same pieces of furniture, imitations of fruits with the bearings of their families ; and flowers, with very little taste. If hers pink and white, his blue and they read any, it was either books of gold colour. *” devotion, or long romances, and sometimes both. They never ate a full meal at table, it was thought very in
The indelicate custom of seizing the delicate ; but they took care to have bride's garter is thus commemorated in something before dinner, that they noble, illustrious, and excellent Princesse,
" The Bridals, a play written by the thrice might behave with propriety in com
the Duchess of Newcastle,” and printed pany.
1668. From the accounts given by old people who lived in this time, we have [Enter the Brides and Bridegrooms, and
all the Bridal Guests, Sir Mercury Poet, reason to believe there was as little
one of the Bride-men, and the Lady care taken of the young men's educa
Fancy, one of the Bride-maids, that tion as that of women, excepting those helps to lead one of the Brides to the who were intended for learned profes- church.) sions, who got a regular education at Adviser. Gentlemen bridegrooms, we schools and colleges ; but the gener must rifle your brides of their bride-gar. rality of country gentlemen, and even
ters. noblemen, were contented with the Sir J. Amorous. If it be the custom, I instruction given by the chaplain to submit. their sons.
Sage. But I will not agree to such ap
The company dined and supped to meats at the sides. When they had gether, and had a ball in the evening; finished their supper, the meat was the same next day at Sir James Stu- removed, and in an instant every one art's. On Sunday there went from flies to the sweetmeats to pocket them, the President's house to church three on which a scramble ensued, chairs and twenty couple, all in high dress; overturned, and every thing on the Mr Barclay, then a boy, led the table,-wrestling and pulling at one youngest Miss Dalrymple, who was another with the utmost noise and the last of them. They filled the violence. When all was quiet, they galereys of the church from the King's went to the stoups, (for there was no seat to the wing loft. The feasting bottles for wine,) of which the women continued till they had gone through had a good share ; for, though it was all the friends of the family, with a a disgrace to be seen drunk, yet it was ball every night.
none to be a little intoxicated in good As the baptisms was another pub- company, A few days after this, lic place, he goes on to describe it the same company were asked to the thus :
christening, which was always in the “ On the fourth week after the church, all in high dress, a number of lady's delivery, she was set on her them young ladies, who were called bed, on a low footstool, the bed comaiden cimmers ; one of them prevered with some neat piece of sewed sented the child to the father. After work, or white satin, with three pil- the ceremony, they dined and supped lows at her back, covered with the together, and the night often concludsame, she in full dress, with a lappit ed by a ball.” head-dress, and a fan in her hand. The burials are the only solemHaving informed her acquaintance nities now to be taken notice of. It what day she is to see company, they was always on foot. The magistrates all come and pay their respects to her, and town-council were always invited standing or walking a little through to that of every person of any conthe room, for there are no chairs; sideration. “1500 burial-letters were they drink a glass of wine, and eat a wrote," says Mr Barclay, " at my fapiece of cake, and then give place to ther's death; the General Assembly was others. Towards the end of the week sitting at the time, and all the clergy all the friends were asked to what were asked, and so great was the was called the Cummerfealls; this crowd, that the magistrates were at was a supper where every gentleman the grave in the Grey Friars churchbrought a pint of wine to be drunk yard, before the corpse was taken out by him and his wife. The supper of the house in the foot of the Advom was, a ham at the head, and a pyra- cates' Close. A few years before this, mid of fowls at the bottom, hens and it had ceased to be the fashion for ducks below, partridges at top; there ladies to walk behind the corpse, in was an eating posset in the middle of full dress, with coloured clothes ; but the table, with dried fruits and sweet- formerly the chesting was at the same
time, arid all the female relations askuncivil custom, for no man shall pull off ed, w made part of the procesmy wive's garters, unless it be myself. sion.”
Vertue. We have pulled off our garters At this time acts of devotion emalready, and therefore if these batchellor- ployed much of their time; see the gentlemen will have them, we will send
same gentleman's accounts of a Sunfor them.
Facil. Pray ladies let us have them, for day past in his father's house. Praythe bride-garters are the young batchetors' ers by the chaplain at nine o'clock, fees.
all went regularly to church at ten, Courtly. Since we must not rifle for their the women in high dress; he himself garters, let us cast dice for them.
was employed to give the colleetion Takepleasute. Content.
Madam Mediator. The bridegroom's * If we ought to yield any credit to a points being our fees, therefore we must French author, the English ladies, during rifle for the points.
the reign of King Charles the First, went Sir W. Sage. If you please, ladies, we a step beyond this in the liberal use of are ready to be rified.
wine.--La Courtisanne Dechifréc, dediée (The women offer to take off the points, aux Dames Vertueuses de ce temps. à Pabut Lady Vertue hinders them. I
ris, 1012. 8o.
for the family, which consisted of a of Britain towards America, at the crown-half atter twelve they came outset of his career, or merely availhome, --at one had prayers again by ed himself of the opportunities in the chaplain, after which they had a which revolutionary wai fare so greatbit of cold meat or eggs, and returned ly abounds to rise from his original obto church at two. At four every one scurity, it is now perhaps impossible retired to their private devotions ex- to determine, and unnecessary to incept the children and servants, who quire. But it will be seen from the were convened by the chaplain, and letters we are going to lay before our examined ;-this continued till five, readers, that, in the progress of his when supper was served up, or rather adventurous life, he well knew how to dinner; a few male friends generally employ the language of men inspired partook of this meal, and sat till eight, with the love of liberty; and that he after which psalm-singing, reading, was honoured by some of its warmest and prayers, was performed by the friends in both hemispheres. It is old gentleman himself, after which far from our intention to offer any they all retired.
thing in justification of the very conWhether the genius of a people spicuous part he acted against this, forms their religious sentiments, or if his native
country, yet it is impossible religion forms, in some measure, the not to admire the gentle and kindly manners of a people, I shall leave the feelings which directed his conduct wise to decide. I shall only observe, towards Lady Selkirk, so opposite to that while that reverence remained in the character of a pirate as he was the minds of men for masters, fathers, represented to be, and the very hand. and heads of clans, it was then that some manner in which he repaired the the dread of Deity was most powerful; injury which policy perhaps compelthis will appear from the superstitious led him to inflict. There are probably writings of the times. The fear of few instances, especially among adhell, and deceitful power of the devil, venturers who have risen from the was at the bottom of all their religious condition in which Paul Jones was sentiments. The established belief in originally placed, -of more enlarged witchcraft, for which many suffered, views, --more genierous feelings,- and prevailed much at this time; ghosts a more disinterested conduct, than the too, and apparitions 'of various kinds; following letters exhibit, combined few old houses were without a ghosté as these are with sentiments of relentchamber, that few had courage to sleepless hostility towards the claims of his in ; omens and dreams were much native country. Such a picture, of regarded even by people of the best which the view is at all times refresheducation. These were the manners ing, ought to be held up to the eyes of the last century, and remained in of those who are now engaged in sipart for thirty years in this.
milar struggles in another quarter of (To be concluded in our next.) the world. Good policy, in the ab.
sence of higher motivės, may induce
those who direct and regulate the ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE.
movements of revolutionary warfare, PAUL JONES."
as well as those who are impelled by All our readers must have heard the storm, to atone, in some measure, of this daring naval adventurer, and by acts of forbearance and generosity, many of them are old enough to re- for the injuries to which the helpless collect the alarm and terror which the and the innocent are peculiarly exname of Paul Jones spread along our posed in the infuriate contests between coasts during the war with America. a people and their rulers. This distinguished person was the son In the progress of the revolutionary of a small farmer a few miles from war, Paul Jones obtained the command Dumfries, and, impelled by that love of a squadron, with which, in 1778, he of enterprise which is so frequently undertook to annoy the coasts of Great to be met with among the peasantry Britain. On the 21 December 1777, of Scotland, seems to have eagerly he arrived at Nantes, and in January embarked in the cause of the co- repaired to Paris, with the view of lonies against the mother country. making arrangements with the Amew Whether he was actuated in any rican ministers and the French godegree by a sense of the injustice vernment. In February he conveyed