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A work on the subject of our exten- in the middle ages. The three volumes sive possessions in India, in one vo- contain 250 articles. The edition is lume octavo, will be published in limited to seventy-five copies, a few October, entitled, an Inquiry into the of which have been sent to England. Expediency of applying the Princi- The first volume was printed at Naples of Colonial Policy to the Govern- ples in 1820; and the second at Rome, ment of India, and of effecting an in the following year. essential change in its landed tenures, The Academy of Lucca has lately and in the character of its inhabitants. published the first volume of its Trans

The following curious particulars are actions, prefixed to which is an histoelicited by the late population reports:- rical account of the rise of this Society.

Men 100 yeurs, and upwards. It originated in 1584, when it was held In England

57 in the house of Gian Lorenzo MalpigWales ........

lio, the person named by Tasso in two Scotland.

40

of his admirable dialogues. During Total

two centuries the institution maintain

.... 100 Women 100 years, and upwards.

ed itself without any attention on the In England

part of the government, until 1805, Wales

when it was put on an improved footScotland

62

ing, and received its present appel

lation.
Total........ 191

FRANCE.
RUSSIA.

A work is said to be forthcoming at Lithography is making rapid pro- Paris, entitled “Memorial of St. Hegress in this country, where it bids fair lena, or Journal of every Act of Bonato become popular. A series of por- parte's Life during his first Eighteen traits of celebrated living characters Months' Sojourn in the Island.”_We has been commenced by a young ar- may conclude, however, from its aptist at St. Petersburg.

pearance at Paris, that it will be suffiIt appears from a statistical map of ciently tame and obsequious, or no Rnssia, lately published, that the popu- printer would dare to engage in it. lation of this vast empire, of which the O'Meara's honest“ Voice from St. superfices is 298,950 square miles, is Helena” is proscribed at the French increased to 40,067,000, and that the Custom-houses, and, though in the amount of the poll-tax and the taxes Evglish language, is seized wherever on beverage is 169,350,000 roubles. it is found. Every book containing a GERMANY.

scintillation of public spirit, or caliThe imperial government have late- vened by the spirit of free enquiry, is ly offered one thousand ducats in gold treated in like manner; and the geto the author of the best work on the nius of that country, which at one construction of windmills, whether he time could boast of its Voltaire, Rousbe a native or foreigner.

seau, and D'Alembert, will soon be on The lovers of philology and classical a level with that of Austria and Prusliterature will rejoice to lear that the sia, where no work worthy of being publication of Tischbein's Illustra- read in a free country has appeared tions of Homer has lately been re- for the last thirty years. Reprints of sumed, after a lapse of twenty years. English poets, and standard English The seventh number of this magnifi- authors, scem at present to be the chief cent work, forming the first of a new objects of speculation among the Pariseries, has just been published, and sian booksellers. the archæological erudition and supe- Mr. J. B. Say, justly celebrated for vior taste it displays renders it an bo- his writings on political economy, has nourable testimony of that zeal for announced his intention to establish, classical literature by which Germany about the beginning of November, at has Jong been pre-eminently distin- bis house, No. 92, Rue du Faubourg guished.

St. Martin, at Paris, a Series of Con.

versations on Political Economy, for The Res Literariæ is now completed the benefit of those gentlemen who may with the third volume. This work is wish to acquire a more extended a bibliographical and critical miscel- knowledge of that science, and who lany; its main object is Italian litera- procure a recommendation from some ture, and the Latip writers of Italy person of known respectability, which

must

ITALY.

WEST INDIES.

REPUBLIC OF HAYTI.

must be forwarded to the house of the Professor, together with the subscrip- The following letter from Boyer, tion for the course, which is twelve president of Hayti, to M. Jullien, pounds.

conductor of the Revue EncycloFrom the collections in the Paris pedique, proves that that eminent

man Museums, M. HUMBOLDT estimates is duly attentive to the interests of litethe known species of plants at 56,000, rature, and argues well for the happiand those of animals at 51,700; among ness and improvement of Hayti. which 44,000 insects, 4,000 birds, 700

Liberty -Equality. reptiles, and 500 mammalia. In Europe live about 400 species of birds, J. Pierre Boyer, President of Hayti, to Mr. 80 mammalia, and 30 reptiles; and in

Jullien Founder, Director of the Revue the opposite southern zone, on the

Encyclopédique. Cape, we find likewise almost five

Sir,- I have, in the interval of a few times more birds than mammalia. days, received the letters which you sent Towards the equator, the proportion of November last, the first by Mr. Frederic,

me, dated the 15th of October and the 4th of birds, and particularly of reptiles, and the other by Mr. St. Georges, for increases considerably. According to whom you ask my interest. I do not think Cuvier's enumeration of fossil ani- that this young man, in conforming to the mals, it appears that in ancient pe- laws and customs of the country, will meet riods the globe was inhabited much any obstacle to the success of the affairs more by mammalia than birds.

entrusted to him : the protection which go

vernment is glad to give to commerce, NETHERLANDS.

must leave no fear to foreign speculators Some activity prevails in the presses who come here, on the result of the opera. of the Netherlands, owing to the less tions they seek to niake. Should, howliberal system of France. A fine edi- ever, your protégé happen to experience tion of Choiseul Gouffier’s Greece is any difficulty in the pursuit of his commerprinting in ten volumes octavo, and cial affairs, and should it depend on me to some original works of Travels, His- facilitate their success, you may be as. tory, and Biography, have lately sured I will give him my protection. appeared at Brussels. A translation I have read with much satisfaction the is even announced of O'Meara's first of the above-mentioned letters, and "Voice from St. Helena;” and, though am sensible to the obliging expressions it the press does not enjoy the protec- Revue Encyclopédique, I paid but a feeble

contains. In giving my opinion on your tion of Trial by Jury, yet the govern- homage to the merit of that important ment is confident in its own strength, publication. I am sorry, bnt not surprised, and does not appear to tremble at the at the obstacles it meets with from suspiwarnings or the voice of truth. cious men, inimical to all philanthropy; it AFRICA.

is natnral that all which throws a dazzling The Prussian naturalists, Drs. En- Istre hurts eyes which fear the light; but RENBERG and HempRICK, on their what is not less certain is, that the more

efforts these blind men make to liioder travels in Northern Africa, arrived on the 15th of February at Dongola, the will enhance its worth.

the progress of the Revue, the more they

A production capital of Nubia. They had previ- which holds so distinguished a place in the ously forwarded ten chests and four literary world, and has obtained so many casks, with subjects of natural history, honourable testimonials, (eulogies,) must to the Royal Museum at Berlin. certainly triumph, a little sooner or a little AMERICA.

later, over all the attempts directed The union of the American lakes against it. with the Atlantic Ocean, by a canal

From the time this letter reaches you, from Hudson's river, goes rapidly on

you will oblige me by reckoning me, to completion. In a few months the among the number of your subscribers for

ten copies of the Revue Encyclopediqne. Grand Western Canal, 315 miles in Receive, sir, a new assurance of my length, will cause the inland seas and distinguished consideration. J. Boyer. the ocean to mingle their great waters. Port-au-Prince, 151h August, 1821. Ten thousand men have been for some

18th Year of Independence. time employed in this vast enterprise, It affords us pleasure to learn that which is the offspring of the bold po- the press is unshackled in Hayti, and licy of the chief magistrate of New that a system of civil liberty governs

that noble island.

MEDICAL

York.

MEDICAL REPORT. Report of DISEASES and Casualties occurring in the public and private Practice of the Physician who has the care of the Western District of the City Dispensary.

is , , the most solicitous attention, both from the due share of respective credit to the parent and physician, in order to obviate two remedial agents thus simultaneously the immediate recurrence of this cruel dis. tried in this interesting case ; but the writer order, has been painfully proved in the conceives, that the galvanic influence might, practice of the Reporter during the few in many cases, be brought to bear with more preceding days. Of the last two cases that decided and permanent efficacy, by comhe has seen of croup, fairly and fully bining its exhibition with a substance, marked, the one was a beautiful child, that which we know is not only powerful, but was in the morning under the immediate often permanent in its effects. It is a regrasp of death, and in the evening appa- markable fact, that the perception of a rently as well as it had ever been since metallic impregnation of the frame from a birth.

particular taste is the same from galGrandmamma (the good ladies that go vanism as from the nitrate of silver. It under this name are too often the deter- onght to be mentioned, that Mr. la mined enemies, both to the physical and Beaume was the galvanic operator in the moral well-being of young people,) grand- instance now referred to. mamma had ordered the child in question Renal affections the Reporter often something a comforting and supporting" in finds to have been treated, and he is conthe slape of solid meat, of no inconsidera- scious of not having unfrequently treated ble quantity, just before bed-time : in the them himself, as mere derangements of the night the fearful noise and frightful strug. stomach. This oversight and mistake gle were again heard and witnessed; and may, in many instances, be partly asdeath, on this second attempt, succeeded in cribable to that indolent disposition, to the seizure of its victim at about the same generalize which the “ digestive-organs” period in the evening of the ensuing day views of medicine are apt to engender. that the “doctors" had been laughed at M. Majendie, a celebrated physiologist of for their caution, and practically derided France, expresses astonishment that so and opposed on the preceding.

philosophical a nation as the English Ju ile second case, the recurrence of the should rest in the empirical and delasive croupal inflammation was plainly caused by contentment arising out of this source. an injudicious exposure to cold air. Here He, indeed, at least in the present writer's powerful measures are again promising opinion, denies the stomach even its dae success, but the fate of the patient will operation in the manufacturing of maladies, probably be determined long before the which develope themselves more especially present paper is put to press.*

through the medinm of the kidneys, giving A remarkable instance of aphonia has to the latter organs their more than derecently presented itself to the writer, served share in the morbific processes; which has been most successfully treated but, certain it is, that stomach ailments, by galvanism, in combination with the even of a formidable cast and character, are nitras argenti. The subject was a young often merely sympathetic sequels of renal and amiable female, who had been deprived derangement; and that, too, in cases of her voice for nearly four months, and where calculus is neither present nor in had taken steel, with other mediciuals, prospect, a circumstance to which the withoot effect. In the course of three Reporter has thought it proper to call the days from the commencement of the galva. reader's attention, in consequence of havvism, and the drug just named, the voice ing lately had occasion to witness a more began to return; and it has, at length, re- than ordinary proportion of lambar and gained all its wonted clearness and energy stomach complaints thus connected with,

and closely simulating, each other. There is now reason to hope that this

D. UWINS, M.D. last case will proclaim the triumph of me- Bedford Row, Sept. 20, 1822. dicine.

REPORT OF CHEMISTRY AND EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. ordinary discovery on the application ed the idea, of a machine, which, by the

, of machinery to the purpose of calculating aid of gravity (weight), or any other movand printing mathematical tables. He ing power, should become a substitute for states that the intolerable labour and ta. one of the lowest operations of human intiguing monotony of a continued repetition tellect. The first engine of which draw. of sinnlar arithmetical calculations, first ings were made was one which is capable of computing any table by the aid of dif- ing of course only those of one number in ferences, whether they are positive or ne- it. It may happen that the person emgutive, or of both kinds. With respect to ployed in filling these boxes shall accidenthe number of the order of the differences, tally place a wrong type in some of them; the nature of the machinery did not in my as, for instance, the number 2 in the boxes own opinion, nor in that of a skilful me- which ought only to contain 78. When chanic whom I consulted, appear to be re- these boxes are delivered to the superinstricted to any very limited number; and tendant of the engine, I have provided a I should venture to construct one with ten simple and effectual means by which he or a dozen orders with perfect confidence. shall in less than half an hour ascertain One remarkable property of this machine whether, amongst these 30,000 types, there is, that the greater the number of differ. be any individual misplaced or even in. ences, the more the engine will outstrip verted. The other cause of error to the most rapid calculator.-By the appli. which I have alluded arises from the type cation of certain parts of no great degree falling out when the page has been set up : of complexity, this may be converted into this I have rendered impossible, by means a machine for extracting the roots of equa- of a similar kind.- To bring to perfection tions, and consequently the roots of num- the various machinery which I have conbers; and the extent of the approximation trived would require an expense, both of depends on the magnitude of the machine, time and money, which can be known --of a machine for multiplying any only to those who have themselves attempt. number of figures by any number, 1 ed to execute mechanical inventions. Of have several sketches; but it is not yet the greater part of that which has been brought to that degree of perfection mentioned, I have at present contented which I should wish to give it before it is myself with sketches on paper, accompato be execated. I have also certain prin. nied by short memorandums, by which I ciples by which, if it should be desirable, a might at any time more fully develop the table of prime numbers might be made, contrivances; and, where any new princiextending from 0 to 10 millions. Another ples are introduced, I have had models machine, whose plans are much more ad- executed, in order to examine their acvanced than several of those just named, tions. For the purpose of demonstrating is one for constructing tables which have the practicability of these views, I have no order of differences constant.--A vast chosen the engine for differences, and liave variety of equations of finite differences constructed one of them, which will promay by its means be solved, and a variety duce any tables whose second differences of tables, which could be produced in suc- are constant. Its size is the same as that cessive parts by the first machine I have which I should propose for any more exmentioned, could be calculated by the lat- tensive one of the same kind the chief ter one with a still less exertion of hnman difference would be, that in one intended thought. Another and very remarkable for use there would be a greater repetipoint in the structure of this machine is, tion of the same parts, in order to adapt it that it will calcnlate tables governed by to the calculation of a larger number of laws which have not been hitherto shown figures. Of the action of this engine, you to be explicitly determinable, or that it have yourself bad opportunities of judging, will solve equations for which analytical and I will only at present mention a few methods of solution have not yet been con. trials which leave since been made by some trived. Sapposing these engines executed, scientific gentlemen, to whom it has been there would yet be wanting other means shown, in order to determine the rapidity to ensure the accuracy of the printed ta- with which it calculates. The computed bles to be produced by them. The errors table is presented to the eye at two oppo. of the persons employed to copy the site sides of the machine"; and, a friend figures presented by the engines would having undertaken to write down the numfirst interfere with their correctness. To bers as they appeared, it proceeded 10 remedy this evil, I have contrived means make a table from the formula .x2+x+41. by which the machines themselves sliall. In the earlier numbers my friend, in writake from several boxes containing type, uing quickly, rather more than kept pace the numbers which they calculate, and with the engine; but, as soon as tour place them side by side ; thns beroming at figures were required, the machine was at the same time a substitute for

the compo. least equal in sperd to the writer. In anositor and the computer: by which means ther trial it was found that thirty numbers all error in copying, as well as in printing, of the same table were calculated in two is removed. There are, however, two minutes and thirty seconds; as these consources of error which have not yet been tained eighty tuo figures, the engine proguarded against. The ten boses with duced thirty-three every mimte. In which the engine is provided contain each another trial it produced figures at ile about three ilsousand types; any box have rate of forty-four in a minute. As the MONTHLY MAG, No. 373.

Mm

machine to 48.-Lamb, 28. 6d. to 3$.- English

..c

62

2

Oct 1, machine

BA may be made to move uniformly STATE OF THE THERMOMETER by a weight, this rate might be maintained ROMETER IN AUGUST AND SEPT. 1822. for any length of time, and I believe few

Thermometer. Barometer. writers would be found to copy with equal

Night. Day. speed for many hours together. Imper.

Morning.
49
Ang. 24

66 29.70 fect as a first machine generally is, and

25
47 63

66 suffering as this particular one does from

26
42 64

66 great defect in the workmanship, I have

27
41 68

66 every reason to be satisfied with the accu.

28
47

68 racy of its computations; and, by the few

29
52 62

50 skilful mechanics to whom I have in con

30

48 62 fidence shown it, I am assured that its

31
41 70

87 principles are such, that it may be carried

Sept. 1

47 70 30. to any extent. In fact, the parts of which

40 63 29.90 it consists are few, but frequently repeat

56 68

83 ed, resembling in this respect the arith

4
45 70

90 metic to which it is applicd, which, by the

5

56
67

80 aid of a few digits often repeated, produces

58 70

78 all the wide variety of number. The

40 67

90 wheels of which it consists are numerous,

8
53 64

78 but few move at the same time; and I

9
47 60

85 have employed a principle by which any

10

37

68 small error that may arise from accident

11 .. 52

60

30. or bad workmanship is corrected as soon

12

54

68 29.74 as it is produced, in such a manner as

13

43

65 30: effectually to prevent any accumulation of

14

45
64

8 small errors from producing a wrong

15

54

63 29.90 figure in the calculation.--Of those contri.

16

51
75

97 vances by which the composition is to be

17
54 73

97 effected, I have made many experiments

18

53 74 SO and several models; the results of tiese

19
53 72

29.99 leave me no reason to doubt of success,

20
54 70

90 which is still further confirmed by a work.

21
52 70

80 ing model that is just finished.

22 ••••
55 67

80

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MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT.
and forward districts during the any quotable crop. The eagerness of the

as course of the last month; in the northern farmers, and the two growths, occasioned and less favonred, during the present. A part of the wheat almost every where to tolerably accurate general estimate may be carted and stacked premalorely; whence now be formed. On all the best lands, heating, and a necessity of preventive meawherever situated, the wheat crop is con- sares. A great hop and fruit year, even to siderably above an average, the quality nn. pears, in some parts. The greatest grape commonly weighty and fine; and the season of the last forty. The cider manu. straw, althongh not so bulky as in some factory has commenced. The live stock years, substantial and extremely valuable. and flesh markets, as well as that of corn, The oat-straw, as fodder, will almost equal have of late made some stand and some adthe hay of some years. The spring crops, vance in price; but autumn, the season of it is now confirmed, are generally detec- plenty and of overflow, is at hand. The tive, but the quality is generally good; fallows are backward for want of rain, and upon moist and productive light lands, very little wheat has yet been put into the however, some of these crops liave reached earth. The state of the farming interest is an average ; and, with respect to barley, it truly deplorable, in which the poor la. is remarked in the barley counties, that the bourer must necessarily share. It is old stock on hand equals in quantity the greatly to the honour of Sir Henry Bennew growth. Hays and grasses rather of bury, that he has taken the lead in recomfine condition than very great plenty, with mending, by a circular to his Suffolk exceptions of heavy crops and constant tenantry, the discontinuance for the present plenty of green food, particularly aftermath of the use of the threshing machine. on various parts. On potatoes and turnips Smithfield :-Beef, 28.4d. 10 38. 8d.nothing new, the former a universally pro. Mutton, 28. 6d. to’ss. 6d.-Veal, 98. 6d. d'uctive growth, the quantity greatly one to 3s. 8d. -Pork, 28. 6d. dairy do. 33. bd

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