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CRISP, IMPARTIAL, DECIDED.

1 PAPER FOR EVERY TEACHER AND SCHOOL OFFICER.

PUBLISHES THE OFFICIAL DECISIONS CE TIE STITE SUPERINTENDENT OF TU!! :C IXTI:ICTION.

VOL. II

INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, JANUARY 5, `1884.

No. 1

2393

Current Events.

quite evident tbat England will be compelled to accept

the direct responsibility of governing Egypt. The Children's Hospital, at Walnut Hills, Cincin

January 1st was the 400th anbiversary of the birth nati, has just been dedicated.

of Ulric, the great Swiss seceder from the church of

Rome. He ranks with Luther as a founder of modorn Joseph Longworth of Cincinnati, died on the 30th Christianity. The beliefs of the Protestant church are ultimo. His father was one of the founders of Cincin- at this timo more in accord with the views of Ulric, nati, and one of its chiet benefactors.

tban with the doctrines of Luther. Ho deserves to be Recent riots between the Orangemen and National. honored by the entire Christian' world. ists in Ireland, have served to renew the political The Southern Illinois Normal University at Carbontroubles in that distressed country.

dale was recently burned. The magnificent building Minister Lowoll will resign the rectorship of St. An

was completely destroyod, save the heavy walls and drew's University, because of the objections raised foundation. The library of 8,000 volumes, and the fine against its being held by a foreign minister.

apparatus and furniture were saved. The citizens of

Carbondale immediately took steps to build a tempoThe annual moeting of the Rhodo Island Institute of rary building to be used until the State can repair the Instruction will take placo Jan. 24, 25, 26. An attrac-, main edifice. The sessions of tho school were opened tive programme bas been prepared for the occasion. the next morning after the fire, in the M. E. Church. The Czar of Russia was recently greatly frightened University. The loss will amount to several hundred

not the by being thrown, accidentally, from his vagon while University. The loss will amount to several hundred

thousand dollars. driving Small things scaro absolute monarchs in these days. Louisville has decided to hold another exposition at

Turning Sahara into a Sea. some time during this year. The date will be arranged According to a London letter, the problem of flood. so as not to conflict with the World's Exposition at ing the Sahara, and thus opening up Central Africa to New Orleans. A fund of $250,000 has been raised. commerce and civilization, appears to be reviving-the

opinion still being urged by geographers and engineers The Department of Superintendents of the National that, it the water of the ocean could thus be let into Teachers' Association will meet in Washington, D. C., that desert, the climate, the soil and the sanitary conFebruary 12, 13, 14. From the interest already mani- dition would all bo improved. Though noarly twofested in this meeting, it is likely it will be the largest thirds as largo as Europe, and containing some 200,for many years.

000,000 inhabitants, the only means of communication The successful-advances of Mahdi, the leader of the with the rest of the world lies in the carivan tracks. In rebellious torcos in Egypt, are creating great anxiety the Sahara desert there is a remarkablo depression covat Yildiz. Word from Constantinople says that the ering an area of about 60,000 miles, this depressed porPorte is seriously cousidering the question of sonding within twelve miles of the sea shore to regions in the

tion being known as Elijuf, and said to extend from a naral force to the Red Sea, together with troops to

close neighborhood of Timbuctoo. The theory of both garrison the border cities.

ancient and modern geographers bas been that Elijuf The rebellion in Egypt grows steadily more threat- was originally filled with water, which flowed into the ening. El Mahdi is about to attack Kartoum, the chief ocean, but that, a bar having gradually been formed at commercial center of Egypt. This is one of the strong- the entrance, the flow inward was stopped, and the est military points in the whole region, and is garrisoned heat of a vertical sun caused the inside water to evapby 4,000 men. The success of the rebellion, and the orate. The practicability of reopening this ancient weakness of the Egyptian forces in staying it make it ebannel is the great question.

$tate Board (juestions for December .

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When should pupils begin the study of a text-book in Gram

mar? Why? 3. What faculties of the mind are especially active in observation? In reflection?

2, 10 each. 4. Why should silence be preserved in a school? 5. Would you retain pupils after school to make up lessons? Why?

Orthography
What sounds compose the words again and bouquet? Write

each word phonetically.
Into what classes are consonants divided? Give the basis of

your classification and nane the letters in each class. 3. What is meant by accent? Write a word which has the ac

cent on the penult. 4. Indicate the proper sound in the following words by using

diacritical marks: Grandeur, congress, guard, pastor,

agitate. 5. Give the correct spelling of the following words, making prop

or use of capital letters: ; pumkin; 2. geography; 3. gaige; 4. Enciclopedia; 5. Colege; 6. cuplulls; 7. imigrant; 8. believe 9. coneticut; 10. cincinnati.

Physiology 1. What is digestion?. Describe the process from the digestion of food to assimila

tion. How does exertion aid in maintaining the health of the body?

IO.

10.

Reading Whatis the general rule for the inflection of negative senterces and parts of sentences? Give example.

2pts., 5 each What may reverse this rule? Give example.

2 pts., 5 each 3. What should be the inflections of each of a series of nouns

commencing a sentence? What of a series of nouns of concluding a sentence?

2pts., 5 each. 4. What use should be made by the teacher of the Reader notes on authors? What by the pupil?

2 pts., 5 each. 5. Mention to American authors who are represented in the re

lections of the school readers, and state the class to which they belong, as poets, historians, orators, etc.

10 pts., I eich. Arithmetic. What is the difference between a commou multiple and the least

common multiple? between a factor and a divisor? 5, 5. If a £ is worth $4.84, what is the value in English currency

of $96,316? 3. Divide 34 by 5-6 and explain the process.

3. 3, 4. Can 27-125 be reduced to an exact decimal? Why? How many decimal places will be in the answer? Why?

2, 3, 2, 3 5. How many feet in '4 of a mile?

5. 5. 6. What will be the cost of a wall a hektometre long, a deka

metre high, and a merre thick, a: $25 a cubic metre? 5. 5. 7. Express in practical fum ile bilio 2:3, 3: , 15 20, 1:9, ai d 6:5, reduced to lowest terms.

5, 5 8. Find the interest on Sói o for six ytais, 6 montlis, 6 days, ar 10% by shortest methi d.

5. 5. 9. A room whose widih is to its length as 3 iš 10 5 contains 375 square feet of floor.

What is the length of the room? 5. 5. If a cube 2 inches on the edge weighis i Iba, what will a liko cube 4 inches on the edge weigh?

Geography
What would be the climate of Indiana suprosing the carth's

axis to be pespendicular :o :he p'anesi orbi?

What is a meridian? meridian cuci? 3. llow do the winters at Puset scund d tier frow tie winicis

in the region of Lule Su, trior? Giveria ons for the di.

ference. 4.

What and where is ū.. Sirgasso dia? Give ile meaning of

Sarga-so. 5. About how wide is the 1100u: h of the Amazon? Vulne tle four longest rivers of Sou helt rica. 6. What are the leadig pursuiis ole people of the Eastern

States? 7.

What part of the New England State is the ligler, the coast

region or the interior? Into what do nearly all the rivers of

this section flow? 8. Describe the climate and vegetation of the Middle - tates. 9. Describe the surface of England.

Name five articles of import om South America. Name
five articles imported from Luope.

U. S. History..
What is the distinction between History and Biography ?

What is the relation of the newspaper to History? 3. Give a brief sketch of Alexander Hamilton. 4. Give an outline history of California. 5. Describe the Battle of Gettysburg. 6. Give an account of the earliest settlements made in this coun

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7. What is portal circulation? 8. Distinguish between exçıetory and a secretory gland. Give an example of each.

2pts., 5 each What is the chief tunction of sympathetic system of nerves? Name and locate the main divisions of the brain.

Grammar. What must be the form of a noun or pronoun modifying a participle ? What five nouns found only in the plural, and five nouns found only in the singular.

5. 5. When do two of more subjects require a singular verb? 4. Illustrate five use, of what. 5. Write a compound sentence and a complex sentence and state the difference between them.

3, 3, 4. & Analyze the following sentence:

"Here rests his head upon the lap of earth,

A youth to future and to fame unknown.9. Parse the italicized words in the foregoing sentence.

2, 2, 2, 2, 2. 7. Punctuate the following: life is in periods cut into strips as

it were we lie down spent we rise with powers new born. 9. Write not less then ten lines describing some work of arts

How do you determine what part of speech any word in a.
given sentence is?

Penmanship
Describe the left position for writing.

Define the kinds of lines used in writing. 3.

What lines in writing slant at an angle of 52°? 30°? 4. To what distance is the connecting line carried in letters with

a, d, g, or q? 5. Analyze the letters A, B, n, g, and t.

Note.—Your writing, in answering the questions in penmanship will be taken as a specimen of your writing and marked 50 or below.

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10.

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10.

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try by the Dutch. 7. Tell the story of the invention of the Telegraph. 8. Name the three greatest American statesmen.

3 pts. 373 ea. 9. Describe the agricultural and mineral resources of India.

What were the provisions of the fugitive slave law of 1850?

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No answer to exceed ten lines.

W. H. PAYNE.

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V Educational Science-Its Nature, Its Method and some advice as may occur to me without premeditation.'

.?" Thereupon of Its Problems.

Socrates proceeds to parody this supposed speech as follows: “I, O men of Athens, have never learned the medical art from anyone,

nor have been desirous that any physician should be my instructor; (Annuni Allidre. s read before the State Teachers' Association.) for I have constantly been on my guard, not only against learning One of the curiosities of current educational history, is the fact anything of the art from anyone, but even against appearing to have that English teachers are still discussing the question, whether there learned anything; nevertheless confer on me this medical appointis a science of education. The cause of this phenomenon is said to be ment; for I will endeavor to learn by making experiments upon the low state of philosophical studies among the English. This you." At this mode of opening a speech,” Xenophon slyly obconjecture is confirmed by the fact, that in Germany and in Scot. serves, "all who were present burst out into laughter." * (Memoraland, when philosophy has long been in high repute, this question I was led into this digression, by remarking that the doctrine is

bilia of Socrates. iv-ii-3-5.) is as far above discussion as an axiom in mathematics. It is prob. ancient, that men should learn their art before they venture to able that in this country, philosophical culture has not yet attained a depth and a breadth that will make the existence of a Science of practice it. Euthydemus held the very modern doctrine, that “we Education a postulate. It is much more probable that when this

learn to do by doing;” and had he been an applicant for a position

a public school, he would doubtless have urged his claims as fol. subject has become of sufficient importance to be talked about,

lows: “I, O members of the Board, have never learned the art of there will be sceptics, disbelievers and those weak in the faith,

teaching from anyone, nor have been desirous that any teacher here, as in England. On this subject, our present intellectual state

should be my instructor; for I have constantly been on my guard not is the unanimiiy of the ignorant. There are yet to come the disa

only against learninig anything of the art of teaching from any one, greements of the inquiring to be followed, let us hope, by the una. nimity of the w se.

but even against appearing to have learned anything; nevertheless (Spencer, Education, p. 101.) In human societies, ihere are advanced stages of thought that

confer on me this scholastic appointment; for I will endeavor to seem to come in the fulness of time. That is, they do not seem to

learn by making experiments on your children.” cume as the results of determined thinking, but rather to be evolved

I think it a curious fact that this Socratic doctrine, so fruitful in out of unconscious or rather spontaneous thought. In this State,

its implications, did not affect the teacher's calling from this time these intellectual advances are grow.hs; and, as such, they escape

forward. But the fact remains, that it was not till within about a spaial notice on their first appearance, but by and by, they become

hundred years, that a knowledge of method began to be regarded the subjects of critical analysis, and in the end they are helped for

as an essential element in a teacher's qualification. This second phase ward by deliberate effort. As examples of this law, we may ob

of opinion respecting fitness for teaching, is embodied in the Norserve the three progressive phases of public opinion as to fitness

mal School, whose original intent was to give a sound academic for teach ng:

training in subject, and at the same time to communicate the best 1. The primitive phase of opinion identifies teaching ability known methods of closing school work. with general scholarship. It is assumed that a good scholar will

3. But the slow evolution of opinion has brought forward a still be a good teacher, if he chooses to adopt this vocation. This mode higher ideal of fitness for teaching. According to this conception, of thought is szill embodied in the legal requirements for obtaining

the teacher should not only have a broad knowledge of subject, supa license to teach. The current modes of examining teachers are plemented by a knowledge of the best methods, but should know apparently based on the assumption that mere scholarship is the

the general principles and laws that underlie methods, and thus test of a candidate's fitness and worth,

give them iheir validity. In this progress of opinion, the sequence 2. Within the last one hundred years, there have been the out.

has been this (1) knowledge (2) knowledge and method (3) knowl. croppings of an advanced opinion. After centuries of experience edge, method, and doctrine. Or the sucessive steps may be stated the fact had become impressed on some minds, that something be

in another form, as follows: At first, the teacher was not differsides scholarship was needid for success in teaching. This some.

entiated from the scholars, there was no preparatory training; next, thing turned out to be trained skill. To be a teacher, one must

the teacher was differentiated from the scholar by method, the know not only the subjects he is to leach, but as well the best ways

preparatory training was empirical; now, this preparatory training by which these subjects are to be taught. This discovery is by im

is to be rational,-method must be the outgrowth of known physioplıcation, at least twenty-two centuries old. The world had to logical, psychological, and ethical laws; the ideal teacher must be wait for the genius of Socrates to formulate this general truth: That

a man of science, in the same sense that the reputable physician is a whatever a man proposes lo do, that thing he should learn before the doing

man of science; teaching is no longer to be a trade, a mere calling, is allempted. This incident from the Niemorabilia of Socrates, by

or an empirical art, but a rational art, on art deriving its inspiraXenophon, is worthy of repetition on such an occasion as this: Eu

tion from science, and basing its practice on established laws. AU thydemus, surnamed the Handsome, was an ambitious and conceit- this amounts to saying, that in the slow but sure evolution of human ed young man of Athens. He aspired to take part in the govern. opinion, a Science of Education is beginning to emerge from the ment of the city; and to create the impression that he was wise

Art of Education: and so the task of this hour is to define, in outabove the young men of his time, he had made a large collection line, the nature of this new science, the method of its cultivation, of books, and on these he relied as an evidence that he was quali- and some of the problems that it must solve. fied to become a ruler of Athens, and to give counsel on public af.

Throughout this paper, I use the term science as distinguished from lairs. Now Socrates thought it iis duty to take the conceit out of art, science denoting a higher order of knowledgu, and art, a this superficial and ambitious young man. An opportunity was

correlared, but lower order by knowledge. To make my use of soon found; för he surprised Euthedemus in a company of admiring

these correlated terms as clear as possible, I discriminate these two friends in a bridle-maker's shop near the forum, a place to which orders of knowledge as follows: We may suppose a baker to he was accustomed to resort when his political prospects were to be know the mere processes or rules of his art, but to be in absolute looked after. This is what Socrates said: “I imagine that Euthy | ignorance of the physical and chemical laws that are involved in demus here, has already framed an exordium for his public oration

the art; he can do but cannot explain what he does. On the other * and that when he begins to speak he will make his open- hand, we may suppose a scholar to know all the physical and cheming thus: “I, O men of Athens, have never learned anything from

ical laws that are involved in the baker's art, but to be absoluteany person, nor, though I have heard of some that were skiled In ly unable to succeed in a single branch of this art. He can explain speaking and acting, have I sought to converse with them, nor all its processes, but can perform none of them. In the first case, there have I been anxious that anyone of the learned should become my

is art without science; and in the second science wii hout art. This con. master; but I have done the exact contrary; sor I have constantly

trast runs through all forms of human labor. There is no art that avoided not only learning anything from any one, but even the ap

does not implicate a science, for there is no effect without a cause. pearance of learning anything; nevertheless I will offer you such *Plato speaks of the art and science of making shoes. Theaetetus, 147,

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