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the praenomen is given as Marcus, which should perhaps be explained as a reminiscence of the well-known name M. Iunius Brutus.' With regard to the date of Juvenal's birth there has been wide divergence of opinion. If we accept the statement of the ancient biographies that he practised declamation until middle life,' then, by a backward calculation from the time when the satires began to be published, we may arrive approximately at the date sought. If the first book was published about the year 105, and Juvenal was then in middle life, he must have been born not long before the year 60. There seems no reason to doubt that his birthplace was Aquinum in Latium, the town near which the inscribed tablet set up by Iunius Iuvenalis was found and with which the poet's allusion in the third satire shows intimate acquaintance."

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13. Early life. With regard to Juvenal's social position, the only direct evidence is the statement of the ancient biographies that he was the son, or adopted son, of a rich freedman. Whether this be true or not, he seems to have

Lat. XLI) we read at the end of the second book: Decimici iunii iuvenalis satirarum liber ii explicit. The praenomen Decimus is attested also by the scholiast of P in a note on the vita which is given in § 6.

1 This is suggested by Dürr, l. 1. p. 9.

2 Teuffel in Pauly's Real-Encycl., IV, p. 537, gave 42 as the date on the other hand, Friedländer, De Iuvenalis vitae temporibus, Königsberg, 1875, argued for 67, and almost every date between has found its advocate. In his edition, however, Friedl. (p. 15) assigns the poet's birth to a time not long before and not long after the year 60. A vita published by Dürr (l. l. p. 28) from the end of a Ms. (saec. XV) in the Palazzo Barberini at Rome, besides giving the names of the poet's mother, sister, and teachers, as well as other details, assigns a definite date for his birth, Claudio Nerone et L. Antistio consulibus, i.e. 55 A.D. But this biography bears on its face the marks of its late origin, and probably rests on no more secure foundation than the fertile imagination of some scholar of the fifteenth century.

3 This statement is supported by 1, 25, evidently written by a man no longer young. The inscription referred to is given in § 7.

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31 319, where Umbricius, addressing Juvenal, says tuo Aquino. All the vitae, except the best one, call the poet Aquinas, but this is probably no more than an inference from the passage just cited.

• See § 6. But this statement is rejected by F. I. Merchant, Am. Jour. Phil., XXII, 1901, pp. 57 f., on the ground that Juvenal's openly expressed hatred for freedmen as a class precludes the possibility that he was himself a freedman's son.

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spent his early life at Rome, where he received the regular education of the schools. That his rhetorical studies were long-continued is stated by the vitae, and could easily be inferred from the satires themselves, which abound in sententiae and stock illustrations, and, especially in the later books, are more like moral essays or declamations than real satires. Among his teachers may have been Quintilian,' whom he several times mentions with greatest reverence. During this earlier part of his life he may have heard the recitations of the poet Statius, to whom he gives the warmest praise, and he was certainly on terms of intimacy with Martial. Moreover, like Martial, he was, for a time at least, a client or dependent, looking for support to rich patrons." Yet it must not be supposed that he was poor; for he had inherited an estate,' probably at Aquinum, and seems to have possessed considerable resources. At a later time he owned a country place at Tibur and a house in Rome," where he lived in comfort though not in luxury.10

14. Service in the army. As we cannot with certainty identify the satirist with the Juvenal of the inscription," we are not justified in making the positive assertion that he was ever in the army. The vitae seem to exclude the idea of military service by their statement that he was devoted to rhetorical studies till middle life." Yet several facts point strongly to the conclusion that Juvenal knew the life of a

1 1, 15-7; see notes there.

The striking differences in both style and subject between the first nine satires, which, as a rule, attack the society of the poet's time, and the later poems, which discuss abstract subjects, such as revenge, avarice, and parental influence, led O. Ribbeck to propound his extravagant theory that the tenth and the last five satires were not the work of Juvenal, but of some unknown rhetorician (Der echte und der unechte Juvenal, Berlin, 1865). This brilliant philological pyrotechnic, which furnished opportunity for a number of counter-displays in doctoral dissertations, should never have been taken seriously. 47, 82 ff. Cf. § 8.

See note on 7, 186.

76, 57.

6 1, 99 ff.; 3, 187 ff.; and especially Mart. XII, 18, quoted in § 8.
8 65.
II,

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11, 190; 12, 87 ff.

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II, 131 ff.

11 Cf. § 7.

12 F. I. Merchant, l. 7. pp. 51 ff., argues strongly that even this statement of the vitae is unworthy of credence.

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soldier by experience. His indignation at the promotion of the unworthy to important military posts,' his familiar references to centurions and other officers, as well as his evident intimacy with the details of camp life,' all point in that direction. He displays, too, a knowledge of various outlying provinces of the empire, especially of Britain,' which is easily explained on the assumption that he had visited different parts of the world in a military capacity. It seems likely, then, that Juvenal had served in the army, though, if we leave the inscription out of consideration, there is nothing to suggest his rank or the duration of his service.

15. Banishment. One of the most perplexing questions in connection with the life of Juvenal is that of his banishment. The vitae agree that he was banished on account of verses directed against the actor Paris, a favorite of Domitian, and this tradition was so firmly established by the fifth century that Apollinaris Sidonius' could refer to Juvenal as irati histrionis exul and expect to be understood.10 But while they agree as to the fact and the cause, the ancient biographies differ widely in regard to time and place. Some say that at the age of eighty years the satirist was sent under pretext of a military command to a distant part of Egypt; another says that he was despatched to Scotland, where he soon died of chagrin. According to one story, Trajan was the emperor who ordered his banishment; according to others, Nero or Domitian. With so many contradictory accounts and no convincing evidence, it is of course impossible to be sure of our ground. But we do not need evidence to convince us that no important command on a frontier of the empire can

1 1, 58 ff.; 7, 92.

2 2, 165; 3, 132; 14, 193, 197.

9 Sat. 16, passim.

10, 194; 11, 124 ff.; 13, 163; 14, 196; 15, 5, 45 ff., 125; cf. note on 15, 45.

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2, 161; 4, 126, 141; 10, 14; 14, 196.

• Cf. E. Hübner, Woch. f. klass. Phil., VI, 1889, col. 1343-5.

Chr. Strack, De Iuvenalis exilio, Laubach, 1880; K. Rittweger, Die Verbannung Juvenals und die Abfassungszeit seiner VII. Satire, Bochum, 1886.

87, 90 ff.

IX, 273; cf. p. x, n. 2.

10 The exile is mentioned also in the scholia on 1, 1; 4, 38; 7, 92.

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have been intrusted to a man of eighty, and the satires themselves indicate with sufficient clearness that during the latter half of his life Juvenal was almost constantly in Rome. In the reign of Domitian, however, he may have been banished for the reason assigned' or for some oth cause unknown to us, or his appointment to some distant post during the term of his military service may have given rise to the story. On the whole, it seems possible that the tradition of the exile if rests on good foundation, while the statements of time, place, and cause are merely deductions from various passages of the satires.'

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16. Death. The exact date of Juvenal's death cannot be determined. We have seen that he was writing as late as the year 128; if we may accept as well founded the tradition in several of the vitae that he lived to be eighty or more years of age, his decease may be placed in the latter half of the next decade (135-140).

17. Knowledge of philosophy. Though the poems of Juvenal do not furnish much information with regard to the life of their author, they do offer a substantial basis on which to form an estimate of his mental equipment and of some aspects of his character. In the first place, his philosophical knowledge is of the most elementary kind. By nature he was not much given to reflection, but was preeminently an observer who regarded the passions and activities of men with the greatest interest.' Hence we are not surprised to learn that he never studied the doctrines of the philosophical schools, though, like most rhetoricians, he shows a superficial acquaintance with their chief tenets. For Juvenal, however, philosophy was little more than the

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1 Cf. Vahlen, Juvenal und Paris, in Sitzungsb. d. preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., 1883, p. 1192, who thinks that the passage in question (7, 88-92) belongs to the satire as published under Hadrian and has no connection with any banishment.

2 See p. ix, notes 3 and 4. E. Hübner, l. 7. col. 1374-6 utterly disbelieved the whole tradition and could find in Juvenal's life no place for a period of exile,

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1, 85 f.; 14, 256 ff.

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13, 120 ff.

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soldier by experience. His indignation at the promotion of the unworthy to important military posts,' his familiar references to centurions and other officers, as well as his evident intimacy with the details of camp life,' all point in that direction. He displays, too, a knowledge of various outlying provinces of the empire, especially of Britain, which is easily explained on the assumption that he had visited different parts of the world in a military capacity. It seems likely, then, that Juvenal had served in the army, though, if we leave the inscription out of consideration, there is nothing to suggest his rank or the duration of his service.

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15. Banishment. One of the most perplexing questions in connection with the life of Juvenal is that of his banishment.' The vitae agree that he was banished on account of verses directed against the actor Paris, a favorite of Domitian, and this tradition was so firmly established by the fifth century that Apollinaris Sidonius' could refer to Juvenal as irati histrionis exul and expect to be understood." But while they agree as to the fact and the cause, the ancient biographies differ widely in regard to time and place. Some say that at the age of eighty years the satirist was sent under pretext of a military command to a distant part of Egypt; another says that he was despatched to Scotland, where he soon died of chagrin. According to one story, Trajan was the emperor who ordered his banishment; according to others, Nero or Domitian. With so many contradictory accounts and no convincing evidence, it is of course impossible to be sure of our ground. But we do not need evidence to convince us that no important command on a frontier of the empire can

11, 58 ff.; 7, 92.

22, 165; 3, 132; 14, 193, 197.

8 Sat. 16, passim.

4 10, 194; 11, 124 ff.; 13, 163; 14, 196; 15, 5, 45 ff., 125; cf. note on 15, 45.

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2, 161; 4, 126, 141; 10, 14; 14, 196.

Cf. E. Hübner, Woch. f. klass. Phil., vi, 1889, col. 1343-5.

7 Chr. Strack, De Iuvenalis exilio, Laubach, 1880; K. Rittweger, Die Verbannung Juvenals und die Abfassungszeit seiner VII. Satire, Bochum, 1886.

8 90 ff.

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7,

IX, 273; cf. p. x, n. 2.

10 The exile is mentioned also in the scholia on 1, 1; 4, 38; 7, 92.

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