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The ground colour of its coat is dingy fulvous, occasionally yellowish grey, with numerous elongate, wavy, black spots, somewhat clouded or marbled. On the sides of the body are large irregular patches of a darker shade and with dark margins, especially on the hinder edge of each patch. The head and nape have some narrow blackish lines coalescing into a dorsal interrupted band; a dark line extends backwards from between the eye and the mouth; the thighs and part of the sides with black round spots; the
tail black spotted, with a black tip. The belly is yellowish white. The colour becomes more fulvous with age.
There are several skulls of this species in the collection of the British Museum. These all agree in having the orbit nearly or completely enclosed by a bony ring-the postorbital process of the frontal meeting the postorbital process of the malar in the older specimens. The skull is very broad at the zygomata. The first upper premolar is very small, and the first lower premolar is not very prominent. The premaxilla ascend and join the frontals, thus separating the nasals from the maxillæ on the surface of the skull. The pterygoid fossa is rather well developed.
The pupil is said to be linear.
This species ranges from Nepal through Burmah and Malacca. to Java and Borneo.
(15.) THE SERVAL (Felis Serval).*
§ 7. This large and well-known African cat has long legs and a short tail. It is of a more or less tawny colour, with black spots, and black rings on the tail. The underparts are whitish. Towards the middle of the back the spots tend to run together into two longitudinal bands. There is no dark streak upon the cheek, but there are two strongly marked transverse black bars across the inside of the upper part of each fore-leg.
The length of the head and body may be as much as forty inches, that of the tail may be sixteen inches.
The pupil contracts into an oblong opening.
There is not only a first upper premolar, but the second upper premolar is largely developed.
This animal inhabits Africa from Algiers to the Cape.
(16.) THE GOLDEN-HAIRED CAT (Felis rutila).†
This species is founded upon a skin described by Mr. Waterhouse in 1842, and which (the type of the species) is preserved in the British Museum, but is unfortunately mutilated.
Its colour is red-brown, with indistinct small darker spots on the sides; back, dark brown medianly; belly white, with large brown spots; tail red-brown, with a dark central line extending along its dorsal surface, while at each side it is pale, with obscure indications of darker bands.
Length of head and body about twenty-eight inches; of tail, fourteen inches.
The skull has the orbits incomplete behind. There is a very small first upper premolar.
Habitat, Sierra Leone and Gambia.
There are two cats only known to me by description, as to the distinctness of which I am too much in doubt to venture to enumerate them as distinct kinds. They are F. celidogaster and F. senegalensis.
Felis celidogaster was named by Temminck, who thus describes it :"Fur short, smooth, shiny, chocolate or light brown spots;
This is described and figured in Mr. Elliot's Monograph.
† Waterhouse, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1842, p. 130; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1867, pp. 272 and 395; Cat. of Carnivora, p. 23. F. chrysothrix of Elliot's Mono
grey, with a reddish tint, with spots on dorsal line oblong, the
graph. He identifies it with both the
Esquisses Zologiques, p. 87.
others round; cheeks and lips whitish, with small brown spots; throat and chest with six or seven half-circular brown bands; lower parts and inner sides of the limbs pure white, with large round chocolate-brown spots; two bands of this colour on the inner side of the fore, and four on the hind feet; tail bay-brown, with paler brown rings, end black brown; outer surface of the ears black; claws white."
Length of body and head, twenty-six inches; that of tail, fourteen inches.
Mr. Elliot identifies this with the F. neglecta of Gray and the F. rutila of Waterhouse (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 759), and describes it in his Monograph under the name F. chrysothrix.
The other doubtful species is Felis senegalensis of Lesson.* The fur of this animal is of a uniform reddish grey, paler beneath, with black spots inclining on the back to run into longitudinal stripes; spots on limbs; tail ringed; two black stripes from eye to ear; muzzle, chin, and throat white.
The individual described was about the size of the domestic cat, and was regarded as probably immature. It seems probably to have been a young Serval.
As to this species or variety Professor Alphonse Milne-Edwards has been so kind as to inform the author that no specimen of it exists in the Paris Museum. The original description was made from a living animal at the hospital of Rochefort-sur-Mer. young Serval in the Paris Museum closely resembles the description of F. senegalensis, but has a tuft of hairs on each ear.
(17.) THE GREY AFRICAN CAT (Felis neglecta).+
This is rather smaller than the last species, and is well distinguished by its grey colour. The type is in the British Museum; and was originally described by Dr. Gray as follows :—
"Grey; head and body marked with numerous small darker spots, spots of the lower part of the sides rather larger; belly white, with large blackish spots; tail quite half the length of the body, with a dark line along the upper surface, sides paler, with obscure indications of darker bands."
No dark streak on the cheek.
• Lesson, Guérin's Mag. de Zool., 1839, t. x., Mammifères.
Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1838, vol. i., p. 27; Pro. Zool. Soc., 1867, pp. 272 and 294; and Brit. Mus.
Cat., p. 24. Mr. Elliot, in his Monograph, identifies this with the species last described; but to me it appears very distinct from the latter.
(18.) THE SERVALINE CAT (Felis servalina).*
This animal is apparently of about the same size as F. neglecta, but is distinguished from it by its colour, which is yellow, fulvous above, and white beneath. The middle of the back is darker, with very numerous small black spots, spots on sides rather larger, on the belly much larger; tail short, fulvous, with five or six imperfect black rings, and a pale tip. No cheek streaks. The type is said to be in the British Museum. Habitat, Sierra Leone.
(19.) THE OCELOT (F. pardalis).t
§ 8. This beautiful cat, always handsomely marked, is either one of several closely allied species, or else, as is more probable, is subject to much variation as to coloration and the intensity of its markings. Besides the typical form, Dr. Gray has distinguished four marked varieties (or species) which he has named F. grisea, F. melanura, F. picta and F. pardoides, and certainly these forms are not only very different when adult, but, as Dr. Gray says, their characters are to a certain extent permanent, the young, in some instances at least, being like their parents, so that they are at least varieties which "breed true."
The ground colour of the ocelot may be tawny yellow or reddish grey. It is always marked with black spots, which are aggregated in chain-like streaks and blotches, generally forming elongated spots, each with a black border, enclosing than is the general ground colour. black spots, and there are two black or two transverse dark bands within to be ringed, and the ventral parts of the trunk and limbs are whitish.
an area which is rather darker The head and limbs bear small stripes over each cheek and one each fore-leg. The tail tends
Length from snout to tail-root ranges from twenty-six to thirtythree inches; that of the tail varies from eleven to fifteen inches. The pupil contracts into a vertical slit. The orbit is not enclosed by bone.
The creature is a ready climber, and is said to be exceedingly bloodthirsty.
The variety called F. grisea is of a grey colour, even somewhat whitish at the sides; that named F. picta,§ differs from the typical F. pardalis in its less intense coloration, the less degree of approximation of its stripes and the less amount of difference which
* Ogilby, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1839, p. 4; Gray, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 395; and Catalogue of Carnivora of Brit. Mus., p. 24; Sclater, Pro. Zool. Soc., 1874, p. 495, plate 63. Mr. Elliot identifies this in his Monograph with the Serval, but in this I cannot at all agree with him.
† Described and figured in Elliot's
Monograph. He considers the here enumerated varieties to be merely varieties. See also Godman and Salvin's Biologia, Mammalia, p. 60.
Gray, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. x., p. 260, 1842; and Pro. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 403.
§ Gray, l. c.
exists between the general ground colour and the parts enclosed by the black borders of the spots and markings. The variety termed F. pardodes* is very like the variety F. grisea, but the spots affect less the form of rings upon the flanks, while the stripes on the neck are less distinct as well as shorter, the ground colour of the neck being redder. There are also more or less spots in the middle of the back. It differs from the typical F. pardalis by its grey colour.
This greyness in F. pardoides and F. grisea is not the effect of age, since it already exists in the kittens.
F. pardoides measures about twenty-five inches from snout to tail-root, and the tail is thirteen inches long.
Very different from all the foregoing, as well as from the typical F. pardalis, is the variety which has been named F. melanura. Its colours are most intense. The ground colour being bright fulvous, and the black markings exceedingly numerous and deep, while the white parts stand out in strong contrast to the rest.
The ocelot ranges from Arkansas to Paraguay, and according to Mr. Elliot, even to Patagonia.
Certain other smaller and beautifully-spotted American cats are also difficult to distinguish one from another; but it seems to me there are probably three distinct kinds, which are represented in our National collection, and are named F. tigrina, F. guigna, and F. pardinoides.
(20.) THE MARGAY (Felis tigrina).‡
The animal thus named must be another very variable species, since what I believe to be but different varieties have been described as three distinct species, under the names of F. tigrina, F. mitis (the Chati), and F. macroura.
The F. tigrina of the British Museum.§ has rather harsh fur, of a dull grizzled colour, varied with black spots and rings. The tail is marked with small black spots, often confluent, but not forming continuous rings. There are three transverse black stripes on the cheek. The head and body together measure a little over twentyfour inches, and the tail is about eleven inches long.
The specimens named F. mitis and F. macroura || have soft, bright, fulvous fur, with black spots of variable size, but which are not united in chains. The black-bordered patches sometimes have a pale centre.