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and accuse him of extravagance, of squandering away the funds of his institution, and thus loading it with debt, (nor would such a charge be in anywise more false and shameless than the calumnies with which their writings daily teem against him), we shall present an extract from one of the reports made of the state of his affairs by a committee of his creditors themselves; and we do .so the more willingly, because this passage offers one of the most affecting pictures any, where to be found, of virtuous industry, and honest, enlightened zeal, struggling against the hard necessities of a poverty occasioned by excess of charity and benevolence. It states, that the committee, when, in 1808, they • first examined into his affairs, and the nature of his embar• rassments, were exceedingly gratified to find, that his debts

originated from engagements entered into with different trades• men for accomplishing the various objects of rendering his sys

tem for the education of the poor an institution for national o benefit. The principal of these were for bricklayer, timber• merchant, carpenter, typetounder, stationer, furniture, and * other necessaries for such an establishment. They found, that

although there were at that time in the family twenty-four per• sons to be boarded, there was scarcely a debt owing to any

butcher; for the family, during a considerable time, had only enjoyed the taste of butcher's meat when an occasional donation at the school furnished them with the means of pur

chasing a small quantity. The family had subsisted chiefly on • bread and milk; and, to the honour of a Baker in the neigh

bourhood, to whom there was a considerable debt owing, it s must be mentioned, that when a degree of surprise was mani

fested at having given so large a credit, he replied—“ Tho “ good which Mr Lancaster has done to the poor of this neigh* bourhood is such, that, as long as I have a loaf left, I will

give the half of it, to enable him to continue such beneficial 66 exertions.

We believe that there are few readers of this touching passage who will not regret that the name of the Baker has been concealed from them. The rest of Mr Lancaster's creditors, however, and we say it without any insinuation of blame) were Not of the same description ; and he could no longer hope to enjoy his personal freedom. Writs were out against him in different counties; and, not to give our readers the pain of going through such afflicting details, his own fate and that of his system was at hand, when, most fortunately for the community, the state of his affairs attracted the notice of a few private individuals, most of them in humble stations, but endowed with an enlightened zeal and generosity which would adorn a throne.


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At the head of this most honourable list, we must place Mr Jo-
seph Fox,-a man by no means in affluent circumstances, but.
earning a comfortable income by the labours of his profession.
Impressed with a strong belief in the excellence of the new sys-
tem, and foreseeing the incalculable benefits which must result
from its universal diffusion, he was resolved, at the risk of in-
volving his own affairs, to stay, if possible, the ruin which seem-
ed impending over Mr Lancaster’s. Upon inquiring into the
state of his debts, and finding that the sum of three thousand
six hundred pounds would be required in the first instance to re-
lieve the concern, this generous and courageous man instantly
gave bills to that amount; and it has fallen to the lot of him,
who now pays this feeble homage to such rare virtue, to sec
those very bills preserved, with the proofs of their punctual pay-
ment, and, as a frugal mark of respect, bound together in a
small volume, of eloquence far surpassing the cloges of acade-
micians, or the chronicles of kings aud conquerors. Together
with Mr Fox, five other worthy and enlightened men joined in
relieving Mr Lancaster from bis difficulties. These werc, Mr
Jackson, * member of Parliament for Dover, Mr William Al-
Jen, Mr Corston, Mr Sturge, and Mr Foster. They examin-
ed the whole state of Mr Lancaster's affairs—undertook the en-
tire management of his pecuniary concerns-advanced, partly
by way of gift, partly by loan, considerable sums of money, rc-
paying, in this way, some of the large advance originally made
by Mr Fox-obtained, by soliciting their friends, a loan of no
less than 40001. for the use of the Institution-and thus put the
new system upon the same footing on which it stood before the
commencement of Mr Lancaster's difficulties. To particularize
the time and labour bestowed by these six individuals, and e-
specially by Mr Fox and Mr Allen, in promoting this great
scheme of beneficence, would require an enumeration far too
Jong for the bounds of this present article. Since the beginning
of 1808, it is perhaps no exaggeration to say, that each of them
(certainly each of the two whom we have particularly mention-
ed), has in this good work doubled whatever previously formed
the business of his active life. The money which these indivi-


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* In the delightful task of bestowing unqualified praise, we would fain avoid expressing ourselves more warmly of one individual than another, where all are so eminently deserving; but the various employments of Mr Jackson, both in liis public and private character, as a merchant, a senator, and an East India Director, in all which capacities he is equally respectable, make his exertions for Mr Lancaster peculiarly meritorious.

duals have advanced during that period, is more easily estimato' ed; but the whole amount of it does not appear in

any part of the Report now before us. We only learn that, besides other sums, exclusive of their several contributions to the 40001. loan, and exclusive also of their annual subscriptions, these six gentlemen have already advanced nearly six thousand pounds, in very unequal proportions.

As soon as these extraordinary efforts had removed the obstructions to Mr Lancaster's exertions, he resumed his unwearied course of labour, and, if possible, redoubled his activity and zeal. The advantages of his journies and lectures in the provinces, had been found to warrant an extension of this plan ; and it was facilitated by the supply which the Borough school now afforded, both of young persons, who could fill his place during his absence, and of teachers for such seminaries as might be established in consequence of his provincial tours. During the last four years, accordingly, a considerable portion of his time has been devoted to those circuits; and with what effect, the papers before us abundantly prove. They contain the returns for the years 1807, 1808, 1809 and 1810,including the year before the trustees began to manage his concerns,—but stopping short at the commencement of the present year, when a further change, as we shall immediately sce, took place in the establishment. In the three years ending 1809, Mr Lancaster performed twelve journies, travelling 3062 miles.' In the course of these, he delivered seventy-four lectures, which were attended by 25,650 persons. No regular account of the sums collected at the close of the lectures appears to have been kept, except for the last of these years; and it amounted to 6001. The subscriptions afterwards raised for promoting the plan in each place where he had then preached the doctrine of light to the poor, amounted to 11,8501. No less than forty-five' schools, for the instruction of 11,300 children, were established in different parts of the kingdom, in consequence of these journies and lectures. In each case, Mr Lancaster arranged the plan, both of the meetings for forming the school, and of the school itself-entered into the details of the establishment and furnishing both the general scheme and the instruction necessary to conduct it. Indeed, the master appointed to carry on each school was previously trained by him, and made acquainted with his method at the Borough seminary. Important as these labours had been, his exertions in 1810 far exceeded them. In that one year,' he travelled 3775 miles--delivere sixty-seven lectures to 23,480 persons--raised at the time 16601, and afterwards 52501,--and established no loss than fifty new



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schools, at which 14,200 poor children are now receiving the, blessings of education. If we suppose that his progress during the present year is only equal to that of the last, we shall have, for the whole individual exertions of Mr Lancaster during the last five years, in this one department of travelling only, 208 lectures delivered to 72,610 persons ;--about 27,000l. raised in. consequence, 145 schools established, and about 40,000 poor children constantly taught;---so that the numbers of those already educated may amount to above eighty thousand, and this independent of the schools taught by Mr Lancaster himself, where above 6000 have been educated under his own eye, independent too of the numerous schools which have been formed in different places where he has never been able to go, upon the model which he has furnished, and with such instructions as he has communicated by his publications and correspond

If we state the whole number of children who owe to this distinguished person one of the first of blessings, at a hundred thousand, we certainly do not exaggerate the effects of his system, cramped as its operation has been by many untoward circumstances, and short as is the period during which it has been in action.

What we have now said refers almost exclusively to England, - to which country, indeed, the practical knowledge of the system was, till very lately, confined. In this end of the island, our excellent establishment of parish schools rendered it less necessary-except, perhaps, in the case of large towns, which are almost inevitably deprived of the benefit of that institution. It is little more than two years, we believe, since the first attempt was made to establish a school on Mr Lancaster's plan in ScotJand; and there are already at least fifteen in operation, at which nearly five thousand children, of all sects and communions, receive the elements of literature. The most extensive establishments are in Glasgow, where there are already three schools, cach containing from 300 to 800 children ; and one is now building at the Lanark cotton mills, to contain no less than 1000. In this city there are three, the largest and most perfect of which is attended by 400 children ; and we have learned, with great pleasure, that the clergymen and heritors of several populous parishes have already agreed to organize the established parochial schools upon this admirable system.

With regard to Ireland, our information is less precise and positive,-though it is with the most sincere pleasure that we announce, that Mr Lancaster himself is now employed in that country, by the chief secretary Mr W. W. Pole; and that very extensive and liberal establishments are understood to be in contemplation. We have heard, however, of at least nine or


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ten large schools that have been already opened in that kingdom; and the most remarkable thing is, that, though all tauglit by Protestant masters, they are resorted to indiscriminately by. Catholics and Protestants, except in those few cases where some overzealous persons have insisted


the introduction of the Church Catechism. The testimony which is borne, by some of the Protestant teachers of these seminaries, as to the good disposition of the Catholies, and the obstructions which poverty and bigotry have thrown in the way of this great work of beneficence, appears to us to be extremely touching and important. « The Roman Catholics,' says one of them, in a letter which we have seen from Omagh, are as desirous of a Testament

or a Bible as the Protestants ; indeed, in many cases more

so; so that the number of books I require is considerable.• If I am not to look to London,' he adds, - for such books, • I fear I must give up my present exertions. I have nio pecu! niary aid to buy books; and I cannot afford to do so in adidi"tion to my other exertions. Did I belong to a party, I might 6 have aid but I do not. I take part with the poor insulted "- Roman Catholics, who possess, in this country, a feeling and

affection for any kindness shown them, beyond what the history of any other people can furnish.' These are the people whom we are told it is impossible to conciliate, and these are the means of conciliation that have been tried !

We cannot better close this period of our history, than by extracting from the Report a few instances, in Mr Lancaster's own words, of the facility with which his system may be spread, and of the primary necessity of providing a due supply of schoolmasters, that is, of boys sufficiently educated to superintend schools; for it is a distinguishing excellence of this plan, that a Jad of ordinary talents cannot become a tolerable proficient in his own learning, without acquiring the skill and habits requisite in a schoolmaster.

• During a severe illness, which, in 1809, confined me to my bed some weeks at Bristol, the master of that school, who had been educated from an early age in my own, attended me in all my painful illness with the most filial affection. A boy only thirteen years of age, kept school for him with so great success, that when my recovery enabled me to return to town, being in a feeble state, I required the master to accompany me, and, during a week's absence, this lad was sole governor of the school. This boy had obtained his knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic, in the Bristol school, in less than eighteen months. On coming in, he was one of the lowest classes; and at the end of twelve months, he excelled every hoy in the school, and had become monitor-general. The committee visited the school in the master's absence, and found this excel. lent lad, to use a schoolboy's expression, “ king of the castle.”


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