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abdominal alimentary aorta aperture arch arises artery articular surface articulates attached auricle axis backwards beneath blood blood-vessels body bone bony called canal cartilage cat's cavity cells centrum concave condyle connected consists convex coronoid process corpuscles digit digitorum distal dorsal vertebra duct extends extensor external fascia femur fibrous fibula fissure flexor foramen foramen magnum forwards fossa front frontal glands groove hinder end humerus inferior inner side inner surface inserted internal intestine ischium layer ligament limbs liver lobe longus lower lumbar lungs lymphatics margin maxilla median membrane metacarpal metatarsal mucous mucous membrane muscle muscular fibres nasal nerve neural spine oblique orbit organs outer side outwards palatine parietal passes peritoneum phalanx plate portion posterior prezygapophysis proximal ribs ridge scapula skeleton skull sphenoid stomach substance takes origin temporal bone tendon termed tibia tissue transverse process tube tuberosity ulna upper upwards valves veins vena ventral ventricle vertical vessels zygoma
Page 379 - It would be incompatible with everything we know of the cerebral action, to suppose that the physical chain ends abruptly in a physical void, occupied by an immaterial substance; which immaterial substance, after working alone, imparts its results to the other edge of the physical break, and determines the active response — two shores of the material with an intervening ocean of the immaterial.
Page 384 - ... knowledge of what has been communicated which sets him in motion. To deny this is to deny the evident teaching of our consciousness. It is to deny what is necessarily the more certain in favour of what is less so. If I do not know this I know nothing, and discussion is useless. As a distinguished writer has said : ' That we are conscious, and that our actions are determined by sensations, emotions, and ideas, are facts which may or may not be explained by reference to material conditions, but...
Page ix - ... but the subject has been so treated as to fit it also to serve as an introduction to Zoology generally, and even to Biology itself...
Page 371 - The cat has a language of sounds and gestures to express its feelings and emotions. So have we. But we have further — which neither the cat, nor the bird, nor the beast has — a language and gestures to express our thoughts.
Page 383 - ... the surface which is wet or rough, the change in feeling thus produced, although a collateral product of the movement, instantly changes the direction of the hand, suspends or alters the course — that is to say, the collateral product of one movement becomes a directing factor in Hie succeeding mouement."* Mr. Lewes' view is thus virtually identical with the views of Air.
Page 373 - For instance let a dog be lost by his mistress in a field in -which he has never been before. The presence of the group of sensations which we know to indicate his mistress is associated with pleasure, and its absence with pain. By past experience an association has been formed between this feeling of pain and such movements of the head as tend to recover some part of that group, its recovery being again associated with movements which, de facto, diminish tne distance between the dog and his mistress.
Page 383 - ... surface, there is, accompanying this movement, a succession of muscular and tactile feelings which may be said to be collateral products. But the feeling which accompanies one muscular contraction is itself the stimulus of the next contraction ; if anywhere during the passage the hand comes upon a spot...
Page 381 - verification by sensation,' and yet even in such verification the ultimate appeal is not really to the senses, but to the intellect, which may doubt and which criticises and judges the actions and suggestions of the senses and imagination. Though no knowledge is possible for us which is not genetically traceable to sensation, yet the ground of all our developed knowledge is not sensational, but intellectual, and its final justification depends, and must depend, not on ' feelings,
Page 258 - D, the nerve-roots and ganglion are shown from below. 1, the anterior median fissure ; 2, posterior median fissure ; 3, anterior lateral depression, over which the anterior nerve-roots are seen to spread ; 4, posterior lateral groove, into which the posterior roots are seen to sink ; 5, anterior roots passing the ganglion ; 5', in A, the anterior root divided ; 6, the posterior roots, the fibres of which pass into the ganglion 6...
Page 387 - Although these are incited by physical agents (just as analogous kinds of movements are in animals), and cannot be the result of anything like volition, yet nearly all of them are inexplicable on mechanical principles. Some of them at least are spontaneous motions of the plant or organism itself, due to some inherent power which is merely put in action by light, attraction, or other external influences.