Lubricants and Special Fluids
The constitution, properties, production and applications of lubricants and related fluids of all states of aggregation are reviewed in this volume. Special attention is devoted to synthetic lubricants and to additives for lubricants. Standards of quality are listed, together with systems of classification and the most important specifications and methods of testing the properties of lubricants and their performance in service. Future trends in lubricants are also discussed. Non-conventional lubricants and additives are examined in detail. The relationship between constitution and properties of lubricants, e.g., the viscosity -temperature -pressure relationship, the behaviour in ageing, the biodegradability, synergisms and antagonisms in the blends of lubricants, of additives and lubricant-additive are analyzed. Guidelines for the selection of lubricants and fluids in the design, service and maintenance of machines and machine parts are also given. The work will be of interest to all those involved in the research and development of petrochemical and machinery industries, as well as lecturers and students specializing in this field.
Chapter 3 Types of Lubricants and their Compositions
Chapter 4 Additives
acids alkanic alkyl anti-wear properties antioxidants aromatic ASTM base oil bearings calcium carbon Chem chemical chlorine components composition compounds compressors concentration copolymers corrosion corrosion inhibitors cycloalkanic cylinder DD additives decomposition decreases deposits detergents diesel engines dispersant drop-point effect emulsifiers emulsions engine oils EP additives esters fatty flash-point fluid foaming formation friction coefficient fuel gasoline engines gear oils glycols GOST greases heat high temperatures higher hydraulic hydrocarbons hydrogen improve increase inhibitors liquid load load-carrying capacity low temperatures lower lubricant film lubricants lubricating greases machine metal surfaces mineral oils mm’s molecular weight molecule oil viscosity oils containing operating oxidation oxidation stability oxygen petroleum phenols phosphates piston polyisobutene polymers pour-point pressure resistance shear rate silicone sludge soaps solid lubricants solubility solvent specifications substances succinimides suitable sulphonates sulphur synthetic oils Table thermal stability thickening Tribology viscosity index volatility wear ZDDP