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There may be sciences without correlative arts, because there may likeness of some ideal. Animal cunning, physical endurance, and be laws that human skill cannot employ.
a contempt for suffering, were the elements of the Indian's concepThe contrast now pointed out has been expressed as follows: tion of the perfect man; and so, the Indian boy was trained into “Science consists in knowing, art in doing;” the principles which / habits involving these qualities. The Jewish conception was rev. art involves, science evolves. The contrast is broadly express | erence, piety, and passive obedience to authority; Jewish instruced by the terms theory and practice, as the theory and practice of ' tion was, therefore, religious and literary, making the law of Moses teaching. Some of the relations of science to art or of theory to , and sacred history the chief studies of the schools. The ideal practice, are the following: 1. The ideal kr.owledge comprehendsi oth | Athenian was cultured and esthetic, the ideal Roman, patriotic, the doing and the knowing, --it is theory, embodied in practice, or prac- brave and practical; and in each case, education was directed to tice guided and inspired by theory'. 2. The largest element in the attainment of these ideals. In our own time, education is trades is practical knowledge; the largest element in professions, is moulded after two conceptions, or iwo ideals. First, there is the theoretical knowledge. 3. The lower order of knowledge is the conception of the typical man, or of man as the most perfect easier of attainment; it will therefore be the more common, and specimen of his kind, without regard to any special use that is to hence the cheaper ; the labor of highest market value will be that be made of him; and, to turn out this finished product, is the pur. which involves the largest use of the intelligence. 4. The direct pose of what we call a liberal edui ation. Again, there is the con. route to the perfecting of an art is through a clear comprehension ception of man as a creature who must “get on in the world," or the principles that are involved in the art.
to earn a livelihood by being serviccable to his fellows; and so, to What is meant by educational science must be apparent-the doc- turn out this product, we institute what we call technical, or practrines, principles, or laws, that are involved in the art of educa. tical education. We may now define liberal education, as the comtion. This art has been practiced from time immemorial, but plex process by which a human being is helped to grow into the whatever progress has been maile in it, has, for the most part, highest ideal of his kind; and technical, or practical education, as been instinctive, slow and wasteful. It is now proposed "10 take the process by which a human being is to be fitied to earn a livelistock of our progress,” to discover the principles that underlie the hood by some form of industry. The science of education must processes of human persectabi ity, and to bring educational pro- start with these two conceptions, and, having made an analysis of cesses into conformity with law, thus making our progress rational, them, must formulate methods for attaining these two ends. continuous and economical.
These two conceptions, the higher and the lower, have three eleThis third movement in educational thought, which we may call ments in common: (1) There is the substratum, or body; (2) the the rational or the scientific, is attested by (1) the fact, that in mind, as the seat of intellectual activities; and (3) the mind as the Germany, in Scotland, and even in our own country, education in seat of moral activities. In other words, man, the most perfect its three aspects, as an art, a science and a history, has been made specimen of his kind, and man as an instrument or toiler, have a subject of university instruction ; (2) by the fact that books on passed through three forms of training, physical, intellectual, and the scientific aspect of education are beginning to be written and moral. If this complex process of education is to be rational, read; (3) as well as by the fact that Normal Schools have begun physical training must be based on the laws of physiology, and to superadd to their instruction in subjects and methods, instruc- moral training, on the laws of psychology, and moral training, or tion in principles and doctrines. An example of this last fact is the laws of ethics. In other words, the basis of the science of ed. the Normal School of this State, which has gained deserved re- ucation must be general laws derived or borrowed from the sciences nown by basing its methods on an articulate knowledge of psycho- of physiology, psychology, and ethics logical laws.
Again, education, both liberal and technical, will be modified This movement towards making education a rational art, has according to the genius of the people for whom and by whom it is been a genesis or an evolution ; it has not been forced into notice administered. Thus, English education differs from German, by resolutions and popular demonstrations, but has been, the rather, German from French, French from American, each from every instinctive and spontaneous. It has come in the fullness of time, other. The science of education must provide for these variations, and it has come to stay and to grow. It must be accepted as a and so, it innst borrow some of its principles froni sociology, genepermanent factor in the general intellectual movement of the times. ral or special. The new thought will insist on its right of domicil, and we must
The medium of communication between teacher and pupil is gradually adjust ourselves to the changes that are imminent and in. language; all instruction involves the use of symbols; speech is the evitable. The newspapers, the reaper, the sewing machine and the instrument of the teacher's art. It follows, then, that that part of telephone, are instances of a similar evolution. They are births, education which has to do with the communication of knowledge, rather than inventions. Civilization is a pri gress, and these ele
must be based on principles of logic.
Thus far education is an applied or a derived science. ments in our progress may possibly be superseded by something of
That is, a higher type; but it is not conceivable that the world will go
ii assumes the' principles or laws that have already been established back to the state of things that preceded these inventions. The
in other departments of thought, and upon these it bases its modes particular truth I wish to emphasize is this: a new day ha- dawned
of procedure. But besides this borrowed material, the science of on the educating art; henceforth, teaching is to be allied with phi- education must employ general truths of its own gathering. For exlosophy, and to furnish a field for the exercise of the highest gists ample, each of the studies upon which the pupil's mind is employed of mind and heart; it is no longer to be “the sorriest of trades,” but
rves a distinct purpose. As Bacon has it: “ Histories make is destined to become “the noblest of all prosessions." (Fitch, Lec
men wise ; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtile ; natural philos. tures on reading, p 25.) Hencelorth, the teacher may be inspired to
ophy, deepe; morale, grave; logick, and rhetorick, able to contend his highest efforts by the hope of a career; he may see in his profes
So every desect of the mind may have special receit."* sion, an opportunity to rise in public consi teration by the exercise of Now, the doctrine of educational values is of the first importance his ability, his versatility, orhis genius. And infinitely better than all
in education ; but as there is no independent science for determinthis, the succeeding generations of men will attain a higher type of ing these values, this becomes a function of eductional science. manhood, because from their training will be eliminated the elements
Other independent investigations falling within the province of of ignorance, empiricism, and waste.
this science are the following: the action of examinations; educaThe general nature of educational science may be gathered from
tion as affected by sex; modes of organization; the supervision of the following statements: Among every people, and in every age
schools; the training and examination of teachers ; school econoof the world, there has been a conception of what a human being
mics; and, in general, the testing and formulating of results. So ought to be; and, in every case, the purpose of education has been much as to the general nature of educational science. to cause the young to grow into this ideal. This conception has If the foregoing outline has been correctly drawn, it is not difficult varied from age to age, and from place to place; but, in viery
to state the general method of this science. By far the larger and case, the purpose has been to mould the rising generation into the
Oi Stu liey.
more important part of the content of this science, is derivative, childhood. The teacher lays hold of this clue, and there is such a consisting of general laws borrowed from physiology, psychology, persistent and copious feeding of the senses, that the physical sec. ethics, sociology, and logic. In the use of this material, the pro- tion of the child's mind becomes abnormally active, and the intel. cess must therefore be deductive. Deduction is then the general | lectual section as abnormally inactive. It would seem to me to be method of investigation in educational science, assuming the truth a great gain if there were to be a return towards the older concepof a given psychological principle, the effort must be to exhibit its tion, that the child and the man are essentially one, and that for application in the getting of results. In other words, within the infancy, childhood and youth, there should be considerable samecompass now under consideration, methods must be the direct de- ness in instruction. ductions from principles.
From the time of Socrates to the present day, the acutest intel. Now, leaving out of account the principles borrowed from other lects of the race have been employed in the study of mental phesciences, and directing our attention to the investigations falling nomena; and it is inconceivable, that from all this wealth of effort within the field of educational science itself, we see that the initial we inherit no first truths upon which we may safely base a science process in several cases mus. be inductive. Take for example the of mental training. Most assuredly we have such truths; and the influence of sex on education. Here the most direct method is the first task of the educational philosopher, as it seems to me, is to analytical examination of results. If accurate statistics have been select certain great psychological laws, and then to apply them de. kept in the case of mixed schools, the influence of sex upon schol. ductively to the processes of mental culture. I feel sure that careful arship, attendance, etc., if any, will be readily detected. So far, deductions from three well established laws,* would rationalize the process is inductive; but when these inductions have been nearly every process of the school-room. Instead of sighing for merged in a law, this law is deductively applied, as in the first new lands to discover, the wiser part is at least to survey the patri. case. But, throughout the entire science, there is the need of this mony already ours. analytical examination of results, both for the purpose of testing So much for the general method of the science itself. Let me deduced methods, and as the means of confirming general laws. next make a brief mention of two general principles that should be For a law may be true, while deductions drawn from it may be observed while making our contributions to educational science: false. In respect of method, therefore, the case may be stated in Ilhatrver policy 1:15 received the long sanction of the wise and this way: the greater part of the material composing the science good, is likely to have some elements of truth in it. of education, is borrowed from other sciences; and these first prin- One of Rousseau's counsels was : "Take the road directly opciples, thus taken on trust, must be applied to use by the deductive posite to that which is in use, and you will almost always do right.” method. There are other principles, however, that the science of It was Pestalozzi's boast: “I have turned quite round the Euroeducation must find, and the method of this finding, must be in. pean car os progress, and set it in a new direction.” The educa. ductive; but when actually found, these laws, like those that are tional reformer is sure to find that every part of the existing order borrowed, must be applied deductively. But a concurrent factor of things is wrong.
Indeed, he must think this in order to be a throughout the whole science, must be the verification of laws and reformer; for if everything were not in a very bad way, his vocatheir applications, by the analytical study of results; and this tion would be gone. This state of mind is not due to perversity, verification is an inductive process.
but to blindness. To be a reformer one must have intense feeling; In opposition to this view, the opinion is held by some, that ed
but intense feeling excludes clear thinking. Fervor and logic are ucational science, at least so far as it has to do with children, must
mutual exclusives. be constructed de novo, by the inductive method. It is asserted
On a priori as well as on a posleriori grounds, we may be sure that that we know comparatively nothing of infant psychology, and
in Pestalozzi's time, the European car of progress was not going in that it must be left 10 mothers, insant-teachers and nurses, to lay
a direction entirely wrong, for it is inconceivable that a civilization the foundations of an educational psychology, by a patient regis- l into which the best men of their times had put their wises: thoughts, tration of the phenomena of infant lise. To this assumption it
could be wholly at dissonance with truth; and in the fact that may be replied that we do know much about the psychology of
Pertelozzi made no marked change in the direction of European childhood, because we know much about psychology in general. It
civilization, we have a second proof that the original movement would seem as reasonable to assert that as yet we knew nothing
was in the main right. about infant physiology, digestion, for example. But the fact is,
The principle above quoted teaches a decent respect for the old, that there is neither infant physiology nor adult physiology, but
and cautions us against the panaceas that will be invented from simply physiology in general. The bodily functions preserve their
time to time by ardent reformers. continuity through insancy, childhood and maturity, and whatever
Another precautionary truth is the following: “The suppression differences there may be, are differences in degree but not in kind.
of every error is commonly followed by a temporary ascendency of the conIf the stomach performs its functions at all, its mode of digesting
(Spencer, Education, p. 102) This law accounts for is the same for insant and for adult. So the mind preserves its
many phenomena in the history of educational thought. One phase continuity from one extreme of lise to the other; in its normal
of a complex truth, pushed to an extreme, finally ends in a recoil to state, its general modes of activity are the same for the child as for
the other phase of the truth. The over-use of memory, in the olden the man. There is but one psychology, as there is but one phys- schools, has been succeeded by its disuse in the new; and so we have ivlogy.
gone from much grammar, to no grammar; from instruction in the I am very far from denying that there are differences between a
abstract, to instruction in the concrete; from much classics and little child's mind and a man's mind; but I insist that these are differen
science, to little classics and much science; from books without pic. ces in degree or power, and not in constitution. It is freely admitted that these differences in power should be observed and heeded, and
tures, to books with very little except pictures; from unlimited text. that mothers and nurses may do some real service by their registra
book instruction, to unlimited oral instruction; from discipline by tion of the phenomena of infant lise. What I protest against, is
serule, 10 discipline by taffy. the present tendency to exaggerate these differences, and to assume
The two principles just stated are needed in order to give steadi. that the child's education must be considered quite apart, as though
ness and judicial fairness to our investigations. Is wholesale conhe were a being sui generis. I venture to express the belief that
demnation decreed against some time-honored subject or method? one of the most serious errors in primary teaching arises from an
Before joining in the noise of the crusade, let us recollect that in all exaggerated notion of the difference between child mind and ma- probability there is something to be said in favor of the outcast. ture mind. Some observed difference furnishes the devoted enthu
Is some new all-in-all put forward with much voiced fervor, as a siast with a clue, and then this clue is followed up so persisten:ly,
sure specific for the ills of the schools? We may not only discount
the merits of the last favorite at a heavy rate, but we may be sure and so far, that one section of the child's mind is aroused to prelernatural activity, while another section lies unused and torpid. It *1. The descent of the mind from aggregates to elements.
2, The mutual exclusion of thought and feeling. is observed, for example, that the sense activities predominate in 3. Progress from the confused to the definite.
that not far off is some discarded truth in need of our protection. swer shall be found to lie in the direction I have indicated, a higher If one hitherto unacquainted with educational affairs were to hear value must be given to geography, history, language, literature, for the first time the extravagant claims set up in favor of oral in- mental and moral science. Here will be found one criterion for struction, he might reasonably make three inferences: (1.) That determining the educational value of studies. there had been some misuse of text-book instruction; (2.) that the 4. What is the meaning of the word “practical,” in such expres. discarded system has a considerable element of truth in it; and (3) sions as “practical education,” “practical studies?" Is it the correla. that oral instruction is not worth nearly all that is said of it. In tive of “theoretical," and implying the outward manifestation of order to make sure and steady progress in educational science, the inward power? Or is it restricted to what ministers directly to one indispensible condition is "that we henceforth be no more chil. self-preservation? H the term has the narrower construction, dren, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doc- what degree of practical value have the natural sciences to the trine, by the slight of men, and cunning craftiness.” (Ephesians, ordinary student? For individual, and not professional use, what iv, 14.)
degree of practical value has physiology to the physician, chemistry These two truths point unmistakably to a conservative frame of
to the chemist, or natural philosophy to the machinist? The
purpose mind. Such I believe should be the attitude of the educational
of these questions is to point out two sources of misapprehension, philosopher. He should mediate between the past and the future, (1) the ambiguity of the term “practical," and (3) the assumption, and his highest achievement will be, with the least noise, to evolve
not warranted by evidence, that the so-called “practical subjects" the new out of the old, a better future out of a good past. He will have a primary bearing on individual needs. The secondary, or be neither retrogressive nor stationary; he will be a progressive con professional value of physiological knowledge is incalculable; while servative. His motto will be nihil per saltum. He will not desire its primary or individual value is comparatively small. It is only revolution, but evolution. It is Emerson who says to the radical:
when we give a larger content to the term, that physiology and “The past has baked your loaf, and in the strength of its bread you kindred subjects can claim a higher educational value. would break up the oven." The ideal position, could we ever
5. In the body of this paper I have mentioned the determinafind it, is somewhat in advance of the timid conservative and some
tion of educational values as an important aim of educational what in the rear of the ardent radical. However it may be in oth- science. With such values even approximately determined, the er matters, I feel sure that whoever becomes a careful student of rationalizing of the teaching art would at once begin. The the history and the philosophy of education, will soon come to oc- thought of making such determinations is a very old one. Plato cupy this middle ground; for history is retrospective, and philoso-attempts such an inquiry in his Republic, and recommends, among phy prospective, and the mind that is subject to their double influ- other things, that arithmetic should be made a compulsory study, ence is the resultant of two opposing forces.
on account of its great disciplinary value; and Aristotle devotes I now come to the final part of my task, which is to state some
the greater part of the eighth book of his Politics to a discussion of of the more important problems that await a solution by Education- the educational value of music. Lord Bacon gives a summary al Science. In stating these problems, I shall doubtless through
statement in his essay On Studies; and Dr. Whewell discusses, at inadvertence or purpose, indicate a probable evolution; and in this considerable length, the values of mathematics, the classics and way there may be seeming dogmatism, but it is only seeming. I the sciences. Still the whole subject needs to be investigated would abridge no one's liberty to form and express his own sincere anew, with all the lights and helps that our better opportunities conclusions; and some serious thinking on these problems is my supply. sufficient excuse for indicating the line of my conclusions. As they If, in educational science, we call value the exponent of effect, it seem to me these are some of the questions that demand an early will be found, I think, that each subject has at least three values solution.
depending on the use which is required of a study.
For example, 1. In what relation does professional, technical, or practical we may test the value of a subject by three several standards. I, education stand to liberal education? What is the ideal sequence? as it bears on the art of “getting on in the world ; " 2, as discip In this sequence disturbed by the exigencies of lise, such as limit. | lines some special mode of mental activity, as the memory or the ed time or the need of engaging in productive labor? Should liber- reason; and 3, as it raises the whole tone of the intellect. These al education and professional education be carried simulianeously? values we may call the practical, the specific, and the tonic. Now it The solution of this general problem will affect such questions as may happen that these three values are different, because they are the following; 1. The introduction of manual training into the tried by different standards and have different effects in each case. public schools; 2. The education given in agricultural schools; Thus the practical value of history is low, its specific value moderate, 3. Academic instruction and professional instruction in normal and its tonic, or culture value high-it is chiefly a culture subject. schools.
Tested in a similar way, algebra has a low practical value, a high 2. Somewhat analagous to the preceding problem, but depende specific value, and a low tonic value. It will be found, I think, ing on different principles for its solution, is this: Should mental that the second and third values are in an inverse ratio to each labor and manual labor be closely conjoined ? Is there not an organic other,-that the subjects having the highest specific value have the antagonism that implicates a failure in one or both when pursued si- lowest tonic value, and vice versa. The practical values will more multaneously? If it is decided that this conjunction is unwise as a often agree with the specific values, bui less often with the tonic general rule, there is still the question whether it may not be necessary values. It is not true, as Mr. Spencer affirms that a subject best in certain cases, as in schools for the dependent. In all problems of for practical use is also best for discipline. this sort, the ideal adjustment must be distinguished from an ad- This inquiry belongs to the inductive branch of educational scijustment required by exigencies; and whenever two solutions, a ence, and there is not a thoughtfulteacher who might not contribute general and a special, are permitted, the special cases should be to the solution of this problem. defined with all possible exactness.
6. The third term whose meaning should be rigorously deter. 3. What is the nature of what is termed culture, and what are mined is the word “nature” in its personified use, as in the cant the conditions essential for attaining it? Are these its character. of educational literature, "the order of nature," "nature's method," istic marks: On the moral side, good breeding, kindness, sympa. “ follow nature.” Next to the lippant use of the phrase “new thy, sincerity, tact; and on the mental, wide discrimination, quick education,” there is nothing more indicative of the low state of perceptions, and an extensive knowledge of what is of the most thinking among as than the reckless use of this term “nature.” universal human inierest? Is the study of the purely material, con- What contempt would be heaped on a modern scientist who dusive to culture? Or must culture on the menial side come should explain a phenomena by saying that “Nature abhors a mainly from the contemplation and study of the super-sensuous, vacuum!” But Joseph Payne's “ Nature teaches her children by 3.2., the mental, ihe moral and the divine?
object lessons” is just as indefensible. If we must still use these The solution of this problem will affect the function of the phrases, let us know the exact connotation of the word “nature." sciences and of the humanities in the higher education. If the an. 7. What is the relation of clear knowing to right doing? Soc.
rates identified knowledge with virtue, holding that if a man did formed ? To state this general question in a concrete form: What wrong it was because he was ignorant. The Jews held nearly the is the action of the mind when we read in the almanac that "there some doctrine, and the moral instruction in the medieval schools will be a total eclipse of the sun May 6th, 1883, visible in the was based on the same assumption. This has been the current of Southern Pacific Ocean"? In order that this statement may be belief wherever education has been administered by the church, converted into knowledge must the simple reader turn astronomer but with the secularization of education has come the opinion that and by personal investigation verify the prediction? If the do there is no essential connection between knowledge and morality. main of knowledge is to be limited 10 what we actually verify by Probably there is error at both extremes, the truth being that our own experience, it is high time that we be undeceived. Is it, knowledge is helpful to morality. Siate patronage of education is or is it not, true that we know our own names? based on the old notion of the moral quality in instruction. The agency of language, or the mode in which we acquire our Whether this is a fiction or not is well worth the finding out. second-hand knowledge, is not easy to explain; but the difficulty is
8. An inquiry into the mental condition of savages will show not insuperable, and when overcome we shall be protected from that concurrent with the acutest sense-training, there is intellectual : such absurdities as the ones I have indicated. That such loose inaptness amounting almost to stupidity. This conjunction raises thinking is possible is of itself a sufficient justification for this ap. the query whether the modern doctrine as to the effect of sense. peal in behalf of educational science. training on intelligence is well founded. The fact just cited at ! As I review what I have written, I see that I have been uncon. least permits a reasonable doubt on this point. The question in- sciously following a favorite text; and quite contrary to immemo. volves the formal objective teaching of the time, and even the kin. rial custom, this shall now be stated. It is in these words : dergarten. It is well to recollect that ancient teaching was almost “Teaching is the noblest of all professions, but it is the sorriest of purely subjective, and that the greater educational reformers, trades.” If the transition is ever made from a trade to a profes. Ratke, Comenius and Pestalozzi, employed objective teaching | sion, it must be made by teachers themselves; and the mode of chiefly to teach the meaning of words. A modern instance of this this transition must be a shifting of discussion from methods to mode of instruction may be seen in the Record of Mr. Alcott's doctrines. This explains the attitude of the thoughtsul men who school, by Miss Peabody.
are the leaders of educational opinion in this State; and this ex• There is psychological ground for thinking that the savage ex- plains the title of my paper and the line of my
discussion. hibits the normal effect of an over training of the senses; for “knowledge and feeling, * * though always co-existent, are always
Kentucky Teachers' Association. in the inverse ratio of each other.” (Hamilton, Metaphysics. P 336.)
The Kentucky State Teachers' Association met at 9. The latest criterion for judging of the quality of teaching is
Louisville on the 26, 27, 28, of last month. The meetthe amount of pleasure-giving that it furnishes. While no one questions that good teaching will inspire a general air of happiness, ing was one of the most stirring that has been held in there are very many who insist that work is not always pleasure the State. giving, but that even such work must be done in every good school.
One of the most aggressive papers was presented by This is a psychological problem of no great difficulty, and its solu- Thomas B. Ford, school commissioner of Franklin tion would set at rest a disputed question of great importance. county, in which he charged the school officials with
It will probably be found that a study may be disagreeable be permitting the school fund to lose immense sums by cause it involves a mode of mental activity that has never been their negligence. His accusations were based upon developed, or that has fallen into disuse ; and so the study may serve a far better purpose than one that accords with the free most solid facts, and it is hoped that immediate steps working of a well developed power. The distribution of mental
will be taken to remedy the evils. aliment follows the same law as the distribution of physical aliment; The association appointed all the teachers of the the more vigorous facully or organ will take the lion's share, while State delegates to the National Association. Louisthe weaker faculty or organ will be left to starve. We know that
| ville was selected as the permanent place of meeting. this is a law, even of the spiritual life : "for he that hath, to him
Resolutions were adopted asking the Legislature to shall be given; and he that hath not, from him shall be taken, even
| make liberal appropriation for the Normal department that which he hath."
10. But perhaps the largest problem of all is this: To what ex. i of the State college, and for the establishment of other tent is it true that education should be a process of rediscovery, training schools for teachers in other parts of the State. the pupil being placed as nearly as possible in the tracks of the The proper recovery of taxes due the school fund re. first of his race? Mr. Spencer has formulated the principle as sol- ceived due attention. The study of Hygiene in comlows: "The education of the child must accord both in mode and
mon schools was urged. arrangement, with the education of mankind as considered historically; or in other words, the genesis of knowledge in the individ.
Valuable addresses were made by Hon. B. G. Northual must follow the same course as the genesis of knowledge in the rop and Rev. Dr. Mayo. Col. R. D. Allen, was elect
The earliest appearance of this doctrine is in the introduc-ed president for the ensuing year. tion 1o Condellac's Grammar, where it is stated and sliscussed with Dr. Mayo's address on the education of the children great fulness. Condellac attempted to follow this historical method
of the South closes with this opinion regarding nationin the education of the Duke of Parma; but in order to make it
al aid to education: work successfully he was obliged to give his pupil a preliminary
The reasons for this are the obvious inability of many course of instruction in mental and moral science! I believe this
of these States to furnish even the elementary training seductive generalization to be the largest assumption yet made in
needful to the coming generation; the fact that the the line of educational thinking. The so-called " Pestalozzian whole South has done enough in the past ten years to Principles” are but the corrollaries to this theorism that has never
deserve this help; that it is in the direct line of public been demonstrated. If we are permitted to think that the dictum
policy from the beginning; that administered on the of Condellıc and Spencer may not be final, here is a most inviting sole condition of self-help, for elementary schools alone and profitable field for study.
supervised by State anthority, it can do no harm, but The last question that I venture to call attention to is this: great good, and humiliates nobody who does not abuse How are boolis instrumental in gaining knowledge? Is the trans- it. My observation is that the vast majority of the mission of knowledge possible ; or must each man gain knowledge Southern people desire it as soon as they understand it, by the independent activity of his own mind? When a wise man and that the nation will bestow it as soon as this desire dies, does his wisdom go with him, as we have receatly beenin is distinctly made known.
fifty years, and is adopted by the leading religious and educational
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PROF. PAYNE'S ADDRESS.
We publish in full in this issue of the WEEKLY the John S. Irwin, Superintendent Schools, Fort Wayne. 11. B. Brown, Principal Northern Indiana Normal School.
annual address delivered before the State Teachers' John (iark Ridpath, Indiana Asbury University. Cyrus W. Hodgin, Richmond Normal School.
Association, by Prof. W. H. Payne, of Michigan UniJubo L. Campbell, Wawasi College, C. F. Collin, Superintendent Schools, NewAlbany.
versity. Prof. Payne bas achieved a high rank among John C. Macpherson, County Superintendent, Wayne County II. B. III, County Superintendent, Dearborn County.
the educators of America by bis thorough knowledge Mrs. Emma Mont. Mc Rao, P. incipal High School, diarion Ilon. B. W. Smith, Lafnyette.
of “Educational Science.” He is a clear and forcible J. T. Smith, New Allery Jubert M. Skinner, Chief Olerk, Dep't Pub. Ins.
thinker and in this address has presented so much E. E. Smiiri, Purüue Cuiversity. Jas. Baldwin, Superintendent Schools, Rushville.
"good sense ” and so many valuable points that we Rates of Subscription.
believe teachers should have the benefit of reading it (POSTAGE PREPAID BY TE PUBLISHERS
all. For this reason we publish the whole address Ono yenr, singlo subscription,
300 although at the expense of much other valuable matter. six months, In clubs of 10 subscribers, 25 or more,
THE TEACHER OF '84. Address all Communications intended for the Weekly,
This is the season for resolves, for the renewal of and make money orders payable to, J. M. Olcott & Co., pledges, for the planning of a year's earnest work, for not to the individual editors. This is important, and will taking stock and the like. Now is the time for the avoid much confusion.
teacher to determine his surroundings, and to put WE are glad to say to our readers that we have ar- in operation the causes that shall aid him in his ranged with Hon. B. G. Northrop to furnish regular chosen work. Is my environment favorable ? Am I contributions to the columns of this paper. His first pursuing the right course? Such questions as these article will appear next week. We are specially glad must frequently recur to the earnest teacher. Am I of this arrangement, as we know Mr. Northrop's pa- prepared for my business? Am I growing any? Do pers will treat of matters of great timely interest, and I really reverence my calling? Such queries as these be of much value to the teachers and school officers serve for all time but are specially in place in the bethroughout Indiana and her neighboring States. ginning of the new year.
The growing teacher must be a self-critic and a selfDON'T SEND STAMPS.
director. He must be ambitious to do better than he In making remittances for subscription, please do bas done. He must aspire to stand higher in his callnot send stamps. We have now on band many more ing, and in his own estimation. than we can use. The post office will not redeem them We publish the WEEKLY for the specific purpose of and we cannot sell them except at a discount. Send aiding teachers in their work of teaching-plain theory money order, registered letter or postal note. Money and practice, tested by long experience. To those who placed carefully in a letter will reach us ninty-nine “know it all,” we have little to say; to the pupils of such times in a hundred.
teachers we extend our most heart-felt sympathy.
For those who would make their schools more attractA PLAIN WORD.
ive, themselves stronger, and their work more effective, With the beginning of the new year, and this our we have some earnest words. Long years of active second volume, it is well that our subscribers know. service have sealed our hearts to such teachers. Let that it is our plan to send the WEEKLY until it is or- usjoinh ands in the earnest discharge of duty. The endered to be discontinued. This is the plan that has couragement that comes to us from so many sources, been practiced by the Youth's Companion for the last | and especially from the many who say they get from