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notasset, ac statim per honorem militiae quamquam octogenarius urbe summotus est missusque ad praefecturam cohortis in extrema parte tendentis Aegypti. id supplicii genus placuit, ut levi atque ioculari delicto par esset. verum intra brevissimum tempus angore et taedio periit.

This vita,' added by a later hand at the end of the codex Pithoeanus, and found also in a considerable number of other Mss., was probably compiled in the fourth or fifth century by the commentator known as the Probus of Valla. Most of its statements seem to have no better foundation than untrustworthy tradition and unwarranted inference from passages in the satires. The first sentence, however, contains details which could not easily be inferred from the poet's works," and, judged from the point of view of expression, may well be derived from some authority much nearer the time of Juvenal.

7. The inscription of Aquinum. From the neighborhood of Aquinum comes an inscription, existing now only in copy, dedicated to Ceres by one Juvenal who is generally believed to be identical with the author of the satires." It reads as follows:

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1 Dürr's I a = Jahn's I.

For a brief account of this Probus, see § 34.

3 The reference to Egypt is probably due to inference from the fifteenth satire (note

on 15, 45); cf. the expression semenstribus militiolis tumentem with 7, 88 f.

4 But see F. I. Merchant, Am. Jour. Phil., XXII, 1901, pp. 51 ff., who tries to show that even these details might have been deduced from the satires.

The portions printed in italics are

C.I.L. x, 5382 I.R.N. 4312 Dessau, 2926.

supplied by the editors.

• This identification is denied by H. J. de Dompierre de Chaufepié, De titulo I.R.N. 4312 ad Iuvenalem poetam perperam relato, Hagae Comitis, 1889, and doubted by W. v. Christ, Sitzungsb. bayr. Akad., 1897, I, pp. 142 f., and by J. D. Duff, ed. of Juvenal, p.

"In honor of Ceres D. Iunius Iuvenalis, tribune of the first cohort of Dalmatians, duumvir quinquennalis, priest of the deified Vespasian, vowed and dedicated (this offering) at his own expense." In favor of this identification it may be observed that the satirist closely associates himself with Aquinum' and mentions Ceres in the same connection. If we may assume, moreover, that Juvenal, like most men of his time, saw service in the army in his youth, the many references to military life in the satires thus find a ready explanation. But in the absence of the praenomen it must be acknowledged that we are on uncertain ground; for the municipal official of the inscription might as well be the father, brother, or some other relative of the poet.

8. Martial. A third source of information is Martial, the only writer of the first three centuries who mentions the name of Juvenal.' That the two poets were on terms of friendship, and even of intimacy, seems a safe inference from the three epigrams that come in question. In the seventh book, published in the year 92, Juvenal is called facundus, which without doubt refers only to his ability as an orator; for all signs point to his having published none of the satires until a much later date. About the year 100, after Martial had finally retired from Rome to his native place in Spain, he writes to Juvenal as follows:

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xxi, who believe that the local magnate of Aquinum was not the poet himself, but a kinsman by blood or adoption.' Cf. E. Hübner, Woch. f. klass. Phil., VI, 1889, col. 1343.

1 3, 319; cf. §§ 12, 13.

2 The only other references to Juvenal in Latin literature-aside from quotations or reminiscences of the satires during the fourth and following centuries (cf. § 27)—are made by Sidonius Apollinaris, IX, 269 ff., who mentions Ovid's banishment in the same sentence with that of Juvenal (cf. § 15), by Ammianus, XXVIII, 4, 14, who informs us that Juvenal was diligently studied in the fourth century, and by Rutilius Namatianus, 1, 604, who merely mentions the name of the satirist.

VII, 24 cum Iuvenale meo; ib. 91, and XII, 18.

♦ Facundus is, of course, frequently used of poets; cf. Vollmer's note on Stat. Sil. I, 2, 3.

• On date of publication of the satires, see §§ 10 f.

Dum tu forsitan inquietus erras
Clamosa, Iuvenalis, in Subura,
Aut collem dominae teris Dianae;
Dum per limina te potentiorum
Sudatrix toga ventilat vagumque
Maior Caelius et minor fatigant:
Me multos repetita post Decembres
Accepit mea rusticumque fecit
Auro Bilbilis et superba ferro.'

Here there is no hint that Juvenal has devoted himself to literary pursuits, nothing but the contrast between the quiet restfulness of the Spanish town and the wearisome duties of the client in the capital.

I, 49;

9. The satires as a biographical source. When we look into the satires for information with regard to the life of their author, we should use discretion; for a poet is not necessarily his own biographer. Many a picture which he presents may be purely literary, due to the influence of department or of other writers, and may have no existence in fact. Even what seems to have a direct personal reference should not in all cases be regarded as authoritative. We may reasonably expect, however, to draw from the satires some inferences with regard to the poet's education and character' and to fix approximately the period of his literary activity.

10. Dates of publication. Juvenal, like many other ancient writers, published his satires in books at different times, and apparently in the order in which they now stand in the Mss. In the first book (Sat. 1-5) the latest indication of time is the reference to the condemnation of Marius Priscus, which took place in the year 100. Hence these satires as a whole must have been published after that date, in all probability several years after, unless we are to separate the publication of the first book from that of the second by an unnaturally long

1 XII, 18, 1-9. 2 For discussion of these points, see §§ 13 and 17 ff.


cf. Plin. Ep. 11, II; 12, 1; III, 9, 2-4 ; VI, 29, 9; ad Trai. 3 a,


interval.' The available evidence for fixing the date of the second book (Sat. 6) consists of the reference to earthquakes and floods in the far East and to a comet which portended disaster to the Armenian and Parthian kings. On the basis of the records of Chinese astronomers, Friedländer' argues with great probability that the comet referred to is one which was visible at Rome in November of the year 115, for the campaign of Trajan against the Parthians was undertaken in the next year. In December, 115, also, the city of Antioch suffered severely from earthquake. If these are really the phenomena to which Juvenal refers, it is perfectly clear that the second book (Sat.6) was published in the year 116 or soon after. The third book (Sat. 7-9) is introduced by the statement that the prospects of intellectual pursuits depend on the favor of the emperor. Nothwithstanding much discussion and argument to the contrary, there is no reason to doubt that the reference is to Hadrian, whose accession took place in 117." After this date, then, but before the year 121, when Hadrian left Rome for an extensive tour of the provinces, the third book was published, probably in 119 or 120. The fifth book (Sat. 13-16) contains two distinct chronological references' by which the date of its publica

1 Friedländer (ed. of Juvenal, p. 14) assigns the publication of the first book to the period between 112 and 116; F. Haverfield, on the other hand, thinks that these earlier satires, which reek of Domitian's reign,' were published soon after 100 (Class. Rev., XII, 1898, p. 51). These are the extremes; as usual, the truth probably lies between. Ed. of Juvenal, pp. 8 f.

2 6, 407 ff.

The Armenian campaign, it is true, was ended in 114, but a comet might be regarded as the precursor of disaster of other kinds : cf. Suet. Nero, 36 stella crinita, quae summis potestatibus exitium portendere vulgo putatur.

5 The stability of these conclusions has recently been questioned by J. Jessen, Philologus, LIX, 1900, p. 513.

6 O. Ribbeck (ed. of Juvenal, p. x), Teuffel-Schwabe-Warr (Hist. of Rom. Lit., $330, 2), and others, citing Pliny, Pan. 47, believed that Trajan was the Caesar of the seventh satire, though the History of Roman Literature just mentioned contradicts itself in the next section and says Hadrian (§331, 4). H. Nettleship (Lect. and Essays, Second Series, pp. 132 ff. Jour. of Phil., xvi, 1888, pp. 55 ff.) argued vigorously but not convincingly for Domitian. Cf. the introduction to the seventh satire. 7 13, 17 sexaginta annos Fonteio consule natus; 15, 27 nuper consule Iunco; see notes on these passages,

tion is assigned to the year 128 or a time not much later. As there is no evidence by which the fourth book (Sat. 1012) may be dated, it is naturally assigned to the period between the third and fifth, possibly about 125.

11. Date of earliest compositions. The order of the books, then, is doubtless chronological, but it should not be inferred that the same is true of the individual satires. In the first book-leaving out of consideration the first satire, which, as a preface, was probably written last of all-the latest event to which reference is made is the murder of Domitian (96 A.D.) For this and other reasons certain scholars have assumed that Juvenal wrote some of these earlier satires during Domitian's reign. Though absolute certainty is unattainable, it should be observed that several circumstances point strongly to a later date. The statement of the vitae,' the silence of Martial as late as the year 100* with regard to any literary activity on the part of Juvenal, and the general tone of the satires themselves, looking back, as they do, on the past, often on the remote past, are best explained if we assume that Juvenal not only did not publish satires, but did not write them until after the accession of Trajan.' If this inference is correct, the period of Juvenal's literary activity may be said to cover approximately the first three decades of the second century.



12. Name; date and place of birth. The full name of the poet, Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, is derived from the subscriptions found at the end of different books of the satires in several of the Mss. In one of the ancient vitae

4, 153.

The extreme view in this direction was that of H. Nettleship, who made this claim


for many of the earlier satires' (l. 7. pp. 131 ff.); for other opinions, see Am. Jour. Phil., XIX, 1898, p. 194, n. 2. $ ad mediam fere aetatem declamavit (§ 6).

♦ XII, 18, quoted in § 8. This fact is worthy of more emphasis than it has received. $98 A.D. These remarks are based in part on my article in Am. Jour. Phil., xix, 1898, p. 194.

• Parisinus, 9345 (saec. XI), Vossiani, 18 (saec. x) and 64 (saec. XI); cf. Hosius, Apparatus criticus ad Iuvenalem, Bonn, 1888, pp. 21, 45. In the Bodleianus (Canon.

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