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P. 401. The same1 principle is extended to painting, sculpture, architecture, and to the other arts.

P. 403. Love is permitted, but abstracted from bodily enjoyment. Diet and exercises, plain and simple - meats, are prescribed.

P. 405. Many judges and physicians are a sure sign of a society ill-regulated both in mind and in body. Ancient physicians knew no medicines but for wounds, fractures, epidemical distempers, and other acute complaints. The dietetick and gymnastick method of

1 Ίνα μη εν κακιας εικοσι τρεφομενοι ἡμῖν οι φυλακες, ώσπερ εν κακη βοτανῃ, πολλα έκαστης ημερας κατα σμικρον απο πολλων δρεπομενοι τε και νεμομενοι, εν τι ξυνισταντες λανθανωσι κακον μεγα εν τη αυτων ψυχῃ. Αλλ' εκείνους ζητητεον τους δημιουργους, τους ευφυώς δυναμενους ιχνευειν την του καλού τε και ευσχημονος φυσιν· ἱν, ώσπερ εν υγιεινω τοπω οικουντες, οι νεοι ωφελωνται απο παντος, ὁποθεν αν αυτοις απο των καλων εργων η προς οψιν η προς ακοην τι προσβαλη, ώσπερ αυρα φερουσα απο χρηστων τοπων ὑγιειαν, και ευθυς εκ παιδων λανθανῃ εἰς ὁμοιοτητα τε και φιλιαν και συμφωνίαν τω καλω λογω αγουσα. Πολυ καλλιστα ούτω τραφείεν. De Republ. 3. p. 400.

NOTES.

Ρ. 404. Υπνωδης αυτη.] Euripides describes them as great eaters; Γναθου τε δουλος νηδύος θ ̓ ἡσσημένος. Fragment. Autolyci (Dramatis Satyrici) ap. Athenæum, L. 10. p. 413, where Athenæus gives many instances of extreme voracity in the most famous athletæ, and adds, παντες γαρ οι αθληται μετα των γυμνασματων και εσθίειν πολλα διδασκονται.

Ib. Συρακουσίων τραπεζαν.] Vid. Plat. Epist. 7. p. 326. 327. and 336.

405. Φευγων και διωκων. ] The image of the talents and turn of the Athenians at that time.

437. Πιλίδια.] Sick people went abroad in a cap, or little hat.

cure, or rather of protracting diseases, was not known before Herodicus introduced it.

P. 409. The temper and disposition of an old man of probity, fit to judge of the crimes of others, is described.

P. 410. The temper 1 of men, practised in the exercises of the body, but unacquainted with musick and with letters, is apt to run into an obstinate and brutal fierceness; and that of the contrary sort, into indolence and effeminacy. The gradual neglect of this, in both cases, is here finely painted.

P. 412. Choice of such of the soldiery, as are to rise to the magistracy; namely, of those, who through their life, have been proof to pleasure and to pain.

P. 414. An example of a beneficial fiction. It is difficult to fix in the minds of men a belief in fables, originally; but it is very easy to deliver it down to posterity, when once established.

P. 416. The habitation of the soldiery: all luxury in building to be absolutely forbidden them: they are to have no patrimony, nor possessions, but to be supported and furnished with necessaries from year to year by the citizens; they are to live and eat in common, and to use no plate, nor jewels, nor money.

1 Vid. Platon. Politicum, p. 307 and 308.

NOTES.

P. 409. Ouкový кαι ιαтρiкην.] See the Gorgias, p. 587 and 588. 414. Φοινικικον τι.] He alludes to the Theban fable of the earth-born race, which sprang from the dragon's teeth, and which, in another place, he calls To Tov Zidwviov μvlodoynua, meaning Cadmus. See de Legibus, L. 2. p. 663.

DE REPUBLICA.

BOOK IV.

HEADS OF THE FOURTH DIALOGUE.

P. 419. Objection: that the Pulakes (or soldiery), in whose hands the government is placed, will have less happiness and enjoyment of life than any of the meanest citizens.1

Answer: that it is not the intention of the legislature to bestow superiour happiness on any one class of men in the state; but that each shall enjoy such a measure of it, as is consistent with the preservation of the whole.

P. 421. Opulence and poverty are equally destructive of a state;2 the one producing luxury, indolence, and

1 See De. Republ. L. 5. p. 466. and L. 7. p. 519.
2 See De Legib. L. 5. p. 729 and 743.

NOTES ON THE GREEK TEXT.

Ρ. 420. Ανδριαντας γραφοντας.] Ανδριας seems used here for a painting, and not for a statue.

Ib. EvoTidas.] EvoTis was a long variegated mantle, which swept the ground, worn by the principal characters in tragedy, and on great solemnities by the Greek women:

Βυσσοιο καλον συροισα χιτωνα,

Καμφιστειλάμενα ταν ξυστιδα την Κλεαριστας.

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Theocrit. Id. 2. v. 73.

a spirit of innovation; the other producing meanness, cunning, and a like spirit of innovation.

The task of the magistracy is to keep both the one and the other out of the republick.

P. 422. Can such a state, without a superfluity of treasure, defend itself, when attacked by a rich and powerful neighbour?

As easily as a champion, exercised for the olympick games, could defeat one or more rich fat men unused to fatigue, who should fall upon him in a hot day.

The advantage of such a state, which neither needs riches nor desires them, in forming alliances.

Every republick formed on another plan, though it bear the name of a state, is in reality several states included under one name; the rich making one1 state, the poor another, and so on; always at war among themselves.

P. 423. A body of a thousand men bred to war, and united by such an education and government as this, is superiour even in number to any thing that almost any state in Greece could produce.

P. 424. No innovation is to be ever admitted in the original plan of education. A change of 2 musick in a country betokens a change in their morals.

1 See De Republ. L. 8. p. 551.

2 This was an opinion of the famous Damon. See De Legib. L. 2. p. 657. and L. 3. p. 700.

NOTES.

P. 420. Oσтpelw.] The colour of the purple-fish used in painting, and not only in dying; so in Plato's Cratylus Evore μεν οστρεον, ενιοτε δε ὁτιοῦν αλλο φαρμακον επηνεγκαν.

427. Eğnynτns.] See Plato's Euthyphro.

P. 425. Fine satire on the Athenians, and on their demagogues.

P. 428. The political wisdom of the new-formed state is seated in the magistracy.

P. 429. Its bravery is seated in the soldiery: in what it consists.

P. 430. The nature of temperance: the expression 1 of subduing one's self, is explained; when reason, the superiour part of the mind, preserves its empire over the inferiour, that is, over our passions and desires. The temperance of the new republick, whose wisdom and valour (in the hands of the soldiery) exercise a just power over the inferiour people by their own consent, is described.

P. 433. Political justice distributes to every one his proper province of action, and prevents each from encroaching on the other.

P. 435. Justice in a private man: its similitude to the former is stated. The three distinct 2 faculties of 1 See De Legib. L. 1. p. 626. 2 De Republ. L. 9. p. 580.

NOTES.

P. 427. Tov Oμpaλov.] See Pausan. Phocic.

429. 'Aλoupya.] Cloths dyed purple would bear washing with soap (μera рνμμатwv), without losing their bloom, To avoos 430. ETI Kaλλov diïpev.] As he has done in the Laches.

433. Και ταυτη αρα ποιητού οικείου τε και ἑαυτοῦ. ] Perhaps we should read, του ποιειν το οικειον τε και το ἑαυτοῦ, &c. i.e. ἡ Oɩkeloжpayiα, as he afterwards calls it.

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435. The Scythians, the Thracians, and other northern nations (åɩ kata тоν аvw тожоν, and, as Virgil says, "Mundus ut ad Scythiam Riphæasque arduus arces Assurgit, &c.) were distinguished by their ferocity, the Greeks by their curiosity and

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