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good and decent man.” When asked what gifts he had brought to the king, he named over constancy and justice and other virtues, and they asked: “Do you bring him those gifts because he lacks them?” “Not at all,” said he, “but so that he may learn how to use them if he has them.” They rejoined: “It was by using them that he recovered this kingdom which you see, after he had lost it; and he restored his dynasty, not without toil and trouble.” Apollonius asked how long it was since he had recovered the throne, and they replied: “Three years lacking two months.” Then with his characteristic exaltation of mind Apollonius said: "O keeper of the king's person, or whatever it befits you to be called, when Darius, the father of Artaxerxes and of Cyrus, had held this throne for about sixty years, and felt the end of his life drawing near, he is said to have sacrificed to Justice, invoking her as ‘Lady and Mistress, whosoever you may be l' as if conscious

! that though he had sought justice long, he did not know her, nor think he had attained her; and he brought up his sons so unwisely that they waged war upon each other, in which one of the brothers was wounded and the other was slain. Yet this present monarch, who has hardly had time to learn how to sit on his royal throne, you imagine to have acquired all the virtues, and you magnify him, although it would be better, not for me, but for yourselves, to try to improve him.” At that, the barbarian stared at the man next him, and said: "Some god brings this man here as an unhopedfor gift, for our good king by association with his excellence will become much kinder to us, and more gentle and forbearing, because this man radiates those qualities.” They entered the inner palace forth with and carried the welcome news that before the doors stood a Greek who was a wise man and an incomparable adviser.


At the time this word was brought to the king he was offering sacrifice in the presence of the Magi, who direct all such religious ceremonies; and summoning one of them he said: “That dream has come true which I told you of this morning when you came to my bedside to salute me.” Now the king's dream was, that he imagined himself to be Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes, and to have been transformed into his likeness, from which he greatly feared that some change of fortune was impending, for so he interpreted that change of his shape. When he heard that the new arrival was a Greek and a Sage, he called to mind how Themistocles the Athenian had come from Greece in former days to dwell with Artaxerxes, and had brought him to great honor while showing his own worth; wherefore stretching out his right hand, he cried: "Call him in! It will be a good beginning for him to join me in sacrifice and prayer !"


Then Apollonius entered, followed by a long train of persons who thought to please the king by so doing, as they knew that he was gratified by receiving this new guest. In passing through the palace he did not even glance at any of those objects which usually attract men's attention, but kept steadily on as if travelling, and he said to Damis: “You asked me not long ago what was the name of the woman in Pamphylia who was a close friend of Sappho, and who is said to have composed those hymns in the Æolian and Pamphylian modes which are still sung in honor of the Pergean Artemis.” Damis replied: "I did ask it, but you did not tell me.” Apollonius said: "I did not tell you the name, my friend, but I explained fully to you the structure and words of the hymns, and how the Æolian mode developed into that most stately measure used by the Pamphylians. Then our conversation turned to some other subject, and you did not repeat the question. That accomplished woman was named Damophyle, and she is said to have had a company of maidens like Sappho, and to have composed love-songs as well as hymns. In her hymn to Artemis she imitated Sappho, and it is sung like the Sapphic odes." He showed thus how far he was from being overawed by the display and magnificence of the king, when he did not bestow a glance upon their splendors, but spoke of other matters as if only they were before his eyes.


The king saw him coming at a distance, for the hall of sacrifice was of great dimension, and he made some remark to his attendants indicating that he recognized the man. Then when he drew nearer the king exclaimed to them: “This is Apollonius, whom my brother Megabates says he saw at Antioch, the object of the greatest honor and reverence of all good men there, and he described him to me just as we see him now!" After Apollonius had come up and made his salutation the king addressed him in Greek, directing him to sacrifice with him; for he was about to slaughter in honor of the Sun one of the finest white horses of the Nisæan breed, decked with golden trappings as if for a procession. "Sacrifice in your own way, O King, but let me sacrifice in mine,” replied Apollonius. Then taking incense he prayed: "O Sun, conduct me over so much of the earth as to thee and me seems best, and make me everywhere to know good men ; but let me not know evil men, nor let them know me.” With these words he threw the incense on the altar-fire, noting closely how it divided itself, and how it smoked, and where and in how many places it burned up in jets of flame; then perceiving how the fire showed clear and auspicious, he said: "O King, go on now to perform your sacrifice after the custom of your

country, for my customs are these," and he withdrew at once from the room, to have no complicity in bloodshed.

32. Returning when the sacrifice was ended, he asked: “O King, do you know the Greek language thoroughly, or only so much as may suffice for a little conversation, not to appear discourteous to any Greek who may come here?" "Thoroughly," said the king, "as well as I do my native tongue of this land. So tell me what your plans are, for that I think is why you ask the question.” “You are right,” said Apollonius, “so listen to them. The Indians are the objective point of my journey, but I was unwilling to pass you by; especially as I had heard that you were such a man as I now perceive you to be, even on this short acquaintance. I also wished to investigate that wisdom which has been acquired by the Magi among your people, and to learn whether they are as versed in knowledge of the divine as they are reported to be. The father of my philosophy was Pythagoras the Samian, who has taught me my method of worshipping the gods, and to apprehend them by my mind whether they are appearing visibly or not; and to converse with them; and to wear a linen garment made from a fleece which is grown from the ground, instead of that shorn from sheep, for it springs pure from the pure, as the gift of earth and water. I have also adopted the practice of wearing my hair long by the teaching of Pythagoras, and my abstinence from animal food is due to the same wisdom. Because of these peculiarities I could never be a boon-companion or a sharer in ease and luxury with you or any one else; but I will undertake for you the solution of difficult and intricate questions of policy, for I not only recognize the right course when I see it, but I can predict it in advance." These were the Master's words to the king, as reported by Damis, and Apollonius gives the same account in one of his letters, as he also repeated in his letters many of his other discourses.

33. The king assured him that he rejoiced and gloried in his coming more than if he had added the riches of Persia and the Indies to his own, and that he wished him to be his guest, and an inmate of the palace. Apollonius asked him: "If you should come to my country of Tyana, O King, and I invited you to stay at my house, would you do so?" "By no means,” said the king, “unless the house were large enough to accommodate my attendants and my guards, as well as myself.” “I must answer your invitation in the same way,” said Apollonius, “for if I should be housed unsuitably to my condition I would live uncomfortably. Superfluity galls philosophers more than deficiency would you. So let some private citizen lodge me, who has what I am used to, and I will spend as much time with you as you like."


The king yielded lest he might annoy him by persisting, and Apollonius found lodgings with a respectable Babylonian of good family. While they were at supper one of those eunuchs who carry the royal messages came to the Master and said: “The king offers you ten gifts, and leaves their selection to you, so that you may be suited. He only stipulates that you do not ask for anything of small value, for he wishes to give to you and to us a proof of his munificence.” After expressing gratitude for the offer, Apollonius asked when he was to express his wishes, and the messenger replied "tomorrow;" and went in haste to invite all friends and kinsmen of the king to be present to witness the requests to be made, and the honors to be heaped upon the Master. Damis says that he felt quite sure that Apollonius would ask for nothing, knowing his character and that his customary prayer was: “O ye gods, grant me to have little and to stand in need of nothing;" and yet, when he saw him meditating and apparently absorbed in thought, he fancied that he intended to ask the king for something and was considering what it should be. Later in the evening he said to Damis: “I am wondering why the barbarians suppose eunuchs to be chaste, and admit them to their harems." "Why, any boy knows that, Apollonius," said Damis; "the harems are open to them, even if they should try to lie with the women, because a surgical operation has deprived them of the power of intercourse.” The Master asked: “Do you think that they have been deprived of passion, or merely of the power to gratify it?” “Of both,” said Damis, "for after those organs have been removed by which the body is excited, passion cannot attack anyone.” After a short pause

the Master said: “You will find out tomorrow, Damis, that even eunuchs have passions, and that the desire of the eyes has not been extinguished in them, but remains hot and smouldering; for something is going to happen which will disprove your theory. Even if there were any human skill so sovereign and effective as to expel such thoughts from the mind, I would not for all that call eunuchs chaste, when they are merely forced to abstain by some necessity, and are deprived of passion by a compulsory operation. Chastity is shown when a man has desires and is tempted by his senses, but nevertheless refrains from indulging them, and controls himself, rising superior to his passions." Damis replied: "We can consider those questions some other time, Apollonius; but just now you must decide what answer to give tomorrow to that splendid offer of the king. Very likely you will not ask for anything, but remember in what land we are, and that we are entirely at his mercy; and beware lest you seem to reject his gifts from some false pride. You should prevent any such unjust suspicion of treating him with disdain, and then too you should

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reflect that although our resources are enough to take us to India they will not bring us back, and we have no other way of readily getting more.” With these plausible arguments he sought to induce Apollonius not to refuse the king's bounty.

35. As if yielding to his persuasion, Apollonius remarked: "Are you going to leave out the examples of other philosophers, Damis ? For instance, Æschines the son of Lysanias sailed all the way to Dionysius in Sicily to get money; and Plato is said to have dared the passage of Charybdis three times for the sake of Sicilian wealth; and Aristippus of Cyrene, and Helicon of Cyzicus, and Phyto the fugitive from Rhegium, all dived so deeply into the treasure-vaults of Dionysius that they could hardly come up again. Then too they say that Eudoxus the Cnidian once journeyed to Egypt for the express purpose of getting money there, and wrangled over it with the king; and not to traduce any more philosophers, Speusippus the Athenian was said to be so mercenary that when he attended the wedding of Cassander in Macedonia he collected money from the guests for reciting to them his insipid verses. It seems to me, Damis, that a philosopher is exposed to worse dangers than sailors or warriors are; for malice calumniates him, whether he is silent or he speaks, whether he is earnest or remiss, whether he is seeking or satisfied, whether he salutes some one or does not. Such a man must therefore always be on his guard, and should remember that if a philosopher indulges in laziness or irritability or wine or women or any other similar impropriety he may perhaps be excused, but if he shows himself eager for money he will never be pardoned, but will be shunned as one addicted to all other vices as well; the argument being that he would not crave money except to gratify his appetites for dainties and dress and drink and debauchery. Perhaps you think that it is a less offense to err in Babylon than in Athens or Olympia or Delphi, forgetting that for the philosopher Greece is everywhere, and that to him no country is deserted or barbarous, where he lives within the sight of Virtue; and though he sees few men about him he is watched by myriads of eyes. Now if your companion was an athlete, Damis, such as a wrestler or boxer, who intended to compete at the Olympic games or in Arcadia, would you wish him to be sound and strong? Of if the Pythian or Nemæan games were coming on, would you expect him to go into training for them, because those are all famous contests held at well-known places in Greece ? but if Philip should institute similar games for the cities he had taken, or if his son Alexander should do the like to commemorate his victories, would you wish your friend to train less diligently, and to be careless about winning, because he was going to compete at Olynthus, or in Macedon, or Egypt,

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