« PreviousContinue »
THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS
Are digested into the FORM of Distinct
The HISTORY, THEORY, and PRAGTIGE, of each,
AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
WHETHER RELATING TO
NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,
Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, doc.
MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:-
A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c.
throughout the WORLD;
An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,
from the earlieft ages down to the present times.
Compiled from the writings of the bes Authors, in several languages ; tbe most approved Di&ionaries, as well of generul science as of its partia
Eminent Professors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materials, furnished by on Extonfise Correspondence.
THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.
INDOCTI DISCANT, ET AMANT MEMINISS & PKRITI.
E DIN BURG H..
Palliflora. P the pentandria order, belonging to the gynandria held in great veneration in some foreign Catholic coun-
leaf attended by a twining tendril; and at the axillas
PASSION, is a word of which, az Dr Reid ob-'
Paflion. mater of himself. That it was thus used by the incited to crush to atoms. Such conduct is certainly Pallior..
Greeks and Romans, is evident from Cicero's rendering not rational, and therefore it is supposed to be necer
of vehemence given to those difpofitions, desires, to them their ease, their pleasure, and their health. and affe Aions, which are at all times present to the But it is absurd to suppose that men should sacrifice mind of man; and that this is its proper senfe, we need the end to what they defire only as means of promotno other proof than that passion has always been con- ing that end; and therefore he seems to think that ceived to bear analogy to a form at sea or to a tempest these paslions must be innate. To add ftrength to in the air.
this reasoning, he obferves, that we may perceive With respect to the number of passions of which the fome degree of these principles even in brute animals mind is susceptible, different opinions have been held of the more sagacious kind, who are not thought to by different authors. Le Brun, a French writer on defire means for the sake of ends which they have painting, juftly confidering the expression of the paf. in view. fons as a very important as well as difficult branch of
But it is in accounting for the passions which are his art, has enumerated no fewer than twenty, of disinterested that the advocates for innate principles which the signs may be expressed by the pencil on seem most completely to triumph. As it is impossible canvass. That there are so many different states of not to feel the passion of pity upon the prospect of a mind producing different effects which are visible on fellow.creature in distress, they argue, that the basis the features and the gestures, and that those features of that passion must be innate; because pity, being at and gestures ought to be diligently studied by the artist, all times more or less painful to the person by whom are truths which cannot be denied ; but it is absurd to it is felt, and frequently of no use to the person who consider all these different states of mind as pasions, since is its obje&, it cannot in such instances be the result tranquillity is one of them, which is the reverse of of deliberation, but merely the exertion of an original passion.
inttinet. The fame kind of reasoning is employed to The common division of the passions into defire and prove that gratitude is the exercise of an innate prin. averfion, hope and fear, joy and grief, love and hatred, ciple. That good offices are, by the very conftitution has been mentioned by every author who has treated of our nature, apt to produce good will towards the of them, and needs no explication ; but it is a question benefactor, in good and bad men, in the savage and in of some importance in the philosophy of the human the civilized, cannot surely be denied by any one in mind, whether these different passions he each a degree the least acquainted with human nature. We are grateof an original and innate dispofition, distinct from the ful not only to the benefactors of ourselves as indivi. dispositions which are respectively the foundations of duals, but also to the benefactors of our country; and the other paffions, or only different modifications of that, too, when we are conscious that from our grati. one or two general dispositions common to the whole tade neither they nor we can reap any advantage.
Nay, we are impelled to be grateful even when we The former opinion is held by all who build their have reason to believe that the objects of our gratitude system of metaphysics upon a number of diftinct inter- know not our exiftence. This passion cannot be the val senses; and the latier is the opinion of those who, effect of reasoning, or of association founded on rea. with Locke and Hartley, resolve what is commonly foning; for, in such cases as those mentioned, there called instinct into an early association of ideas. (See are no principles from which reason can infer the pro.. INSTINCT). That without deliberation mankind in- priety or usefulness of the feeling. That public spirit, ftantly feel the passion of fear upon the apprehenfion or the affection which we bear to our country, or to of danger, and the passion of anger or resentment upon any subordinate community of which we are members, the reception of an injury, are truths which cannot be is founded on inftin&t ; is deemed so certain, that the denied : and hence it is inferred, that the seeds of these man deftitute of this affection, if there be any suchy, passions are innate in the mind, and that they are not has been pronounced as great a monster as he who has generated, but only swell to magnitude on the profpe&t two heads. of their respective objects. In support of this argu All the diftinterefted passions are founded on what ment, it has been observed that children, without any philosophers have termed benevolent affection. lastead knowledge of their danger, are inftin&tively afraid on therefore of enquiring into the origin of each passion beirg placed on the brink of a precipice; and that separately, which would swell this article to no pure this passion contributes to their safety long before pose, let us listen to one of the finest writers as well as they acquire, in any degree equal to their neceflities, ableft reasoners of the age, treating of the origin of the exercise of their rational powers. Deliberate benevolent affection, • We may lay it down as a + Ejjays anger, caused by a voluntary injury, is acknowledged principle (says Dr Reid +), that all benevolent affec-tbe active to be in part founded on reason and reflection ; but tions are in their nature agreeable ; that it is essential powers of where angrer impels one suddenly to return a blow, to them to defire the good and happiness of their obeven without thinking of doing mischief, the paffios jects; and that their obje&tı must therefore be beinga is in hinctive. In proof of this, it is observed, that capable of happiness. A thing may be defired either inftinctive anger is frequently raised by bodily pain, on its own account, or as the means in order to someoccafioned even by a fteck or a ftone, which inftantly thing else. That only can properly be called an obbecomes an object of resentment, that we are violently jest of defirc which is defired upon its own account;
Pallon. and therefore I consider as benevolent those affections we think an attentive observer may easily perceive Pallion. s only which defire the good of their object ultimately, how the seeds of it are gradually infused into the
and not as means in order to something else. To say youthful mind; when the child, from being at first a
, would become an ideas. These are rapidly communicated through the Lixeraty.
either love or hate? Let us observe then the manner This reasoning has certainly great force; and if in which love and hatred are formed; for on these authority could have any weight in settling a question paflions depend all the rest. When a child endures of this nature, we know not that name to which greater pain, and is able to detect the cause of it, the idea of pain deference is due than the name of him from whom it is connected in his mind with that of the thing which is taken. Yet it must be confessed that the philofo- produced it; and if the object which occafioned pain be phers, who consider the affections and passions as early again presented to the child, the idea of pain associated and deep-rooted associations, support their opinion with with it arises also. This idea consequently urges the very plaufible arguments. On their principles we child to avoid or to remove the object; and thus arises have endeavoured elsewhere to account for the passions the passion of dislike or hatred. In the fame manner, of fear and love, (see Instinct and Love); and we the passion of liking or love is readily formed in the may here safely deny the truth of what has been ftated mind of a child from the association of pleasant ideas respe&ting fear, which seems to militate against that with certain objects which produced them. account. We have attended with much solicitude to “ The passions of hope and fear are states of the the actions of children ; and have no reason to think mind depending upon the good or bad prospects of that they feel terror on the brink of a precipice till gratifying love or hatred ; and joy or forrow arises they have been repeatedly warned of their danger in from the final success or disappointment which attends such fituations by their parents or their keepers. Every the exertions produced by love or by hatred. Out of person knows not only that they have no original these passions, which have all a perceptible relation to or instinctive dread of fire, which is as dangerous to our own good, and are universally acknowledged to be them as any precipice; but that it is extremely diffi. selfish, all our other passions are formed." cult to keep them from that destructive element till To account for the passions called disinterested, he they are either capable of weighing the force of argu- observes, that in the history of the human mind' we ments, or have repeatedly experienced the pain of be. find many instances of our dropping an intermediate ing burnt by it. With respect to sudden resentment, idea, which has been the means of our connecting two we cannot help considering the argument, which is other ideas together; and that the association of these brought in proof of its being inftin&tive, as proving two remains after the link which originally united the contrary in a very forcible manner. Initinet is them has vanished. Of this fact the reader will find some mysterious influence of God upon the mind ex- sufficient evidence in different articles of this work citing to actions of beneficial tendency : but can any (See Instinct, no 19, and METAPHYSICS, no 101): benefit arise from wrecking our impotent vengeance on and, to apply it to the disinterested passions, let us supa stork or a stone ? or is it supposable that a Being of pose, with Dr Sayers, that any individual has done to infinite wisdom would excite us to actions so extrava us many offices of kindness, and has consequently much gantly foolish ? We learn from experience to defend contributed to our happiness; it is natural for us to ourselves against rational or fenGble enemies by reta. seek with some anxiety for the continuance of those liating the injuries which they infiet upon us; and pleasures which he is able to communicate. But we if we have been often injured in any particular man soon discern, that the surest way of obtaining the con. ner, the idea of that injury becomes in time so closely tinuance of his friendly offices is to make them, as associated with the means by which it has been con- much as possible, a source of pleasure to himself.
We ftantly repelled, that we never receive such an in- therefore do every thing in our power to promote his jury-a blow for instance--without being prompted happiness in return for the good he has conferred upto make the usual retaliation, without reflecting whe- on us, that thus we may attach him to us as much as we ther the object be sensible or insensible. So far from are able. Hitherto all is plainly seifih. We have been being inftinctive does resentment appear to us, that evidently endeavouring, for the sake of our own future