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have been intrusted to a man of eighty, and the satires themselves indicate with sufficient clearness that during the latter half of his life Juvenal was almost constantly in Rome. In the reign of Domitian, however, he may have been banished for the reason assigned' or for some other cause unknown to us, or his appointment to some distant post during the term of his military service may have given rise to the story. On the whole, it seems possible that the tradition of the exile rests on good foundation, while the statements of time, place, and cause are merely deductions from various passages of the satires."

16. Death. The exact date of Juvenal's death cannot be determined. We have seen that he was writing as late as the year 128; if we may accept as well founded the tradition in several of the vitae that he lived to be eighty or more years of age, his decease may be placed in the latter half of the next decade (135-140).

17. Knowledge of philosophy. Though the poems of Juvenal do not furnish much information with regard to the life of their author, they do offer a substantial basis on which to form an estimate of his mental equipment and of some aspects of his character. In the first place, his philosophical knowledge is of the most elementary kind. By nature he was not much given to reflection, but was preeminently an observer who regarded the passions and activities of men with the greatest interest." Hence we are not surprised to learn that he never studied the doctrines of the philosophical schools, though, like most rhetoricians, he shows a superficial acquaintance with their chief tenets. For Juvenal, however, philosophy was little more than the


1 Cf. Vahlen, Juvenal und Paris, in Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., 1883, p. 1192, who thinks that the passage in question (7, 88-92) belongs to the satire as published under Hadrian and has no connection with any banishment.

2 See p. ix, notes 3 and 4. E. Hübner, l. l. col. 1374-6 utterly disbelieved the whole tradition and could find in Juvenal's life no place for a period of exile,

1, 85 f.; 14, 256 ff.


13, 120 ff.


highest practical wisdom, which forbids revenge, enables men to rid themselves of faults and errors, and points out to them the right.' Her teachings, which are always in harmony with those of nature,' enjoin submission to fortune and patient endurance of the ills of life." Juvenal was naturally more inclined to the theories of Stoicism than to those of any other school. His belief in fate as an inexorable power controlling human life and in the far-reaching influence of the conjunction of the planets at the birth of the individual, beliefs which were widespread at Rome in his day,' have their root in the Stoic philosophy. From the same source are derived his views on the interest of the gods in human affairs, on the wise man's freedom from anger and desire, and on the importance of courage in the face of trouble and death."

18. Religious views. The religious attitude of Juvenal may, on the whole, be defined as liberal. He speaks of a common creator of all things," and implies his belief in one controlling force that directs the movements of the universe.' We find him, however, offering sacrifice to Juppiter, Juno, and Minerva, and also to his own Lares, for the rescue of Catullus from shipwreck." He believes in the tortures of a guilty conscience" and in ultimate retribution for crime," and says that man is differentiated from the brutes by his capacity to worship and to apprehend the divine." Moreover, he sets up the highest moral standard in asserting that the true seat of guilt lies not in the act but in the intention and motive." On the other hand, Juvenal has no sympathy with literal interpretations of the tales of Greek



187 ff.



13, 19 ff.

2, 16; 9, 32;

10, 129; 11, 105; 12, 63; 14, 158; notes on 7, 199 f.
10, 313; 16, 4; notes on 7, 195 and

B 200; 9, 33;




A. G. Harkness, Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc., xxx, 1899, pp. 70 ff., 83 ff.

148. 15,

13, 87.

7 346 ff. 10, 10 12, 3-6 and 89 f.; Ceres, too, may be included, if we identify the satirist with the author of the inscription of Aquinum (§ 7).

11 193 f. 13,


247 f.


14 13, 208 ff.






15, 142 ff.

mythology; he regards the stories of the infernal regions as utterly unworthy of belief,' and never takes seriously a debased or anthropomorphic conception of the gods." Foreign cults, so popular at Rome in his day, met with his strong disapproval; and especially Judaism, with its more mysterious and spiritual worship, never fully understood by the Romans, was by him regarded as a narrow and exclusive superstition.*



19. Hatred of foreigners. One of the most marked characteristics of Juvenal was the shortsighted patriotism which led him to regard all foreigners with contempt. "The versatile and ingenious Greek," he says, "by flattery and deceit everywhere takes precedence of the freeborn Roman, who is driven from the favor of his patron by the intrigues of this monster of treachery and lust; in short, there is no place for the Roman in a city where the influence of the Greek is paramount." Such bitter reflections may well have been the result of personal experience in the days when Juvenal as a client haunted the halls of the rich; at any rate, it is clear that they spring from the heart. Strong, however, as was his dislike for the Greeks, still stronger was his aversion to Orientals, especially to the the Egyptians, against whom he vents his spite in the fifteenth satire." In this horde of barbarians 10 Crispinus stands preeminent, Juvenal's peculiar vessel of wrath.' This monster, whose vices were not relieved by any virtue," may possibly, through his great influence with Domitian, have been the cause of disappointment or loss to the satirist, who, now that the imperial favorite is no longer to be dreaded, gives full expression to his loathing and contempt.

20. Summary.

On the whole we see in Juvenal a man of

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I, 102 ff.; 3, 62 ff.; 7, 13 ff., etc.


11 4, 2 f.






26, 15, 59; 13, 39 ff., 83; 14, 271; 16, 5, etc.
3, 81 ff.
3, 109-25.
119 f.



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Cf. 1, 130 f. and introd. to Sat. 15.
12 Cf. 1, 26 and 4, 1-33, with introd. and notes.

serious temperament,' good education, and high character, inspired by a genuine, though narrow patriotism, filled with an earnest admiration for the simple manners of the past,' and therefore with an intense hatred for the degeneracy of the present, swayed by a moral indignation' which is 'per-' fectly genuine, though at times grossly exaggerated,—in short, not a genius of the highest order, but a man endowed with unusual gifts of both mind and heart.

Juvenal the Satirist

21. Point of view. In the first satire, which serves as a preface to the first book, Juvenal lays before the reader his programme and gives some indications of his method and point of view. Living in the midst of such degeneracy and corruption, he says that it is difficult for him not to write satire." Never was vice so prevalent, extravagance so general:" never did the possession of wealth so quickly elevate the most degraded to the highest honor." Still, it is dangerous to attack the living, as Lucilius did;' the satirist therefore decides to turn his attention to the men of a former time." Are we to understand from this that he intended to satirize the persons and morals of the present, under the pretence of attacking those of the past? When the first satire was published, in the earlier part of the reign of Trajan,' conditions, in some respects at least, could not possibly have been so bad as Juvenal depicts. At the same time it must be admitted that in any great capital, even under the most favorable circumstances, there is abundant material to occupy the pen


1 There is in Juvenal scarcely anything that can be called humor: of humorous situations there is no lack (e. g. 1, 123 ff.), but they are usually presented in such a way as to arouse indignation rather than ridicule. Cf., however, J. Jessen, Witz und Humor im Juvenal, in Philologus, XLVII, 1888, pp. 320-7; F. S. Dunn, Juvenal as a Humorist, in Proc. Am. Phil. Assoc., xxxI, 1900, p. xlix.

211, 77 ff.; 14, 156-75.

9 1, 30 f., 79 f.

6 I, 87-95.

• 1, 105–10.

7 1, 150-8.

• Cf. § 10.

10 It should be remembered that the virtuous and agreeable society with which we become acquainted in the Epistles of Pliny belongs to the same period.


I, 170-1.


I, 22-30.

1 Cf. § 10. 3 § 19.

7 Cf. Friedländer, p. 20, n. 1.

of the satirist. Much more may this be said of Rome, with its great wealth, its large proletariat which had to be fed and amused at public cost, and its hordes of slaves who were sapping the very foundations of the empire by corrupting the home, the fountain of national strength. Nevertheless it seems likely that Juvenal, at least in those satires which are not purely general, had before his eye for the most part only the past, sometimes the distant past known to him only from history, but as a rule the reign of Domitian, during which his own early manhood was passed. His peculiar confusion of past and present might be illustrated by many examples. In Satire 13, 157, which was published later than 127,' he mentions Rutilius Gallicus, the praefectus urbi, as if still living and discharging the duties of his office. But Gallicus died in 91 or 92, having been praefectus urbi some four or five years earlier. Crispinus, the favorite of Domitian'; Latinus, the actor'; Paris, the dancer, all of them long since dead, move before us as contemporaries of the poet; and, to go farther back, Sophonius Tigellinus," the wanton and cruel favorite of Nero, is chosen as a type of the influential man whom it would be dangerous to attack. 22. Immorality of upper classes satirized. But Juvenal would produce an entirely false and one-sided impression of the Rome of the first century if we should fail to observe that almost without exception his satire is directed against the wealthy, the powerful, and the higher classes of society. Especially in the first three books are they assailed under various names,' and accused of every conceivable form of crime." The women of noble birth come in for their share of condemnation in the sixth satire, in which there passes before our eyes a series of vivid pictures hardly to be paralleled in literature for lurid coloring and disgusting

2 See note on the passage and Vollmer on Stat. Sil. 1, 4, especially p. 282.
41, 36; 6, 44.
5 6, 87; 7, 87.
61, 155.
81, 67 f.; 2, 66 ff.; 8, 14 ff., 142, 144, etc.

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