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sary only at the stages, by which alone end, and to the cylinder at the other; about a fifth of all the materials would the nature of which spring-barrels are be saved, for six sidings of seventy well known as commonly applied to yards each are necessary in every mile spring jacks and to clock movements. of horseway.--Repertory.
Two, three, or more of these spring
barrels are connected by means of To Mr. WILLIAM Lane, of Birming- cog-wheels upon their periphery, which,
ham; for Improvements on Horizon- by taking into each other, combine the tal Roasting-jacks.-Oct. 21. effect of the several springs, the object of
These improvements consist in which is to gain an accumulated power. uniting the power of several springs The patentee rests his invention together, by means of which their merely in the combining of several forces are applied collectively to pro- spring-barrels together by means of duce the movement. Spring-barrels geer, so as to employ the united power or cylinders are employed, each con. or effect of several springs together to taining a spring of steel coiled round produce the rotatory motion. London an axle, to which it is attached at one Journal of Arts.
CAPT. BROWN'S SUSPENSION PIER AT BRIGHTON. Capt. Brown, the architect of the is without any port, and affords no Suspension Iron Bridge over the means of embarkation and debarkaTweed, of which we gave an engra- tion, while its much exposed anchorage ving and description in our Number affords no security to vessels of any for August, has applied the same sus- description in a gale of wind. The plan pension principle to the construction at Brighton will also add a luxury to of Piers, and is at this timc erecting the town, as well as an indispensable one at Brighton in the place and form convenience; for it is proposed to make represented in the engraving.
a road for business and pleasure under About two years since, he erected a the cliff, and thereby render the pier pier on this principle in Leith roads; itself a place of fashionable and luxuwhile at the same time a solid stone rious promenade. The execution of pier, on the old principle, was erected the entire design will cost about near the same spot. The situation is 25,000l. ; but the pier, without the road a rough one, and in the course of the and parade, might have been erected past winter the stone pier was so much for about 15,0001. shaken by the heavy gales, as to ren- We regard this plan of erecting der it necessary to take it down;
while piers as of the highest social importhe suspension pier of Capt. Brown tance; for many parts of our coast remained as firın as at its first erection. will by this means be rendered acces
The principle is similar to that of sible to navigators, and convenient the Suspension Bridge described in a for commerce and communication; former number; the plateau is sus- while the expense of repairing and pended from chains, wbich hang from rebuilding stone piers will be prevented. pier to pier, and the piers themselves, On the sandy coasts of France, Flanconsisting of separated iron bars, are ders, and Holland, they will prove of course, as such, exposed to a very eminently useful, by enabling the goslight action of the water.
vernments of those countries to carry Such a pier at Brighton will be at- out piers into deep water, without tended with immense advantages to simultaneously creating impracticable that flourishing town, which at present sand-bars as in stone-piers.
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES.
THE AFRICAN INSTITUTION.
last session of parliament, on the subNHIS noble Institution have just ject of the Slave Trade, exbibited a
It is unusually large, and abounds in which this trade was still carried on by papers and documents of great curio- the subjects of several European powsity and interest.
ers, and of the unparalleled enormities The fifteenth Report of the direc- which attended its continuance. tors, with the Supplementary Report An address to his majesty, founded which followed it, an:/ which contained on these authentic documents, was an abstract of the papers laid on the moved in the House of Lords by the table of the House of Commons, in the Marquis of Lansdowne, and in the
House of Commons by Mr. Wilber- completely furnished with all the inforce, imploring bis majesty to repre- plements of their criminal traffic, and sent, in the most urgent manner, to the in a state of readiness to embark their different governments whose subjects human cargo. The traffic, however, were engaged in this nefarious com- has been but in a slight degree checked merce, the necessity of their adopting by these discoveries: for as it is only stronger and more effectual measures when slaves have actually been emof repression, in order to discharge barked that they can be seized by their plainest and most incumbent British cruizers, the persons engaged obligations, and to redeem the solemn in the trade often take no pains to conpledges they had given to this conntry ceal the purpose of their voyage; on and to Europe, respecting the entire the contrary, they seem to exult in the abolition of the slave trade.
mortification to which our naval officers The correspondence of his majesty's are subjected, in a great number of ingovernment with foreign governments, stances, of being obliged by the terms during the past year, has recently been of the conventions to leave them unlaid before parliament. But the only molested. notice which is there taken of the At the Congress of Vienna, as has above addresses, is contained in a cir- already been remarked, Portugal held calar letter from the Marquis of Lon- out some hope that in 1823 she would donderry to our ambassadors at Paris, entirely abolish her slave trade. That Brussels, Lisbon, and Madrid. hope, it is greatly to be feared, will
The whole line of Western Africa, prove altogether delusive, as no step from the river Senegal to Benguela; appears yet to have been taken to reathat is to say, from about the latitude of lize it, and as every application to that 15° north, to the latitude of about 13° effect, on the part of Great Britain, has south; has, during that period, swarmed hitherto been eluded by the Portuwith slave vessels, -and that an active guese government. and increasing slave trade has also The revolution which has recently been carried on upon the eastern occurred in Portugal may possibly shores of that continent, particularly have interrupted the negotiations on from the island of Zanzebar.
this subject. But it suggests also a The chief seat of this detestable hope, that the Portuguese nation, in trafic on the west coast, may be consi- vigorously asserting its own rights, will dered to be the rivers Bonny and not be forgetful of the cqually sacred Calabar. It was ascertained on good rights of their
African brethren, and authority, by Captain Leeke of his that they will allow the voice of justice majesty's ship Myrmidon, that from and humanity to be heard among them. July 1820 to October 1821, an interval Much may also be anticipated from of about fifteen months, 190 slave-ships that diffusion of information on the bad entered the former river, and that subject, which the liberty of the Portu162 had entered the latter, for the pur- guese press will now facilitate, and by pose of purchasing slaves ; a fact which which the public opinion may be enmay afford some idea of what must lightened, and the decision of the Porhave been the dreadful aggregate of tuguese Cortes eventually intluenced. misery inflicted, during the last year, In the month of April, 1821, Spain oa that unhappy portion of the globe. appeared still so attached to the slave
An active slave trade has been trade, that not only was a law for its unceasingly carried on between the more effectual repression, which had adjoining continent and the islands of been proposed by that able and active Bissao and Cape de Verd. These friend of humanity, the Count de islands are used as depôts for the Torreno, rejected by the Cortes, but an staves taken thither in canoes and intimation was given to his majesty's small vessels, by French and other government of their intending to apply slave-traders, with the view of being for two years' farther extension of the afterwards removed to the Havannah term fixed by treaty for its abolition. or to the French West-India Islands. To this intimation Lord Londonderry But it is to the rivers which run into replied in the most peremptory terms, the Bight of Benin, and into that of that his majesty neither would nor Biafra, that the Portuguese slave- could lend himself to such a proships chiefly resort. Many such ves- position. sels
, in the course of the last year, have A few months later, however, a much been found there by his majesty's ships better spirit began to manifest itself
On the 27th of August the Spanish of the coast, the French cruisers have minister declared, that orders had been not, as far as is known, made a siogle given for the punctual enforcement of capture. They have even met with the treaty on this subject; and in the ships trading for slaves under the flag month of January last, an article was, of France, and, after exchanging civion the motion of the Count de Torreno, lities with them, have left them unmointroduced into the criminal code to lested to pursue their illegal and crimithe following purport, viz:
nal traffic. It is even affirmed, that Extract from the Criminal Code of Spain. they are without any instructions from
"ART. 276.—All owners and fitters out, their government to seize French captains, masters, and officers of Spanish slave-ships. vessels which shallor may purchase negroes on the coast of Africa, or shall introduce the head-quarters of the squadron, the
At Senegal and Goree, which form them into any part of the Spanish domi- merchants, and even some public funcnions, or that shall be captured with slaves tionaries, are still deeply engaged in on-board, shall forfeit the ship or vessel; the produce of which, when sold, is to be this traffic. Few large ships, indeed, considered as a fine; besides which, such
now export slaves from these settleoffending persons shall be condemned to ments. The trade is chiefly conducted ten years' hard labour on the public works. in small craft, which pass from the
“The same penalties and forfeitures shall African Continent to the Portuguese also attach to all owners, proprietors, cap- Islands of Bissao and Cape de Verd, tains, masters, and officers of all foreign and there deposit their slaves; the ships or vessels, who shall or may in like only effect, even at Senegal and manner introduce slaves into any of the Goree, of all the vaunted measures of ports of the monarchy. duced by any of the above-mentioned tional caution is used in the mode of “All negroes found on-board, or intro- repression adopted by the French go
vernment, being this, that some addimeans, shall be declared free.
“Of the produce arising from the sale of carrying on the trade. In other parts the slave-ships, one part shall be distri. of the coast, the British cruisers, buted among the negroes, that they may be wherever they touch, find the French reconveyed to their own country, or be flag spreading its protection over an enabled to form establishments in the immense number of slave-ships. The country where they are introduced."
coast appears to be almost covered As yet, however, there has been no with them. relaxation of that trade in Cuba and
But the ravages of the French slavePorto Rico. Fewer vessels, indeed, traders are not confined to the western have appeared on the African coast shores of that devoted continent. The during the last year under the Spanish eastern coast, and especially the island flag ; but the importations into the of Zanzebar, have recently attracted island of Cuba, especially under the the cupidity of these lawless advenflag of France, have been large ; while turers; and an extensive traffic has the only attempt maile there to check been carried on thence for the supply them by bringing one of the vessels so not only of the Isle of Bourbon, but employed before the mixed Conimission even of the island of Cuba. Court of that place proved abortive. A vessel, with 344 slaves on-board, The whole number of Spanish slave- named Le Succés, was detained in ships condemned at Sierra Leone, by April 1821 by bis majesty's ship Menai, the Mixed Commission Court, has Capt. Moresby, and carried into the been eleven, of which three were con- Isle of France, where, no claim of posdemned during the last year.
session or property being preferred, The flag of France has maintained she was condemned, and the slaves during the last, as in some former liberated. This very vessel, Le Saccés, years, its guilty pre-eminence. Almost had already made a successful slaveevery part of the African coast, whe- voyage from Zanzebar to the Isle of ther on its western or eastern shores, is Bourbon, where she had safely landed actually crowded with French contra- 248 slaves ; the governor, M. Mylius, bandists. Although a French squa- having been informed of the transacdron has for some time been stationed tion, had instituted judicial proceedon the coast of Africa, for the expressings against her ; but the judges, purpose of suppressing the slave trade, whose office it was to try the cause. no useful effort appears to have been having themselves participated in the made by it. While the slave-ships of crime by purchasing some of her France are to be found on every part slaves, concurred in acquitting her;
and, encouraged by this impunity, she the interests of humanity, the cause was immediately dispatched for ano- must finally triumph. ther cargo of Africans, and was re- A sketch of the slave-trade, with returning with them to the Isle of Bour- flections upon it, written in Spanish, bon, when she was detained by the by Mr. Blanco White, contributed Menai. Nothing is more worthy of no- greatly, in 1817, to the treaty for the tice than the thorough hatred which total abolition of the Spanish slave the slave-traders appear to have enter- trade; and, they have reason to betained for Governor Mylius; who has lieve, that it has also been instruinental since unfortunately been recalled, and in producing the recent decree of the whom they pay this uation the com- Spanish legislature, for rendering that. pliment to accuse of “ Anglomania and abolition more complete. The effect philanthropy,” merely, as it would ap- of this pamphlet was materially aided pear, because he was determined con- by the zealous and enlightened labours scientiously to fulfil the duties of his of Mr. Bowring, who has recently office, and was alive to the calls of hu- passed some time in Spain. manity and justice.
The Supplementary Report of last It appears from the papers found year, and an able pamphlet, prepared board" Le Succés," that 248 slaves by Mr. Clarkson, exhibiting a succinct which she landed in the Isle of Bour- and striking view of the abominations bon in her first voyage, cost only 9,943 of this commerce, and of its utter rcdollars ; and that the proceeds of the pugnance to every principle of relisale of these slaves amounted to gion, humanity, and justice, have also 20,564 dollars. The 344 slaves which been translated into French, and she took on-board, on her second widely diffused, not only in France, voyage, cost only 10,214 dollars; and but in the Netherlands, in Spain, and would have yielded, if sold at the same in Portugal. The former of these rate with the former cargo, upwards of pamphlets was introduced to the 40.000 dollars. In like manner, the French reader by an energetic preface, authentic prospectus of a slave-voyage written by M. Laroche, the translator, from Havre, inserted in the appendix who has laboured with an honourable to the Report of last year, exhibits on zeal to promote the cause of humanity. an outfit of 53,000 francs, a net profit of Copies of these two publications have mpwards of 166,000 francs.
been put into the hands of the members In the session of 1821, as well as in of the Legislative Assemblies, and the that of the present year, various im- leading political characters of the difportant discussions have taken place ferent countries named above ; and the on this subject in the legislative cham- directors hope that their perusal may hers; and, although the French govern- have been attended with a beneficial ment has not yet been induced to fulfil effect. In France especially, they its distinct and reiterated promise, to have excited considerable attention; make the Abolition Laws more severe and fresh editions bave been underand efficacious ; although, on the con- taken by booksellers in Paris, with a trary, it appears to have become more view to the profit to be derived from reluctant than ever to adopt the mea- the sale. Other pamphlets have also sures required for its repression; yet appeared on the same side of the quesgood may be expected to arise from tion, which are read with avidity ; parthe frequent agitation of the question. ticularly one, on the necessity of in
The most important discussion, how- flicting on the slave-trader an infamous ever, which has occurred on this sub- punishment, by M. Gregoire. The ject, was on the 28th of March last, in speech of the Duc de Broglie has been the Chamber of Peers, when the Duc already alluded to. Measures have de Broglie brought forward a motion been taken for re-printing and widely for an address to the king, praying circulating it. One great obstacle, that he would direct more efficacious however, to the diffusion of right views laws to be proposed for repressing the on this subject in France, has arisen slave trade. The motion of the Duc from the newspapers of that country de Broglie was unsuccessful: but he having been shut against discussions has pledged himself to renew his efforts intended to exhibit the slave trade in in the succeeding session ; and, in the its true colours. hands of such a leader, possessing so The government and legislature of perfect a knowledge of the subject, and the United States have continued to animated by such enlightened zeal for manifest the same anxious desire tu
put put an end to the slave trade which tion of their Institution. The Colonihas always distingnished them. zation Society have, it is true, experi
Their cruisers on the African coast enced some severe disappointments in have well seconded their wishes; and prosecuting their undertaking; but five slave-ships detained on suspicion these have not been greater than were of being American property, though to be anticipated, or than have been acdisguised under foreign flags, had tually encountered and overcome, not already been condemned in their vice- only in founding the colony of Sierra admiralty courts, previously to the Leone, (to whose improvement and month of January 1821. Several growing prosperity it is gratifying to others had been detained, but on the observe that the agents of tbe American way to the port of adjudication were Society continue to bear a very favourretaken by their crews.
able testimony,) but also in founding The pertinacity with which some of some of those very colonies which now the subjects of the United States still form the most powerful members of adhered to this infamous commerce, their own gigantic union. induced the American legislature, as A hope was expressed, in the last was stated in the introduction to the Report, that Governor Farquhar would Supplementary Report of last year, to succeed in making arrangements with go a step beyond any other nation, Radama, King of Madagascar, for even beyond Great Britain herself, in putting an end to the slave trade, its measures of repression. An Act which had so long wasted that fine and has been passed, declaring the crime fertile island. This hope has been of slave-trading by American ships, or realized. The terms of the treaty American subjects, to be piracy; and, which has been concluded, one of the as such, affixing to it the punishment of conditions of which was, that twenty death.
Madagascar youths should be taken By this decisive proceeding, the under the care of the British goveraUnited States have probably done ment; and that ten of them should be much to check the cupidity of such of placed at the Isle of Franee, there to their own subjects as could not be re- acquire the knowledge of certain tusestrained by feebler means from the ful arts, and that the other ten should perpetration of this gainful crime. An be sent to England for the same purexample has thus also been given to pose. This condition has been fulother Christian governments, which filled : ten youths are now in a course Great Britain, we doubt not, will be of instruction at the Isle of France; the first to emulate, and which we may and nine others, accompanied by hope will in no long time be followed Prince Rataffe, a near relation of by others, until the identity of the King Radama, came to England about slave trade with piracy shall form a a year ago.
Prince Ratafle, after part of the international policy of the spending a few months in this country, whole civilized world.
returned to Madagascar, leaving his It seems impossible that France companions to pursue their education. should still contend that the honour of Soon after his arrival in England, a deher flag would be tarnished by a pro- putation of the directors waited upon ceeding to which the great maritime him to express the gratification they states of England and America sub- had derived from the measures adopted mit, for the sake of an object, the by the King of Madagascar for the “justness and nobleness of which,” to abolition of the slave trade; and their use the language of the American readiness to aid, by every means in Report, " are worthy of the combined their power, his plans for the improveconcern of all Christian nations." ment of his country.
Last year the directors gave an ac- Proclamation of Radana King of Madagas count of the progress of the American car, issued on the Rearwal of the Treaty of Society for colonizing on the coast of 1817, and published, together with the Africa the free people of colour of the Proclamation of the 23d October, 1817. United States, which was accompanied
“ PROCLAMATION, by various interesting extracts from
“ Radama, King of Madagascar, moved their third Report. À copy of their by the same principles of hnmanity which fourth Report has since been presented Imve animated the sovereign of Great to the directors; and it will be found Britain and other powers, to abolish and to display the same persevering spirit these presents makes a proclamation, in
prohibit the exportation of slaves,-by of benevolence which led to the forina- which he forbids in a soleinn manper all and